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tv   Medicine  Al Jazeera  September 20, 2017 6:32am-7:01am AST

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let's see how they do meanwhile the u.s. president says the blockade on qatar will be resolved quickly he met with the emir of qatar schefter mean been hammered out funny on the sidelines of the un general assembly trump has denied reports that he warned gulf states against taking military action against cattle hurricane maria is nearing the u.s. virgin islands with wind speeds up to two hundred eighty kilometers an hour at least one person was killed when the category five storm swept through the french island of guadalupe maria is the second category five storm to hit the caribbean in a month united nations investigators are demanding full access to me and ma to investigate claims of human rights violations by the security forces u.n. staff in bangladesh started collecting testimonies from the hinge of muslims who fled the violence tensions rising around iraq's kurdish region ahead of a vote on kurdish independence twenty fifth of september military commanders are worried the tensions might lead to violence in the town of those kind of mar two
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which is where kurdish control ends and iraqi control begins but those were the headlines the news continues here on al-jazeera after science in a golden age stated that so much and by philip. says all sorts in an age of simplistic narratives the listening post critiques the mainstream response exposing the influences that drive the headlines at this time on al-jazeera. modern high tech advances in medicine and health are of course the result of many centuries of development research and experimentation much of which took place in the islamic world between the ninth of fourteenth centuries a golden age of saw it during this time scholars in the stomach world made huge contributions to medicine and created a body of knowledge that was tremendously important and influential round the world for many hundreds of years i'm dramatically which is professor of theoretical
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physics but born in baghdad i'll be exploring states of the art biomedical science and the covering the contribution made to the field by the scholars the golden age . it was during the islamic golden age that medicine started to be treated as a true science with emphasis on empirical evidence and repeatable procedures during that time medical books are written they became standard texts throughout the world for many hundreds of years off come here to the hum of hospital in bellhop to see
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how the ideas of the stillness in the medieval stomach world compare to our modern medicine. hospitals neonatal. it deals with premature and newborn babies who are suffering from a variety of conditions is the only one of its kind in and babies are referred here from across the country all in all through our doors we probably have close to seventeen to eighteen hundred babies and that amounts to about ten to eleven percent of the total birth that occurs in this hospital so it is by comparison one of the biggest units in the world we do look after babies who are as small as twenty three or twenty four weeks just asian so you're looking at our apartments pregnancy fartman someone with a pregnancy that is not in itself is incredible i mean not that long ago twenty three twenty four we can just days and there's no way that survivor was
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a loop and we've come a long way at this hospital they're carrying out pioneering research to improve the treatment of babies born with neonatal. that is babies born with serious neurological damage because of a problem with oxygen or blood supply in the womb. the gold standard of treatment is putting these babies on a cooling mattress to try to reduce the temperature and limit the potential ongoing damage that could ensue in the brain however it does not really provide an appropriate success rate worldwide here we're trying a simple remedy that we believe has potential which is that addition of a drug called magnesium sulfate but it's never been tried in combination with the cooling. to improve the reliability of their research the hospitals using what we call a control group some of the babies receive magnesium sulphate whereas
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a separate group the control group don't receive it this allows the hospital to compare fairly the effects of the treatment with and without the drug. so this particular study is double blind placebo control which means we are offering some of our babies a placebo or some or giving them magnesium sulphate we don't really know which are which and that's otherwise i mean why the virus will be exactly one thing that's of tremendous interest to me is that this idea of a control group actually goes all the way back over a thousand years to a persian physician by the name of a razi who who built the first hospitals in baghdad who was looking into the causes and treatments of meningitis and i believe he had not only his sample of patients but he had a control group to which he wasn't it minister in the treatment in one case it was
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blood letting you know isn't the way you treat meningitis but the idea of a control group goes all the way back to iraq this is actually one of the most important components of research that we do have. a control group to try to to ensure that you know our studies come out as non-biased as possible to comparing an absolutely absolute. arise he was born in the city of ready to herat in the mid nineteenth century and he was an early proponents of applying a rigorous scientific approach to medicine during his distinguished career he served as chief physicians of hospitals in both ray and baghdad. in the early tenth century the ruling telling him back that. after razi where in the city should build a new hospital so arise he designed an experiment he hung around different locations to see how quickly they rotted and so determined the place with the
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cleanest air this was typical of a razi you have a problem you design an experiment to find the answer. during the golden age the dissection of human bodies was considered disrespectful but there was one group of people who knew quite a bit about anatomy butchers albeit the anatomy of animals one of them human. well even though this is just the lamb's heart not a human heart we can still see quite clearly the different compartments the different chain bills within the heart this isn't something very familiar to his early physicians of the medieval age. in the seventeenth century william harvey famously carried out his groundbreaking
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research into the circulation of blood in the function of the heart but in one thousand twenty four an ancient document was discovered this was a text written by him in the thief's the thirteenth century arab physicians in it he described the basics of pulmonary circulation how blood doesn't move across from one side of the heart of the other has to take the long way round around the body this four hundred years before harvey. building on the writings of physicians like him in if he said william harvey our understanding of the heart has continued to develop harefield hospital in the u.k. is part of the country's largest center for heart and lung disease there cutting edge treatments build on the work of professor mag. one of the world's leading heart specialists who set up the hospital's busy transplant unit and has received a knighthood in britain for his services to medicine the heart is such a like
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a magical the more i learn about the more i respect it because it goes on incessantly beating choir. clee maintaining life professor yet who is also interested in the history of medicine as part of a paper he commission for medical journal he's researched the life and work of in a nephew yes. here we have a scholar. born in syria in the early part of the thirteenth century he was a polymath because he was studying voice. i feel watching and he was a scientist if you like he was a discoverer but arguably his most important contribution was his commentary on medicine in which he looked at how blood moves through the heart so this is the heart and you can see quite clearly the right ventricle and the left ventricle and
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these are two completely separate chambers the question has been. how does blood go from the right ventricle to the left and for. the centuries the accepted view had been that of the renowned greek physician galen galen said that blood passes directly between the rights and left ventricles of the heart suits harney holes in the septum the dividing wall that separates them in the feast was the first to challenge galen's view he established that there weren't any holes so they had to be another way for blood to pass from rights and left the contention of some person to say that this place is porous it's beat on the preconceived idea that the blood from the right men to him had to pass through the process. and they are. just he's
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quoted as saying that for somebody as young as this person at the time when he was twenty nine to have the courage to state such a thing it's absolutely remarkable. galen said that there are holes in the septum. but. if you open the right ventricle like i'm doing now it is solid there on no channels whatsoever in a few switches absolutely right. in the feast dated that the blood must first pass through the lungs where he said it mingled with them before it came back to the heart and was pumped around the body and now we know. the blog from the rice ventricle goes into the pone are three which here goes around
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along. comes back. into the offensive so this is the primary circulation which comes here. that is discovered it's now obvious what it was and then. evelyn if he says description excepted at the time and it wasn't until his manuscript was rediscovered in the twentieth century his work was universally recognized it's now part of the long history of medicine that continues to evolve today we have learnt a lot. more grant how to stop it. how to replace or how to mend the. person or. the journey continues. early hospitals did exist in the ninth century baghdad but more than hospitals for
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the sick offering care but not much in the way of cure however hospitals as we recognize them today giving treatments and offering medicine for free they begin to appear around the empire in cities such as cairo and damascus. in order for these hospitals to provide care they needed a knowledge of medicines and surgery the most important work of the golden age was written by the great tenth century philosopher and physician been seen or better known by his latin name at the center this is my personal copy of his great text the canon of medicine. the full work was a multi-volume group of techs that took on where the greeks left off physicians like. in this first book he describes human anatomy in great detail and what i love is that he talks about things like. the muscles of the face and then goes on
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to talk about the muscles of the foreign. the muscles of the eyeball even the muscles of the. heathen works his way through the human anatomy in other describes surgery he describes illnesses and treatments it's medical knowledge as they understood it then they contained a lot of superstition but a lot of common sense as well the point is this text was so important it was still being used around the world over five hundred years later. even though today we know that not everything had been seen a road was correct his work was the pinnacle of medical knowledge at that time in his canon he includes a large number of medicines and remedies that use common had. during the golden age herbal remedies weren't an alternative to mainstream medicine they were all very new and as the empire grew travelers who bring back new plots from far and wide so you drugs were discovered and administered rema hazmat is based in our june
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in jordan she cultivates medicinal herds some of which have been in use since the golden age. live and is good. and is very good for. so even though they would have used this in the golden age i wouldn't understand about bacteria. and this is. wormwood. what is this useful. oh. yes and this was known from. this. yeah this is good for is good for. what i find so fascinating is that during the golden age every hospital would have
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had a herb garden just like this it was dangerous. ugh story and it's interesting that we are hearing those same devotees are still described and in use in modern times. even seen as great canon of medicine describes a variety of her. one thousand years after the canon was written dr detlef quinn turned his growing some of these herds in a park in istanbul so that he can study the medical remedies that even seen it described we planted following the canon of medicine twenty six. plans out of hundreds which had been described by. twenty he worked for six years of the company so. they had medicinal properties what sorts of things with. very toxic. and some of them are today that have sis active ingredients
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we say i can show you one sample it is called now. you can find it also on the bread on the turkish bread. small black sea yeah. human. right. it was also anti toxic for example mentions it against bites probably snake bites it was used for. tissues. other important works during the golden age it been seen as canon of medicine spread across the islamic world and young as the process of knowledge transfer was revolutionized one reason only spread so effectively throughout the islamic empire was because it suddenly became much easier to produce
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a copy text the islamic scholars had adopted the. chinese technology of paper making and paper is much cheaper to produce used to parchment piracy an important aspect of this is killigrew of handwriting so i've come to me to kill it to tell me all about. what lee county has done with a method and philosophy that would be this nami in the kind of stuff we do have to come come and you know. you're talking about. a lot of.
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the chinese paper was juror. and more easily bound into books which created a thriving publishing and copying industry manuscripts had to be duplicated by hand and this produced a great demand for icelandic calligraphers. to music then they will leave you feeling you can't i mean i think the second. thing. is that again it's gonna. become. something that in the beginning for them was over thing and i think. that if in the past we've. been here paul. well calligraphy clearly remains today just as important an art form as it was back in the golden age the scholars then not only
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perfected the art of paper making they also developed simpler forms of calligraphy means of preserving their paper and binding blues' to hold their books together in that way these technologies came together enabling them to produce books in large quantities this is how their knowledge propagated so effectively throughout the world. the manuscripts of the golden age influence scientists after the decline of the islamic empire for instance had been seen as canon of medicine was translated into latin. was still being printed in circulated well into the sixteenth century these texts influenced the great thinkers of the rene songs who in turn laid the foundations for our modern world. this impressive building is the weill cornell medical college an offshoot of cornell university new york based here. of come to find out more about their
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genetic research how their mapping the human genome to find out more about genetic and hereditary diseases pertaining to people in this part of the world. the genome is the complex genetic code contained in every cell in our bodies it determines all our inherited features such as what we look like or what inherited diseases we might be vulnerable to it's unique for every person so this is a microscope that allows it to look and different depth inside the cell. professor. has great expectations of what sequencing genomes will reveal the program is about six years old now the focus is on problems that are of the importance in the region particularly into other where there is a lot of families that have inherited diseases. and diabetes is a critical importance there in your genetic disorders or critically important so we've chosen to take those families and sequence both affected unaffected members
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and that will help us been point to gene that causes a disease. the key to understanding these diseases is to analyze people's genomes to look for differences and to do this they use a d.n.a. sequence connected to a supercomputer all living organisms i made up of cells each cell has a nucleus and within the new pieces the genetic material that defines the features that make a few of. these genetic material is a code made up of over three billion components called bases. is too long to be analyzed in one piece so first they need to split it into smaller sections these machines as does a process called shotgun sequence so essentially here what we do is take that genetic material chop it up into small pieces and load it into that instrument it well and chirping that information and put these pieces back together so rather
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than trying to follow the full string awful but the billions of bases on one d.n.a. molecule is chopping it up looking at different bits and then putting it back piecing it back together genetic technology is evolving rapidly the lab has recently installed their most advanced piece of equipment for d.n.a. sequencing is the first of its kind to be used in the middle east this is a third generation sequencer and what it does is it sequences are fragments of the genetic code this one can give us as you see here the tail goes all the way to forty thousand forty thousand as a model to one hand about being that one so that will give you more structure information on the chromosome this equipment makes it possible for the lab to sequence the gene. knowns of large numbers of people it's a huge advance since nine hundred ninety when the first projects to sequence the human genome officially began their original human genome reference was sequenced
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in ten years it was a huge international feeling it was a big accomplishment and now we can sequence the human genome within six to ten days with this technology so that addresses are huge within ten years. going on here puts the university at the forefront of modern research building on the scholarly spirit of the golden age where over a thousand years ago the flow was from the west to the arab world where people were coming to. the xandra in damascus centers of learning and learning about the latest technology and what's going on and then taking it back home and improving their own health care or mathematics or understanding of astronomy or whatever of this do you feel personally a sense of pride that now in the arab world in the muslim world there is this cutting edge research going on again after so many centuries of decline where it
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was once the center of of knowledge and research you know very much so very much so i think that's a huge incentive for a lot of scientists who are originally from the region to come back and contribute back but i also see it as a bridge to you know science tend to be a good subject to bring different. people from all over the world together because everybody is seeking new knowledge so it's a great platform to kind of build connectivity and build a multicultural environment where everybody can discuss and talk about these things . while my head is spinning not only his head the most advanced and well equipped that i've probably seen anywhere in the world. but they've brought together researches from around the world different cultures different backgrounds to work together collaboratively in
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a way that's so reminiscent of what happened in the house of wisdom in baghdad during the height of the golden age. from astronomy and optics to chemistry. and medicine. we trace the journey of scientific discovery that links the scholars of the golden age to the cutting edge science modern world. what you have here is a handheld model of the sky their achievements were groundbreaking this is a particular favorite of mine it's beautiful and their discoveries still resonate today almost a thousand years off to the golden age of song that's. for the nomadic jacka tribe survival is about reaching their destination if we don't
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hurry never be able to get the top of the story we follow the mongolian herdsmen on a treacherous migration. is dangerous the ice is then as they strive to preserve their traditional way of life. we sometimes lose our cattle there with the cold war because of the storm risking it all mongolia at this time on al-jazeera. we understand the differences. and the similarities of cultures across the world center matter how you take it al-jazeera will bring in the news and current events that matter to you al-jazeera. with its economy stagnant mexico's president and implemented drastic and controversial energy reforms mexico's oil opened by the mexican people for seventy five years is being sold to private international companies. and as with the country's agricultural sector it's exposed to
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exploitation by profit driven multinational corporations crude harvest at this time on al-jazeera. from the tropics of southeast asia to the vero islands in the far north atlantic went to a nice meets the women who crossed the world for love and stayed in changing communities. at this time without his era. the search is on for survivors in mexico a lot of powerful earthquake killed at least one hundred forty nine. alone.

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