tv Antarctica On The Edge Al Jazeera November 30, 2017 6:32am-7:01am +03
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parts of antarctica a warming faster than anywhere else on the planet this is having an effect on wildlife and is altering deep ocean currents which regulate the world's climate from the poles to the equator. because ice melts we're seeing global sea levels rise in unpredictable changes too with world wide. and this. we visit the world's most remote continent to see the effects of climate change firsthand. i'm tired mess. an obvious winning the next month on this research vessel travelling around antarctica with a group of scientists who are trying to understand how the changes taking place there will affect us all.
join the expedition in hobart australia the russian research ship academy contrition a cough has been hired by the swiss polar institute to circumnavigate antarctica. it will be a floating lebar tree from which fifty five scientists will do twenty two different experiments. david wallsten has been visiting antarctica for more than fifty years and is the expedition chief scientist. because the antarctic and the southern ocean actually influence the whole of the global weather system and all the currents in the oceans it matters to everybody it also matters if they're on top to begins to melt as far as world sea level is concerned it's a larger source of new water out into the oceans in the world so even if you live somewhere a long way away if you're low lying on the coast the antarctic masses to you with
the voyage will take us two and a half thousand kilometers south from hope to the edge of antarctica will then travel five thousand kilometers east making stops at a number of islands. then after a month at sea he will return to port in southern chile. first we must cross what are known as the furious fifty's in screaming sixty's latitudes nine for they ferocious with us. we face hundred kilometer hour winds and ten meter away. it's an early reminder of the potent imagery of the ocean. as we sail selfie and sea fast become cold are.
they in on the sixth morning we wake up to sea ice. soon we're forced to navigate around icebergs some the size of a football pitch others are more than one hundred kilometers long. then finally we arrive at the minutes glass in antarctica. and he lays in the powerful winds coming in off the glass and dropping down into the say this is the only place on the planet at sea level and it's certainly playing up that reputations and. the mets glassie a fascinates scientists because in two thousand and thirteen an enormous chunk around seventy five by thirty five kilometers broke off after it was not by
a large iceberg. this is dramatically changed the flow of ice in the area it's also exposed large areas of ocean floor to study for the first time. the weather comes right in the ship parks it's balanced against the glass. this gives the scientists a stable platform to begin their work. this suffering yeah exactly. say is a biologist and in charge of an ambitious project science fiction. it's quite amazing. i mean there is so much here on the whole of the swiss army knife the swiss army knife and time discovered yes exactly this will take you through some things ok lights off a lot of cables so well i see something you must know his own is cameras basically
we work very hard to finish and cameras. digital still one age to camera one fork a camera here basically we are interested in the eyes column so very soon will die along the eyes column along this the from the ratio. the team expects to see a vertical wall of ice dropping five hundred meters from the surface but instead there's a surprise. they discover a huge underwater cavern been in this part of the glass in. the sea water is warmer than expected and this is unusual evidence of now we were really close to the ice and discovered that it was really rotten ice everything was going to play out in a way we're still going to have a lot of holes in the eyes so yeah completely rotten we were not expecting that all
the gracious and all that especially not at this depth of so far into the glacier. warmer ocean currents are now flowing through the south towards antarctica scientists believe the kind of melt we've seen here who contribute more than a major to global sea level rise by the end of the century and up to thirteen meters of the next five hundred years. or less is like or. his advice so when the ocean water warms and they melt the remaining ice moves faster towards the sea a team of glaciologists want to see how this is happening and ice cores from next to the glasses age seven meters down they find something unexpected.
but you see the bubbles in. i think those bubbles probably can contain water over quite salty water. finding so water here suggests warmer ocean currents are having an impact possibly weakening the classiest from beneath. the helicopters return n.p.r. schools are loaded on board. back on the ship they were placed in a giant freezer in the history of this eyes is the first calls as. drawn to the continent and then at depth the pressure of the this snow above it is compressing compressing into at a depth of about sixty meters this will be so compressed that a form solid ice one of the principles of core science is that while that's happening the air. from the atmosphere that that was in the lead is in the snow
when it is slowly being locked into the is in these bubbles forming right and gradually as we get deeper into more and more pressure these bubbles get isolated and you see these little bubbles and that's you know when we get deeper into the ice because we want to look at carbon oxide concentrations back thousands hundreds of thousands of years it's those little pockets of the atmosphere that we get into so you see that process starting here. a few our schools have been taken from this part of antarctica so there's little specific information about how the climate is changing but it's hope these samples will help fill this gap. further east live the balun a islands for most of the year they're locked in sea ice but a visit like this and summer means a team of scientists can dredge the ocean floor and of being drafted and help. them . to get. a certain amount of the rocks and from
the bottom have come up with a name so the technique is pretty much that it is the thought that the last battle rocks in the mud and then after that they can get. places that have come up with. a particular interest of those that take carbon from the environment by locking it away in their shells these then end up being buried in the sea bed when they die. another time. over the last hundred years carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have risen dramatically largely as a result of al burning of fossil fuels. the role these creatures play to counteract this needs to be better understood and incorporated in climate change models. so it
is the word. with more than a centimeter. this time skeletons are made of carbon that these guys here the pressing worms and they study things here. that i go by much but there are hundreds of little combinations animals that. will fall over this. one source at the creatures are taken to the lab and photographed. the sea mouse is a notable catch so to this brittle star another un kills itself measuring around fifty centimeters across. many of these creatures will be
preserved and after the expedition the d.n.a. will be analyzed giving the researchers detailed data about the distribution and diversity. serving picked over the summer look for anything of interest there are stuff looks like them there's only one thing to do they want to ship like this in the weeks or ballast so. the robust team also tune their cameras on life on the sea floor. at a depth of nine hundred meters they take samples of cold water corals and a wide dry. the species. i also tike see them and course these will give them clues about what's being buried in the ocean floor and how it's changed over time. but
it's lighter in the dogs than extraordinary observations my. we have this the sea star more precisely a brittle star crawling on of sea floor which we believe that a door scavenger but certainly have a fish just crawling it just in the fish with it poison we don't know yet because that's just me you would ever seen that before and it just hit a fish live on the side and suddenly this will start just roll it it's tried to eat the fish which can swim a bit at a speed watch watch one much faster than any kind of of sistar you can call it a sea floor so that's quite amazing just to see that that's that that's the when you. close analysis of the footage reveals ten examples of the spot hevia. these are two of the most abundant species living in antarctic waters
and interaction of this nature has important implications for understanding climate change all the common which is contained in to this fish then transported don't ask him to devote a will do isn't an ultimate invariant there we do know quite a lot of organisms including we know positions of very efficient points in the brain and the icing this is the case but we still have to to do a bit more new science we've made a discovery we're now in the news that we have to to do further research to really understand what you see. we're. antarctica has the cleanest stand on the planet and at each stop on the voyage atmospheric scientists julia shamali has used a mobile kits to take some photos. she's also picked a suite of instruments into a shipping container on board i do has
a good offend you in the big red head out here on day. one and thanks very much good to the stuff pass of him why he's an interesting man was so actually in particular we're interested in the tiny particles that are in the air we call them aerosol aerosol particular and they have very important for the water cycle and because they form clouds without these tiny particles we would not have any clouds in our atmosphere so it would never rain. earth would be a completely different planet to see if the hot ticket spent ten full droplets on not that we use this machine and then a cloud machine here that you know we should make here are some are making our own cloud in here so it's very important floss to understand politics clouds formed before the industrial revolution before humankind actually started burning fossil
fuels and knocked him out. because it makes a big difference for our climate for the clouds and for the hydrological cycle in general. climate change models a generally better at predicting variations in temperature rather than precipitation let's hope the data from this experiment will mean that. as the ship continues east we come across more c.r.'s. without crunching our white through the arts for. if you come across the sea ice flies i'm going to drop a camera down to say can have a look what the balance doing down there adds thrilly quite remarkable. luckily for us anyway the balance of this twelve thousand tongue ice breaker rides up all over the ice we're on showing that as well that. the power crunching through the sea ice. ok comes another enormous chunk to
see how this what if is under the boughs of the academy they called pushed out of this why. the next opposite one of the smallest audience on this leg of the voyage just five football pitches inside schools on and is washed out of above why. and in stormy conditions at success of only by helicopter. it's too windswept for sea birds to nice to hear that like an en masse to grow in the correct volcanic rocks. hopefully with the mostest oil going to fight it of us and then use this light year of how the animals of coke through not me i guess climate change the past explicitly natural but also
how they may move in a definitely you know in face of the future. before we can be flown off the island back to the ship there's a sudden change in the with. the helicopters clearly being grounded on the ship they're not able to return to the island to take us up we have enough equipment with us and ten ten and rations for four days inside and there's a great concern there but it does start you thinking about how you could possibly survive on an island like this so revived so far just well. fortunately the way the lifts just long enough to fly us off the island and was saved from either having to find out. back on the ship the samples are dried it's hoped any living things will drop out of this like it has also examined
and within it there's a discovery smaller than a pen here and this is the first time this tiny might has been found here similar mites have been found in other parts of the continent but it's likely that this is a new species something a new d.n.a. tests after the expedition can confirm. the landscape is incredibly cold so you know probably started off one hundred eighty million years ago would have been a tropical rainforest and it's now looks like it does both sides and so these are some of the few things that are probably managed to hang on that long and so now there are some of the most successful organisms that live here. they weigh. the teams made to discuss their next move from satellite images it appears the next island on the route peter the first is surrounded by sea ice this will make a visit difficult. instead some of the scientists call for the voyage to divert
they've spotted clear water around a coastal area which is normally docked in sea ice it's a rare opportunity for them to attempt to visit. the ship's course is changed and we arrive at mt siple it's one of the continent's tallest and most isolated volcanoes rising more than three thousand meters from the sea. we scout the area and find a large number of a daily penguins. come so we're in touch with to see them in their natural environment see what an extraordinary animal they are and just how incredibly they are living and. what the. balance and then mystic on the top. by the time we return to the ship it's late in the evening. but at this time of
year at such high latitudes it doesn't get dark. instead there's a long and spectacular sunset. the following morning we fly back to mt sinai for. listen one percent of antarctica is ice free making a place like this prime real estate listing. many of the chicks have been left to fend for themselves while their parents go to sea to catch currall the pinkish color of the shrimp like food often ending up staining their front us as far as we know scientists have never visited this colony before so the group we're with wants and i how large it is and whether there's any other species living here we have behind me a whole lot of adelie paying going on that's going to turn around here show you this chap here he is looking a bit odd because he's losing his baby feel he's just
a few months old as you can say he's very friendly. when the parents return they're much in demand sometimes from their own offspring but frequently from other hungry birds hoping for a feed it's late in the season and many are exercising their wings and preparation to leave. nothing about the other three birds as they give you this sort of canary in the cold while indication as to what's happening in the third ocean and this is the thing if you can totally it's big. this colony appears to be thriving but on the antarctic peninsula to the east of here it's a different story. the area is warming faster than any other place on the planet and colonies of our daily penguins like these have been abandoning the misting sites and moving south perhaps in search of colder locations certainly up sitting
many hundreds if not thousands of years of breeding behavior. over the previous weeks we've been to some extraordinary places and seen dramatic evidence of climate change it's change many of the scientists feel should be ringing alarm bells in the rest of the world. in the same way that the antarctic sea ice is actually changing in terms of its distribution pattern the sea is warming off the antarctic peninsula the glaciers are retreating out thick sea ice is at its lowest yet known these are all indications that the world as a whole is warming and that we need to be concerned about the future we certainly know enough to say we need to act now we should have acted yes but they figure to speaking there's not much time for. action into the future i think. where we're
very clear about this. we come back with a better knowledge we still have some work to do we're already kind of learning new . experiments new its traditions to really understand what you see. the expedition is connected tens of thousands of samples and millions of megabytes of data. for these scientists who will return to their nabs around the world these years of work here. we're just scratching the surface to understand how antarctica is the southern border so significant when it comes to the broader issues of climate change and and really when the earth is going to go where our climate is going to go in the years ahead. the scientific findings made on this forward will add weight to what's now overwhelming proof that our planet is warming and that climate change is
posing a serious threat to the sustainability of law. the evidence is clearer than ever what's needed now is for people everywhere to accept the science engage with the problem and take action. a daring road trip across west africa on a mission to redefine a continent too often misrepresented. the weapon of choice digital cameras. it was so one of the new african football that field takes on the rainy season on its quest for the thanksgiving story of creative governor rather invisible this this time on al-jazeera a new era in television news. it doesn't say that it's
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