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tv   News  Al Jazeera  October 31, 2014 4:00pm-5:01pm EDT

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no one knew then how difficult things would become. >> this is al jazeera america. i'm tony harris with today's top stories. breaking news, a passenger spaceship crashes during a test flight. one person killed. israel reopened a holy site to muslims. and the man accused of killing a trooper makes his
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appearance in court. >> and we begin with breaking news. a commercial spaceship has crashed in the mojave desert killing one person. reporting an in-flight anomaly when it's spaceship two during a space flight earlier. two pilots were on board. one person has died, and otherhas suffered a major injury in the crash. this is the second commercial spaceship to crash this week. the first was an unman headed to the international space station with supplies. lisa, what do you know about today's crash? >> reporter: it was during a test flight of spaceship two, mojave desert in southern california. the ship was brought up to 50,000 feet by its mother ship.
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that is called white night, and then it's released. at that point spaceship two fired up its rocket anythin engine, and it was supposed to go up in the atmosphere. just at that firing it appeared that something went terribly wrong, and there was an inplosion, debris startin started falling out of the sky at 50,000 feet. two pilots on board this aircraft. both do have parachutes, and one parachute was sighted. as we know there are reports that one of those test pilots apparently did not survive, and the other has been hospitalized. this is the first test flight of this spaceship after they changed the mix of the rocket fuel in that engine. that will be one of the big questions, whether that may have been the problem that caused this horrible tragedy.
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besides the tragedy this is a set back of commercial space flight. there was another incident, an unmanned rocketing to the international space station, it exploded moments after leeches the launch pad, and the investigation in that accident goes on. the investigation will now begin into the accident in to spaceship two. nasa, as you know, has turne turned increasingly to commercial operations since 2011. but this calls in question viability of commercial space flight. and this is highly risky. >> let's pick up that point with leroy chow, an international
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space commander. it's good to have you on the program. you know something about the engine on board spaceship two. what can you tell us about it, and then we'll get to the fuel mixture. >> it's a hybrid motor, so it use as rubber fuel, a solid rubber fuel with n 20 as an oxidizer. it's a relatively new technology. it was 20 years since the spaceship one program. we understand that it was changed recently. >> any thoughts why you would do it? i'm not suggesting that it would have been the cause of anything here, but generally speaking from your experience why do you sort of--why would you change the mixture?
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>> we would have to ask the company about that. >> when you scale the engine when used from spaceship one to the bigger one needed for spaceship two, there were issues with the burn instabilities. i don't know any more details from that, but i know they were having some engineering issues with the scale up. >> and forgive me, i'm asking questions that i hope people at home would want answers to, problems with burn instability. what does that mean? >> it means that the rocket engine was, you know, at certain parts of the profile with the not burning evenly. so obviously you want the rocket engine to burn smoothly.
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>> if it's not burning evenly, can that lead to an anomaly? >> we lost leroy chow. at this critical moment of line of questioning here. we'll try to get leroy back on the line. >> spaceship two is a rocket designed to take tourists to the edge of outer space. virgin galactic was hoping to take its first trip by the end of the year. jake ward is with us, if you could, explain how this spaceship actually works. >> reporter: this company started in 2004, it could not be imagined that people would spend $250,000 to spent a few minutes at 250 miles above the earth.
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virgin was built around safety. the reason why it is is to be safer. the problem that you have with the earth bound up right vertical launch that we saw went terribly wrong on tuesday is that you basically have to build a huge bomb in order to get all that have weight out of earth's gravity. the idea here was to create a light-weight spacecraft, a plane, really, and drop it from a cargo plane at 50,000 feet to avoid all that fuel that creates this huge bomb that you have to put this on. this idea of a rocket that carries with it the oxidizer, what you would thermally use oxygen for at sea level. you don't have oxygen in the atmosphere and space altitudes that this is going to go to, so you have to basically carry your oxygen with you. in this case it's n20.
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the whole premise, and this is something that virgin was very proud of, you really have no going back. when it begins to go wrong you have to blow it up or suffer the terrible risk of a solid explosion. in this case the rocket was to be throttled off so glide down to earth. that didn't happen here. this is the only fourth powered project flight that this rocket has it. this is the early days, and we're seeing an terrible setback for this company. >> maybe you can talk to your people and get the answer to this, commander chow was talking about difficulties of the engine, they had moved from a smaller engine to a larger engine, and there were problems
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with this larger engine, and they mentioned burn instability. maybe you have burn instability, could that lead to an anomaly? and we lost him. can you help us in any way. >> what you're dealing with is an incredibly high stakes propulsion as much, one that has to fit this vessel you're suddenly pushing that vessel in an unstable way against the force of the atmosphere around it, the friction on the outside of the aircraft or vessel can be great at those speeds. even at 50,000 feet you're getting a lot of friction on the whole. who knows. it's that sort of instability that could have been a factor
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here. but again you're just playing with a very, very fiery, dangerous combination of things. you're pushing people at a speed that they were never really meant to go. human beings don't--certainly civilian passengers have no experience doing three three times the speed of sound. this company was trying to push the envelope of what every-day people were thinking and doing. now we hear about risk. everyone in the rocket industry has always known. it's incredibly dangerous business. can anyone abide by this kind of risk when they're civilian passengers paying to be on board. >> sure, and commander chow has given us something to look at here when he mentioned to us that the company was having problems with the engine. that is a place for us, it seems to me, to start looking for some answers. jake, good to see you.
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appreciate it. thanks for the help on this. >> reporter: thank you. >> israel partially reopened a holy site to muslims. that opening came amid tension. police clashed with palestinian protesters in the west bank. >> there are security forces in this area.
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they are barricaded many of the roads feeding into this area. there is a group of palestinian men who are under the age of 50 who wanted to try to come in and pray. they were refused. however, men over the age of 50 were allowed to offer prayers, and women were, as well. now the situation here in occupied east jerusalem remains relatively calm. >> a number of those protesters have been injured in those clashes. it's much calmer than it was on friday. the situation elsewhere
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continues to be very tense. >> president. >> this commitment has gone as far as covering assault on the united states. during the six-day war in 1967 israeli jets knowingly attacked a navy ship in international waters. recordings on the israeli jets tells the story. take a listen. >> for the first time this and other evidence allows us to
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reveal the true story of what happened that day and what came after. when a deadly assault by one ally and another was covered up, and an american president was manipulated by the secret agents of a foreign power. events that have shaped u.s.-israeli relations ever since. >> you can see the entire story here on al jazeera america. in northern syria coalition forces are preparing for an assault to defend the town of kobane from isil fighters. the kurdish teams sent in earlier this week withdrew today. they are making their advance as i speak, but for the very first time, from the first moments isil fighters began shelling them on the border crossing bernard smith has been at the turkish border. earlier he had this report.
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>> we understand the peshmerga who went in to kobane. they went in, they went out and they've been having meetings to discuss strategies. the iraqi peshmerga will be concentrating their efforts on the east of kobane while free syrian army will concentrate on the east and south. the fighting has been at its most intensive. by the iraqi peshmerga, they're giving relief to exhausted kurdish fighters. and the iraqi peshmerga are professionally trained fighters. they'll have the weaponry and artillery. they'll be using that on this eastern front to take on the isil fighters and push them back from there while the fsa and the
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kurds concentrate on the south and west. nthere was an indication or feeling that the peshmerga will not go into kobane into dusk or in the evenings, and they have the help of the cover of darkness. all the while the syrian kurds reminding us that in kobane the fighting is continuing they have those heavy weapons that they believe will help push isil forces out of kobane. >> turning east why government forces are advancing against isil's strongholds they've taken swaths of territory from the.
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>> this is what most of the fighting against isil looks like. street to street, deserted neighborhoods. isil fighters are just up the road. it's also than 20 dil 20 kilometers south in an isil command center. defense has lasted two weeks so far. this special unit has made gains and the commander says he's confident. >> as we advance we clear the town. after securing these towns we'll move to the nearby town, and then the goal is to reach a city of beijing. now we're in sweep mode and holding the ground in niece areas. so far we have gained control
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over these territories. >> there is a plan here. the deployment unit is pushing the isil fighters slowly out of town. this is a pattern that we see a lot here in iraq. first the special forces go in and then they fan out and take the villages and the towns that surround that main road. then we see the iraqi army coming in and consolidating those positions. >> this footage was shot on wednesday and the town is now firmly in army control. thwith the help of coalition airstrikes, the prize may be in sight. >> after a seven-week manhunt, eric frein is in custody.
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roxana saberi has been following this for us. >> reporter: eric frein could face the death penalty if convicted. for weeks local residents worried he was holed up nearby even calling off trick or treating in one community. but now it's back on, and folks there tell us they're celebrating. >> local residents greeted eric frein in cheers and jeers an as he made his way to the courthouse. >> he gave up not because he was tired. he gave up because he was caught. >> reporter: the police found frein in an abandoned airplane hanger. his capture ends a 48-day manhunt costing $10 million involving hundreds of officers searching the poconos mountains in northeastern pennsylvania. frein was on the fbi's most
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wanted list for killing an officer and wounding another. the fbi described frein as a weapons enthusiast and survivalist who claims to have fought with serbians. he surrendered without a fight. he appeared with cuts on his face. for local officers frein's capture is personal. he wears the handcuffs of the trooper he's accused of killing. >> eric frein was dedicated to killing law enforcement. >> i woke up this morning, the sun was shining and i'm walking out with the dog, i didn't look over my shoulder, or i wasn't worried. our town is back to normal. it felt great. >> the authorities closed
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schools and roads and barrett township even called off trick or treating. now it's back on. and kids are celebrating. >> he's very excited and happy to be with his friends and trick or treating like it should be. >> the township had already calls off it's halloween parade this year. it was going to be the 50th anniversary. people were disappointed, but they're going to celebrate it next week. >> appreciate it, thank you. a judge in maine rules in favor of the nurse who refused quarantine. and slow-moving lava in hawai'i could cut one town off from basic supplies like food. we'll continue the developments on the crash of spaceship two in the mojave desert. more details coming in just a moment. this is al jazeera america.
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>> a judge has rejected the state of maine's bid to restrict the nurse who had treated ebola patients in west africa.
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hickox said he's completely healthy, and the rule violated her rights. ban ki-moon spoke out about restrictions in the united states. and he said restricting healthcare workers returning home from west africa are unacceptable. california said it has prepared several facilities to accept potential patients, but as melissa chan reports not everyone believes these centers are ready for the disease. >> reporter: california has decided it's public university system will take the lead if the ebola case appears. patients will be treated at us hospitauc hospital. at ucla health workers learn to put on and take off protective gear. even role playing a scenario where a mock patient comes in with symptoms of ebola. >> we only have one chance to get this right. we want to make sure that our
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protocols are effective. >> but while state officials have declared these hospitals ebola-ready, nurses say that the training has not been adequate. >> before you say this is an ebola treatment center, you should prepare it as such. you should have the right equipment give to nurses and the infrastructure laid out to be able to give that care. >> reporter: training takes weeks and eve which means most hospitals are not prepared. >> the training that nurses are getting and have been given is that they're expendable. >> everybody here infectious disease administrator, management, we're doing what we can. what else can we think of? we're all working very hard how
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to keep those nurses safe. >> reporter: it's something that hospitals across the country will have to grapple with, just how much time, training and equipment to devote in the fight against ebola. meanwhile nurses across 15 states and the district of columbia nurses have scheduled a strike. >> on the island of hawai'i a flow of lava from kilauea threatens towns. national guard troops are on the ground helping with security and safety precautions. the lava is flowing down hill. if it crosses the main load it will cut off some people from the town center with the only supermarket. a volatile month on wall street ended with the dow and the s&p 500 rose 23 points.
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the nasdaq was up 65 points. gas prices hit a new low today. triple-a said the average price for regular nationwide is $3.00 a gallon? really for the first time in four years. gas prices have fallen thanks to oil prices. and an update on the breaking news. a virgin galactic spaceship crashes in the mojave desert. one pilot is dead. the latest is next.
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>> an update. gin galactic is reporting an in-flight anomaly. the california highway patrol confirms one person has died. and richard, they would send
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flight to the edge of space by the end of the year. that was to set up operations for 700 people who have already purchased tickets. four days until the elections that will control congress. in oregon, voters are setting aside whether they should have a right to know what is in the food that they're buying. the measure concerns genetically modified organisms a and the battle has been a pricey one. >> $25 million and counting. that's the spending on this
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campaign. that's a familiar pattern we've seen in california and in washington in past food label fights. these camps have squared off before. they know each other, and they don't like each other much. >> this food fight has been fought before. in vermont legislature approved food libelin labeling earlier this year. >> dave rosenfeld is a supporter of the initiative, and we're going to do some shopping. >> this is what people see on the food they buy. genetic engineering could present health risks. opponents say there is no proof of that and the initiative would be expensive for food produc ers. >> will every banana have to be individually labeled? >> no, when you look over here you can see there is a label on the pin. you have two words here that say genetically engineered.
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it's that simple. >> most of what you see in the average grocery store would have to be relabeled. >> they took common food items and tested their dna. they found products that were labeled natural, they all had significant levels of genetically engineered ingredients. >> oils would need a new label. >> coffee? >> a lot of food would not be covered lie restaurant food. food packaged to go, even some food derived from animals raised on genetically engineered feed. the financial back something the same as in the two previous west coast initiatives. the yes side coming from the organic food, health products industry. the nos funded by grocery giants like monsanto and general
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mills. >> they've gotten cuter with the language. >> what does a label read partially genetically engineer really tell us. >> you can see that this survived the treatment. this is a genetically engineered plant. >> biologist toby bradshaw said that he and his family eat ge food, and most of us have for decades. and the new label would describe only the process, not the product. >> i personally think that that kind of information should be available to consumers, but it's not really very useful unless you know what has been genetically engineered, what gene has been put in. >> very tight race expected in oregon, and polls show that support for this initiative has eroded significantly with all that spending on television and internet advertising. that is a familiar pattern that we saw with defeat in california and washington. we should have firm results.
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oregon is a vote by mail state and your ballot has to be in to election officers by election day. we should have an answer on tuesday night. >> appreciate it. oregon is not the only state where voter rights are a concern. there are several other issues on the ballot including marijuana, guns and minimum wage. michael shure. good to see you. >> how are you? >> i want to you get some rest this weekend because you're going to be working a lot next week. marijuana, guns, minimum wage are these issues big enough to drive people to vote? >> yes, they are big enough. this will drive people to the polls that normally would not go. gay marriage on the day that barack obama was elected and it
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failed because so many of the people who came out in support of barack obama were african-american voters who by and large at that point were apposed to gay marriage. that demographic has changed a little bit, but yes, some of these issues bring people out. >> looking at some of these initiatives, and we're looking at minimum wage. typically a minimum wage initiative is going to attract democrats. well, mark pryor has embraced it, but what is a stroke of good politics, so, too, has tom cotton. they've neutralized that issue. >> guns, it doesn't feel to me, and you're closer to this than i am, but it doesn't feel like the issue of guns is a big one driving voter activity.
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>> you're absolutely right. a lot of that reason is that the people who would be opposed to gun legalization, the people who want to expand background checks, that issue is one. guns is an issue that a lot of democratic senators don't want to go near. there are two ballot initiatives. one is to extend background checks. one is not to. welcome to america. >> let's talk about demographics. you think these issues, and we're talking about marijuana, you think guns and minimum wage, do you think these are the kinds of issues that will take people who might ordinarily sit on the sidelines in the midterm election and get them to polls? >> i think marriage will. i don't think guns will, and i'm not certain that minimum wage will. a lot of that has been co-opted by the other side. they do say from two years ago
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those issues really brought out voters who might otherwise have stayed home. >> thank you. you're going to be busy over the next few days. immigration is also a major issue in next week's mid terms. in one state far from the border it is creating major political division. unoccupied migrant children are not welcomed there. >> this woman remembers the first time she saw her 16-year-old grandson in the united states. >> i feel like i was floating, like i was flying. i was so happy. >> reporter: he fled gang violence in el salvador last spring. after he was caught at the border, his grandmother, who is a citizen, paid for his flight to her home in des moines. now they're caring for him and a
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six-year-old, whose parents were deported. >> it's not easy for kids to come here. the road they travel is complicated. it's not easy to let your kids go so that they can come here to save their life. >> her pastor helps translate. five or six families in his congregation have taken in children stopped at the border. >> we have people that are making the journey. we have people who have made the journey. we have people who died making the journey. >> a recent prayer service drew hundreds of people. >> the message that was sent is that we're welcoming. >> reporter: iowa's governor said in july that the border children should not be sent to his state, and he's holding to that even though the federal
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government sends 200 kids are already here. >> when you have a federal government that doesn't enforce and secure our borders, and there are also concerns about isis, and potential people from that dangerous group getting into our country as well. >> with all respect, these are children that are coming in, not terrorists. >> we don't know. they haven't told us, so we don't know. >> when governor robert ray welcomed southeast asians, activists say hundreds of iowans have offered to share their homes with migrant children. joe henry said that the children should be viewed as refugees. >> this is so wrong. >> henry said that the latino community is taking this
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personally. hispanics may make up only 6% of iowa, but it's a fast growing part of the population. >> this is a period of time where latinos will remember what was not done. i think it's going to strengthen our need to kind of grow independently, politically, to encourage our people to vote. >> reporter: and those voters care where politicians stand on immigration policy and what they will do with teenagers. libby casey, al jazeera. des moines, iowa. >> voters are frustrated with the gridlock on capitol hill. if you share those frustrations, take a picture and high school diploma up a sign--there is joie chen. #dear congress, i want... and tell us what you want. we'll share your images and responses in the days ahead. don't forget to join al jazeera america november 94 for in-depth
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analysis. our coverage begins at 7:00 p.m. eastern time. let's look at other stories making headlines across america. ines is here for that. >> reporter: crews in kansas are working to insure that a building where four people died on thursday are safe to enter. the bodies are still inside after a plane crashed into it at a wichita airport. investigators are on the scene working to determine what caused the pilot. so far they've released only the name of the pilot killed. a talent reached in new yo. a man had been booked on a charge of trespassing. the temperature in his cell was 101-degrees while officers found him dead in february. the case has put pressure on the city to improve continues at rykers. a former florida band member has been found guilty of
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manslaughter in a hazing trial. he led the hazing ritual in which a drum major was beaten to death in 2011. martin faces 15 years in prison. the university of michigan athletic director stepped down today. the resignation comes under pressure and missteps. september 27th when the team's quarterback was allowed to stay in the gain despite a concussion. bisi onile-ere reports. >> reporter: after nearly five years on the ground, dave brandon is out. fans and students have been calling for his ouster for weeks. they've been upset over a number of issues, which includes the football team's terrible start to the season. michigan football coach was called in question after a
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player was allowed back in the game. dave brandon had-called to be fired. last week brandon promised to lower prices next year, but it wasn't enough to appease fans. students plan to district thousands of fire dave brandon t-shirts for this saturday's homecoming game. at a press conference brandon felt it would be in the school's best interest for him to leave his post, and it was agreed. >> he and i had been working closely, as you might imagine, through the controversial events of recent weeks. and we've discussed the best way to set the athletic program in a stronger and positive direction, we've been working closely together on that. it was dave that mentioned and raised the prospect of his decision to resign, and as i
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mentioned this was a couple of days ago, and i accepted that decision. >> brandon is being replaced by retired grand rapids businessman jim hackett on an interim basis. hackett graduated from the university of michigan in the 1970's and he played football. bisi onile-ere, al jazeera, detroit. >> and an unusual rescue south of st. louis. a parachutist needed help after he got stuck on the wires of a broadcast tower. there you see it, 125 feet in the air. the man was trying to jump from the tower when his cables got caught. firefighters brought in a crane to reach him and bring him down. >> local news, four or five hours on that one. >> it went crazy. >> that would have been good stuff for the local newscast. we'll see you later. corruption and violence making the case of 43 missing
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students in music all the more complicated. coming up next we'll take a look at the link between organized crime and the government in that country.
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>> in mexico protesters are demanding information from 43 college students. the student have been missing when they were attacked by policemen and a local gang. now the incident has put a spotlight on the disturbing links between government and organized criminal gangs. it is a tangled web of corruption and violence. >> we were told that people had been released, but they rarely speak about the experience out
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of fear. we finally found someone willing to tell of their story. >> we have to change cars to be able to get here. we'll go in and talk to this woman, who was detained allegedly by the police. this is important because it shows the complicit that exists between police and criminal organizations, and our difficult the corruption situation is in this country. >> she agreed to speak with us if we protected her identity. she was with her son in the car driving home after work when they were stopped by armed men and thrown into a van.
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>> she said she and her son were beaten repeatedly and moved to different locations throughout the night and into the day until their family realized what happened and was able to have them released.
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if. >> just a few days before this interview her son was gunned down on the streets. they still don't know who killed him or why. >> and i asked about the region in mexico she visited, and how dangerous it was for her and the team. >> we went to areas that was very difficult to work. areas where more than ten journalists have been killed in the last few years. after speaking to people and hearing about corruption and the links of criminal organizations and local police, you know, we
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wanted to find someone to tell us, how can this actually happen? so we found this woman, who we spoke to. she was afraid. she cried during the whole interview. she was devastated because she was kidnapped on the street with her son, and she tell us story of how she was kidnapped by federal forces. then she was released because there was a whole interaction, and this is what proved the amount of corruption that exists in mexico. there was a prosecutor that was involved that called the right people, and she was released with her son. but just a week later her son was gunned down on the street right next to her. she tells us her story, she tells us what she saw and how it was for her. for her it was very important for us to tell her story. we wanted to talk to people who had survived being detained. the number of people who have been killed, the number of people who have disappeared, but the people who have survived this, it was very important for
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our report. >> your film is going to air in a very important time in mexico. and in the medicine lines is a story of 43 students who have oh gone missing. i guess you're not surprised by some of the reporting that you're hearing on this, that the mayor has been arrested, and there are all kinds of storylines coming out about the involvement of security forces, and politicians in the area? >> we decided to do this story many months ago, and we went to different parts around the country. we went to these dangerous states where disappearances are frequent, they happen every day. we knew what was happening. what's interesting about it is the amount of impunity that in this country where you 43 students just disappear from one day to another. not even the president--ten days
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after they were kidnapped. there is an investigation going, and now the government is trying to prove itself of doing something, but this is the amount of impunity that is involved in the country. >> politicians celebrating halloween today. yes 7:00 p.m. saturday, and then again at 10:00. by mixing the holiday with the midterm election. ines has the results. that's next.
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>> america votes 2014 midterms it's all come down to this... >> you are going to determine whether i'm going to be the next senator from iowa >> the candidates last chance to convince voters they're the one... they will stop at nothing to get your vote >> david young, how are you? >> run for congress >> it's important to be out here talking to voters >> director aj schnack's unprecedented series concludes >> it's certainly something that doesn't exist in politics on television >> america votes 2014 midterms only on al jazeera america >> in sri lanka, mudslides wiped out an entire tea plantation. burying 160 people in a poor community of tea workers. it happened just after children left for school. officials worry that orphaned kids will be exploited by
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recruiters. >> the reality of the landslide is still sinking in. here at one of the centers there are many survivors that are around 700 people. a mix of those who got away in times from that time. now here as you can see many people are being housed in a local school, there is food direction going on. they've been given their morning meal. there are logistical issues, trying to house 700 to 800 people in a school. there are issues of sanitation, water supply, but these are all things that are minor. and what is happening that the attention is now shifting to what happened here. many of these people have lost everything over 80 houses.
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and what authorities will have to be addressing all of the coming days and weeks is what happened to these people. what happened to the number of children who were away at school where the houses, parents and complete families were lost in the mud. these will top the agenda in the coming days and week. >> tray is halloween. when you mix that fo with the elections. >> reporter: and the rnc tweeted out this picture. staffers deputy u dress up as democrats running away from president obama. they're all in mid elections pryor, udall, this is charlie crist with a fan in his hand. this is in reference to fan gate in a recent debate. and democrats, they're using
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g.o.p. trick or treats to get their points across saying sorry, ladies, you get 7% of this candy bar, in reference to the pay gap. if you're going to go to a republican's house go early because they like to shut things down. as for candidates you have allison grimes from i kentucky oning against mitch mcconnell, she's saying here ditch mitch. and you have donachie kasi don kasic wearing a grouchy marx mask here, and you have the who is the scariest to vote for. >> it makes me think that the whole issue of student debt has not resonated in this election cycle. i'm not asking for comment, but just when it popped up. >> you know, you're right, but
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those students are out today. >> and making a point. >> then you have charlie rangel here in new york with this mask, and you have a wendy davis supporter saying don't be afraid to vote. >> rain did not stop hundreds of thousands of fans from lining the streets for the world series victory parade. the giants swept the giant kansaroyals. on website provide services but do you read the terms of those
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services? you can read our first graphic novell la on the technology page. that's the end of our time. i'm tony harris. "inside story" is next. >> modern elections are said to be in their hands. more than half the electorate, women voters, they're the inside story. >> hello, i'm ray suarez. as this election day, as any election day approaches, experts slice and dice the voting population trying to figure out where different voters are going, why, and who gets the advantage. one of the