tv Farming For The Future Al Jazeera November 10, 2017 7:32pm-8:01pm AST
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some people don't have to worry about whether the next meal comes from. but these food supplies were always be so reliable. eight hundred million people around the world economy undernourished that this is nothing compared to what's maybe to come . by two thousand and fifty two billion more people who production will need to increase by seventy percent demond. by then climate change could have increased food insecurity to disastrous levels. its effects are already being felt by farmers around the wild but solutions are being developed to help them adjust to new conditions so they can feed a growing population as climate change intensifies. i'm tony in south africa to meet farm is taking to space to boost agricultural yields and to find out about an extraordinary plant that could hold the secrets to create new crops and survive droughts and i'm guillory to robbie in the mall where team of plant doctors are
helping farmers fight the pest threatening to wipe out their crimes. living close to the give others who have them this is our major dam that the brought want to do cape town but also a large part of the or this is there for you guys you. know already you won't see this this is the old trees and used to be next to the never before the dam with both now they've been under water for close to thirty years now. and this is now the first on that they're really being exposed. this is really severe is the mid to be the worst drought in a one hundred years. normally we expect that the dam fill up in when they get deep bring them down to about fifty percent by the end of silence and
then they can fill up again two hundred percent but it has devon for the last two years so where can you get a not filling up with a lot of the rains come because they're just not enough for a lot of rain so we won't ever go back to the good old days from the water that when there was ample water. the majority of south africa's farm is a small holder and their crops are rain feed so when weather patterns are disrupted it can have a devastating effect on their yields and livelihoods. thomas got that is one such family living in the bloodline region he has a small herd of goats a few pigs and is hoping to grossly guavas this year. but when i visit his range fed reservoir is almost dry. from what i can for the most she would you know come in the. wood from one of the. two thousand and sixteen.
we see got away and incidentally i am sorry to see the good. old sweat give me a secret my foot inside my body so nice dog to say oh not yet but we're trying. my need i'm too nice an africa been examined him so i mean what is money. if we had a cool. was optional it. was if he tried doesn't lie about john and i want to see. it. changed to what it is is. a. good place to see us is riaz you're one of. the words i got you wouldn't live one hour since the one nine hundred ninety s. africa has lost over a third of its founder largely due to watch. as the drugs become more severe and the boreholes try a farm is like thomas a going to need a radical solution. professor to fire into the university of cape town is hoping to
provide just that jilts research focuses on a kind of plant with some extraordinary property and she's ideally situated because one type grows wild in the hills just behind the university campus this is it looks good doesn't it it does but it's not it's actually it's dried it's lost all it's water and it's cold it's its front into a very protective kind of way how long can it survive like this. months two years depending on the spaces and the moment of rains the thing rehydrate with their two hours within two hours to about three years of two years how about one species we kept them dry for ten years. they were. i'm trying to unlock the secrets of how these plants can actually lose all wet amount of water and not die so once you understand these plants better and sequence what do you do with us i make crops do the same thing that's mine. jill takes me back to the lab where her team is busy
and locking the secret of these so-called reason rection plant i want to put this one on here and then start the re watering process so that you can see the magic of resurrection ok so we just want to the roots the reach but also give the. needs a little bit of slack brain transmitter right brain and the thing about farmers in africa is that all in all of our culture is rain so those who can afford irrigation great but if there's no rain for the bulk of us there's no crop in the nice thing about this time of crop is that it will start off well if there's lots of rain it will continue well if there's lots of rain but should there be a drop in the plant won't die when the next rain comes it will continue growing the farmer can at least get of history and you can get another chance of life as a group. to fans teams first objective is to understand what gives these plants these unique properties what we did here it was like we extracted some of
these proteins from one of the resurrection plants and it runs reduced genes to the book tyria so now we're trying to produce proteins in a large scale so these proteins are part of the plants arsenal to protect itself against the lack of water right that is the sort of protein that we're looking in water it has no structure whatsoever as the bronze straw and the water molecules are disappearing but this protein in polls trips a whole lot more to much more. certain retains its role to him by changing shape correct right very intelligent system. you know i can run away from my challenges because i have to face every street which is as eating an instinct eating family and then when. they they have these amazing ways of just recovering and responding.
oh wow care like it's resurrected. amazing to think that the plant that we saw earlier that looked dead basically now looks completely alive and i'm just picturing a. mommas field where the maze is completely dead because there's been a drought season and in the rain finally comes again and the next day it will look like that the potential of that is. the most promising crop for achieving resurrection is test a populous serial throughout east africa. but jules team recently had a big breakthrough they were able to prove that the genes responsible for the regeneration process are already present in all plants this gives a lot of hope for a future drought tolerant crops need a thing is to be able to leave this planet started a process and make
a difference in africa a continent that i grew up. with long dry seasons and unpredictable rains farms that can afford to irrigate their crops almost two thirds of south africa's total water requirements are used for irrigation but in times of drought severe restrictions are put in place forcing farmers to become smarter with their water usage the devitt family orchard just outside cape town produces around seventy million apples and pears each year and exports they produce around the world. all. right thank you for having us. to ensure their orchards and business survive the davits need to be more precise with their water usage and they're now able to call on a high tech solution. one of the new technologies we have. this. is
a precision agriculture tool that helps farmers grow more with less analyzes satellite images meteorological data i'm available local da to send to provide real time accurate information about crop health. a satellite image can view. in different light spectrum the pixels and then be analyzed against models to identify straight before you can even see it with a visible i. can react more precisely and quickly any possible problems. so what does what does the information tell us about what's happening on the farm right now. growing a. weekend out of ones so that the yellow patches mean that that's not as good growth. ok i think we should have a look so we can go see what's actually happening in. the beginning to. even before i want to start showing in my dad's generation this
was unthinkable. this is the one thing. that's fun it's next irrigation is scheduled quite soon. so that should be fine also this part is ok so i'm going to go looking and see where the problem and. a little further down we test the soil again you can see this is much more clay so it's more the holding capacity of the soil is weaker. so what will you do to make sure that this can catch up to some of the other options on the next round of mulching differently or put some. more mulching allows for water to be held around the roots of the tree simply increasing irrigation would waste water as a train's off in the case oil knowing this helps pull manage the use of water more
effectively in his orchard ten years ago you would have been happy to fifty times what i am is now eighty two hundred pounds and it's just good fun practices and it's new technologies coming in to make us capable of. twisted so. for us. it's better to not pull it because then you get too much of that stem coming off with it so if you want to get a clean break you lift it up and over instead of pulling it down. it's incredible to think that the pears that we pick here today will be shipped all over the world to china to the middle east and that the farm is the workers who work here i'm making food that will be eaten all over the world it's important work that they're doing. is enabling farms to reduce their water usage
by around fifty percent it's successes have made the cultural department of the western cape to a food look for free to farmers in the region only those with the technical means to access from able to benefit from it however thomas is installing some basic irrigation on his farm this gives him some hope for the future litigation the brazilians are going to be i want to a month. before the equine life. so. you know on. the income cable get one eyed is a couple. projects by each. given to go by as you and i get which might even get up with it would quite likely protocol. go by in july i took says. she turned on.
satellite data is being used in many ways to enhance food security. to focused rice fields in southeast asia with eighty five percent accuracy. to understand how best to grow food in south america by mapping cropland across the continent to help african herders identify grazing areas through maps and home about five times that i haven't heard mortality and to monitor the status of all nigeria's crops on a monthly basis. we know more than we ever knew and we have an understanding of our planet as a closed system that we didn't have to before we have a new generation of satellites up there that have a resolution of down to ten to ten meters today for example i can give you with seven days' accuracy a complete picture of the bennett with every single tree on that so all the
information you need is there but you really need to get it down to the farmers most of the food that is being produced on this planet is actually produced by smallholder farmers farming families now these people learn from and on the basis of traditional knowledge. if the weather patterns are changing as they do because of climate change then you need a source of information to adapt what you are doing and in that mobile technology offers us until you see them to possibility there's virtually no space where you couldn't agree the farmers and closing this gap between big daytime small farms that's one of the very promising but there's nothing that defines the interface between natural resources and human activity like agriculture does because there's no other sector that is employing more people than i would actually so if we get this sector right the potential is enormous not only to secure food production but
really to secure the natural environment that keeps us in. warmer climates and a greater movement of people and goods around the world are posing a new set of challenges for farmers pests and diseases are also becoming more globalized causing forty percent of all crops to be lost each year threatening the livelihood of small holders and also posing a great risk to global food supplies. here in the paul almost all fruit and vegetable plants are susceptible to attacks by insects and with two thirds of its population in farming new pests and diseases could spell disaster. what is it about nepal's climate that makes it particularly vulnerable to these pests and invasive species where we see that globally this so there is really an impact of the climate and nepal is not an exception so. that not too much of
a trade was happening between the countries now the trade is happening so more perhaps coming so definitely more tests coming and the climate here is now getting more suitable to the past it catches the quite sudden and they are not able to cope with that if you see last year in two thousand and sixteen the tomato growth was almost effort by seven to one hundred percent in some cases a huge loss in the farming community. to help farmers lose less of what they grow a global program called plant wise have set up a network of regular clinics to rapidly diagnose pest problems for small holders i'm checking out this morning's mobile plant clinic which seems to be already pretty buzzing today isn't hamzah town just outside of programming oh yeah. i mean it almost nobody is going to get away with families of people would like to have you don't know if. we are getting. rid of it and think
it's everywhere this seems to in most of the. most of the sparkle one succeeded so a lot of farmers are dealing with this problem. how exactly does a plant clinic work. if the people around it is a people way off for giving farms to the farmers by observation but. the partner and the. farmer ok so they bring in their samples they show you the infected crops and you can give them a diagnosis right away just like a doctor when you go when you're not feeling well and you write your prescription you're doing the same thing here you're writing a prescription for the farmer. and the mesocyclone just as it. is and that e-commerce and would stand to lose more than he's ahead easier for him honda next time also. how much would you say climate change and warming temperatures have
affected outbreaks and pests in nepal are you seeing more and more cases. of the. region there is a local smallholder who has discovered a larvae that has infested and damaged his tomato crop up to you. and i am i have to make you believe that it will do both of us. are you know that it will not be stimulated by medicine on. to the senior officers just taking a quick look when you can see his crops are badly infested. this is. the black lab martin.
this is the sound of. his entire. ten fifteen days it's destroyed at the very very. bridge and it is added to the clinics database to track the two to absolute and waits for his prescription. to the absolute just started life as a larvae that eats the tomato fruit before transforming into a mouth and moving to a neighboring plant where the cycle starts again it is recently been reported in nepal and spread rapidly devastating crops i want to find out more about this invasive species so i'm going to meet dr badger ceria a tutor absolutely specialist at the nepal agricultural research council.
what are you working on over here. american leaf miner that it's go to africa. this is a place from one hundred sixty. confront to south america one but in didn't six it was a reporter for time out of the south america. then it given to the. uk and in fourteen it was reported in india after that because of the open border and we wanted and system between nepal and india at this best from the imported over to from india but how many years do you think it's going to take until nepal is completely two to absolutely free or has really diminished the invasion. actually is very difficult to get rid of the best. once it is introduced in the five no place can we completely eradicate we can either get any place but we have to make it so we can live at home with
a good half an hour. with farming communities locked into a globalized world threats to crops from new invasive species are slowly becoming the norm plant wise now operate in thirty four countries gathering data to form a knowledge bank to track outbreaks and protect small holders i catch up with ridge india at his farm i want to see what can be done to rescue his devastated crop. wow these are tomatoes are all completely destroyed completely destroyed i. get money from these groups it helps to make. family to support your family and support. how much do you think you've lost with this infestation how much money . thousand. and forty percent i had also for. my more well what are you still alive ok i recently dig the sport.
so green and full of tomato. greens what a shame. shiva beryl a doctor from plant wise has come to show ridge and how to use a simple trap to manage his two to absolute infestation the trap emits a pheromone that attracts the adult male mark soapy water is added to the basin which the moth then falls into by reducing the number of males the population can be controlled without the use of pesticides. how many days until this entire area is treated until the outbreak has gone. one one. one how many months until the coming season just a two month so in two months he could be fully back in business growing healthy tomatoes again just from the simple device that's great how do you feel about that
. you're happy. globalization is happening. the world is developing and we can't slow that down. so you can see how an outbreak or a problem in peru could very well be the same issue for a farmer in a fall the very next year. and so plant wise is network of local plant doctors and clinics supported by an international pest and disease database enable smallholder farmers to be more prepared in the face of new threats from climate change in an increasingly globalized world. is going to be a tool to produce enough food for a growing population of the world's climate changes but the work has begun. where whether it's extreme new varieties of cooks are being developed and methods to grow
them. where skills are being harmed knowledge is being shed. root insecurity will become an increasingly pressing issue. but people off finding inventive ways of coping with new conditions. in ecuador ingenious developments in the battle against illegal deforestation these are basically old cell phones people sent to us with love and trees it was in the forest and you can forget anything look like chainsaws or gunshots and in australia indigenous practices of being used to fight fire with fire if they wreck a fire like death or make a fire right about the time that wife i get scared just stop yeah innovation and tradition. at this time on al-jazeera.
tracing the fall from prosperity to financial ruin this is precisely the moment where we humanized that nothing was first wrote the angry the devastating impact to save the bank means also to save the deposits of all of in their sectors and the failure to prevent disaster banks and political leaders of the people who needed to learn of us are gora from democracy to the markets at this time on al-jazeera. germany is hosting this is climate talks president from old united states al to the powers agreements what now for the global effort to tackle climate change in that fanaticism live reports from the climate conference in bonn and from the front lines of global warming climate s.o.s.
want to. poke some you can i was told by the pakistani army to the americans and we got held in guantanamo the number of al qaeda and taliban detainees transferred to u.s. forces in afghanistan has continued to grow for years without trial they had a paper that said they were innocent. or talked or screamed would be beaten again a quest for a better life that ended in incarceration. of one ton of no twenty two at this time on al jazeera. the united states strongly backs lebanon's independence and warns other countries against using it in a larger proxy fight in the region.