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tv   Legacy of Dispute  Al Jazeera  January 29, 2018 3:00pm-4:00pm +03

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differences. and the similarities of cultures across the world so no matter how you take it al-jazeera will bring you the news and current affairs that matter to al-jazeera. on counting the cost the problem with us every day is the rich and famous discussed making the world a better place but for who moves are afoot to open up across the african continent plus the link between seafood forced labor in thailand counting the cost at this time on i'll just near zero. you're watching al-jazeera homes the whole rama the headquarters here in doha these are all top news stories the latest round of russian led talks on syria's future will get underway shortly it's backed by turkey and iran and the u.n. special envoy for syria is also attending but the main opposition groups are not
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going. there the rebels want russia and the syrian government to stop bombing passive in the air strikes have killed twenty civilians including women and children in the past twenty four hours the opposition's accusing the government and its allies of using banned weapons including cluster bombs and napalm on civilians . also the kurds are boycotting the saatchi meeting and they're the focus of a turkish military operation in northern syria and group views their fighting groups as terrorists at least fifty one civilians including seventeen children have been killed near half leaned. in the news eisel says it was bad an attack on a military academy in afghanistan's capital kabul eleven soldiers were killed and sixteen others wounded in the gun battle near the marshall vehement national defense university five of the attackers were also killed the same site was the target of a suicide bombing in october in which fifteen officers died now it comes two days
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after a suicide bombing also in kabul killed at least one hundred three people afghans are blaming the government for failing to improve security which stark rahim is a regional security specialist he says the recent attacks by isolate the taliban against government targets have different aims. first and foremost they have been fighting each other on the battlefield they have been facing off more often against each other instead of the government particularly in eastern afghanistan we have experienced a lot of fear or she is fighting between the two groups. as late as two months back then they faced each other in who get the district of eastern afghanistan where they fart and release c.d.'s back to us against each other and they have been trying to challenge each other in terms of captured in the territory are trying to send a message in terms of who holds a party in the afghan context and then you object gives our different taliban look at the effort to take or the up on government whereas isis believe
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in lot of this killer fatah. sort of governance attaching themselves to the middle east and isis and the a bit they try to announce themselves as a wing as a province as a state of that big isis. governance structure so they're pretty differ different in terms of the interviews in terms of the object is and the way they operate the second and final day of the african union summit is underway in the ethiopian capital the meeting is focusing on the tackling of corruption and conflict across the continent leaders have also been discussing ways to fund the fifty five bloc. now leaders on sudan egypt down ethiopia have been meeting on the sidelines of the summit over a dam project on the nile by ethiopia sudan's a foreign minister told us the three countries have agreed on a mechanism to reconcile their differences. i can tell you that for now the
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dispute is over and i hope that this would not be a temporary reserve lucian. the two presidents and if those who don't met the president met also with the prime minister individually and then today via love to the meeting was held issues were discussed in of it through our spirit and for our commander and the city president agreed to address the issue of the. sporadic fighting continues in a even after what yemen's government called an attempted coup by separatists backed by the united arab emirates the interior ministry says government forces are now in control of the city including the office of the prime minister on sunday at least twelve people were killed and one hundred others wounded southern it's the session it's for the army for control of government buildings also were given the government is battling the rebels and there's dozens of the fighters have been killed an ass trying says ground forces push to take control of the eastern part of
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the city up back with more news in thirty minutes next on out of there we continue with struggle over there now to stay with us. the novel. the world's longest river. a seven thousand kilometers a lifeline for almost four hundred million people.
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flowing north the nile runs through ten countries from the highlands in the heart of africa to the shores of the mediterranean sea. a source of sustenance but also one of tension even the potential conflict. these tensions between countries along the river nile have their roots in the nineteenth century. colonial decisions of the past. are a point of bitter dispute today. and new political realities on the ground are increasing the sense of uncertainty over who owns the river nile.
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in september two thousand and five a team of explorers set off on a unique journey up the nile river. like you say for the not to be the longest running journey in the world. led by new zealand adventurer a chemical a team aimed at being the first expedition to travel up the nile to its furthest source. the first stage of the trek through egypt and. proved a breeze. but then the explorers encountered the sued the world's largest swamp.
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and found the. swampy area of one thousand kilometers long and three hundred kilometers wide is now hell. is just big lie and water it's incredible. the sued means obstacles in arabic and it has proved just that a labyrinth of waterways that has hindered expeditions. maclean's team managed to navigate their way out of the swamp. off to ninety days of travel overcoming tremendous obstacles they eventually arrived in rwanda. at a tiny spring which they determine to be the southernmost source of the nile. today
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but clay is settled in uganda where he runs a whitewater rafting business in the city of. jinja here on the nile you know your life and it's good it's mine i'm sure they believe that i'm. just a few kilometers away from the clays business stands this list a monument to a past mile adventurer john manning speak. speak was a british explorer who arrived here almost one hundred fifty years earlier eighteen sixty two. he came in search of the answer to an age old question where is the
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source of the nile. the royal geographical society in london was established in eighteen thirty. it houses the maps navigation tools and personal belongings of famous explorers from the nineteenth century. men who were in the grip of a romantic obsession to discover the source of the nile. for europeans the exploration of the mile is probably the biggest goal drives their enterprise in one thousand century because it's seen as the largest the most important river and also because there is this long heritage or history associated with it. rather than trying to cross the sued area in southern sudan
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explorers in the mid one thousand nine hundred. another passage via the island of zanzibar. during the nineteenth century zanzibar was an arab kingdom controlling the trade route from india into africa's interior. these arab traders facilitate european exploration it's the year of the arab traders for example who began first to report that their great lakes or a great like in the interior of east africa. based on this information the royal geographical society sponsored expeditions into the heart of africa.
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in eight hundred fifty seven using zanzibar as a starting point john hanning speak cross to east africa and ventured into the hinterland where he found a huge lake he believed to be the source of the nile. three years later on a new expedition he travelled around this lake today known as lake victoria to discover the nile flowing out from its northern side. a roll call of famous explorers ventured into the continents interior to build on speaks discovery. men such as samuel baker david livingston and henry morton stanley helped complete the picture about the true source of the nile. back home they were lauded as heroes with monuments built on of them but others saw them differently it was mistakenly called to discover that you know
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most of the books in the plus they use that speak to discover the night as if you was a fust you might have been through the night when actually. he was a fussy european to see this as of the night but i want to discover it because he was even so and this is also denied by the africans yet. the royal geographical society helped push the boundaries of exploration and empire . but this age of exploration is seen by many as a precursor of colonize ation. most of that is most of these people were explorers but intelligence services in their own countries made use of their experiences for them that. they were not only british but also belgians and french. they've served the people and the situation in these
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areas. they then pass this information on for colonize ation and. armed with greater information the age of exploration began the scramble for africa . the continent was up for grabs. to divide the spoils european nations convened at the berlin conference in eight hundred eighty four where they saw i stop the african continent into spears of influence. britain had formerly occupied egypt two years earlier in eight hundred eighty two to control the suez canal the strategic route to india the jewel in the crown of the british empire. in berlin it was decided the nile basin region would fall under british rule. when the british to control you to
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night and to to the very soon realized that they had become rudeness of a society that a totally dependent on the nile so they understood. from the very beginning that the konami development of political stability to depend upon my control. to assert control upstream the british established what it called the east africa protectorate in one thousand nine hundred five comprising what is today kenya and uganda. the next step was sudan a territory ruled by egypt since eight hundred twenty. with their domination in egypt the british persuaded the egyptians to sign an agreement in january eight hundred ninety nine for joining rule of a sedan. in reality joint rule was
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a fig leaf for british command. here in the presidential palace in khartoum to this day a museum houses portrayed of former governors of sudan. the paintings are testament to a time of british dominion. you know what in fact the british master the art of ruling sudan they completely sidelined the egyptians. the governor general was british the commander of the army was british and so were all the high ranking officials in the administration. controlling the great lakes region source of the white nile the british next turn their attention to ensuring hedge of money over the blue nile the rivers of the source originating in the ethiopian highlands.
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in may nine hundred two the british signed an agreement with emperor men like the second of ethiopia in which he promised not to build any dam that might. the flow of the blue nile to egypt. feeling they had secured the full length of the nile britain's decision makers in london began to put in place the next phase of their master plan economic gain. from quite early on the british also decided to transform egypt into the cotton fall of the textile industries and lancashire in the. british reliance on egyptian cotton began to increase. to boost the harvest the british set out to revolutionize egypt's irrigation system
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a system dating back thousands of years. they gave a oddity to the baltic countries denied countries their old engineers what the plan is remain down from the colonials service and teed experienced guys. given a lot of plans another political freedom so that they really can take the nile and head. the british came up with the idea for a dam in southern egypt to hold back the nile flood and use its waters for irrigation. construction on the ass when low dam began in eighteen one thousand nine. it was officially opened three years later at the time it was the largest stone dam of its kind ever built.
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britain wanted to ensure the full flow of the nile reached egypt to maximize cotton production. no one else upstream was allowed to siphon off any of the river. for have some strict orders were laid down regarding the use of the nile water because the british were concerned about egypt not only all island for example they banned sudanese fondness for using it water pumps unless they obtained permission from the egyptian irrigation authority. and. britain discriminated in favor of egypt's claim over the nile. the british expected the egyptians to be thankful but they were to have a rude awakening. in one thousand nine hundred nineteen following the end of the
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first world war the egyptians revolted against british occupation and demanded complete independence. they were led by a fiery nationalist called saad zabulon. with such sentiment on the rise the british look for a way. cowered the egyptians into submission. the river nile egypt's lifeline was an effective political weapon and the british had in mind a perfect place to use this weapon. the get zero region in sudan between the blue nile and the white nile was an area with the potential to become the largest cotton growing region in the world. they had to dance to motives of two main strategic and is that they can see us again or wrong to increase the cup. production in sudan for the benefit of the british taste of history secondly this
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hue if it is not really in control of the know is really through saddam and his who has a power and. the business has a power in saddam. british attempts to intimidate the egyptians only further inflamed nationalist sentiment. a crisis point was reached when in november one thousand nine hundred twenty four celine stack commander in chief of the egyptian army and governor of sudan was assassinated while driving through the streets of cairo. the assassins were arrested and sentenced to death. but the murder of the british official was a turning point in london now found its reason to implement the good zero scheme. what they did was that ok you killed the governor general then the will take more
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work from the nile as a punishment so this was the first time in practice that stream power punished the in power you'd. for the vote with. britain's trump card was this an odd dam completed in one thousand nine hundred twenty five. built on the blue nile in sedan it would help the irrigation of the gears here area. but it also delivered an ominous signal to the egyptians for the first time in their history a dam built outside of egypt would affect the flow of the nile into their country. nationalists however continued to mobilize popular support against the british occupation. cooler heads in london began to realize that relations with egypt
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were deteriorating fast. something which could threaten british control over the suez canal. as before the river nile became a useful political tool this time for compromise rather than coercion. in maine one hundred twenty nine notes were exchanged between the british high commissioner in egypt george lloyd and the egyptian prime minister mohammad mahmoud pasha. this diplomacy led to a landmark agreement in which britain awarded egypt exclusive control over the full course of the nile waters from egypt point of in the night to twenty nine agreement or sickles and victory. because here the british said that well and now is in a definitive modernise and and it has a with a right to stop its upstream if they don't want any. by signing the nine hundred
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twenty nine agreement with the british so to co-opt the egyptians. no such consideration was given to the indigenous peoples upstream who were not consulted even though the river originated in their lands. by the early one nine hundred thirty s. britain was becoming increasingly concerned with a growing menace closer to home. at the end of world war two in one thousand nine hundred forty five britain was no longer the mighty empire that could claim control of
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a large parts of the world such as the nile basin. after the second world war britain came out of the war in jet brit's economy came out very much a device that it and the u.s. now the theme of the world. the united states stepped forward to assert itself more boldly on the world stage in places formally controlled by the old then piles . in one nine hundred fifty three u.s. secretary of state john foster dulles became the first time ranking american official to visit cairo. dulles offered financial support for the construction of a massive new dam on the nile in southern egypt. but three years later the offer was withdrawn. the americans had become suspicious of egyptian president jamal abdul nasser as non-alignment policy. at the same time the withdrawal of the offer
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provided an opportunity to undermine british influence john thousand dollars and the american government that understood quite clearly that one way or crushing the influence of the british imperialists in this area was to make them powerless when it comes to the now question became clear that everybody. that was of the americans decide it and the bridge had to just fall off as said prior to. despite the withdrawal of financial support for the construction of the ass one high dam nasa chose to push ahead. in july nine hundred fifty six nationalized the suez canal company to provide funding for the project. the takeover stun british and french shareholders in the swiss company. the british
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still ruling parts of east africa had a secret plan retaliation. the plan would involve using the unfolds dam in uganda to cut off the flow with the nile upstream in an attempt to force nasa to give up the suez canal. the scheme was never adopted since the ensuing drought would take too long to have its effect on egypt. britain wanted more immediate action so they reverted to a more obvious method boots on the ground. in one thousand nine hundred fifty six britain and france with israeli collusion invaded egypt in a bid to seize back the canal.
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the americans publicly distance themselves from the aggression. by the states but not consulted in any way about any way that these actions nor whether we informed them in it but. it is our hope and intent this matter will be brought before the united nations general assembly there with no veto operating the opinion of the world can be brought to bear in our quest for a just in to this tormenting problem. the united nations declared a ceasefire. so as crisis ended with a humiliating withdrawal of the invasion forces from egypt it was to prove a seminal moment in modern history. the sun was setting on the british empire. colonialism was on the decline.
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in africa nations began to gain their independence among them nile upstream countries. the winds of change were blowing creating new states and new demands for a share of the waters of the nile. a haunting journey through memories scott by sri lanka's civil war. divisions and mental wounds still run deep. as a once exiled tamil gorilla struggles to comprehend how things went so wrong. demons in paradise a witness documentary at this time on al-jazeera. more than seven decades
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ago a country was split into really big dick cheney and now the time. being all it took was a pan a map and a collapsing empire when the british had to draw a line they pulled its seventh who had never been to india before al-jazeera examines the violent birth of india and pakistan and asks what the future holds for these nuclear neighbors partition borders of blood at this time. your child is there i'm still robin these are all top stories the latest round of russian led talks on syria's future will get underway shortly now it's backed by turkey and iran and the u.n. special envoy for syria is also attending but the main syrian opposition groups are
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not going. to the rebels one russian and the syrian government to stop bombing parts of it globe the air strikes have killed twenty civilians including women and children in the past twenty four hours the opposition's accusing the government and its allies of using banned weapons including cluster bombs and napalm on civilians now the kurds are also boycotting the saatchi meeting there the focus of a turkish military operation in northern syria ankara views there fighting groups as terrorists at least fifty one civilians including seventeen children have been killed three means the second and final day of the african union summit is underway in the ethiopian capital the meeting is focusing on tackling corruption and conflict across the african continent leaders have also been discussing ways to fund the fifty five member bloc it's mostly financed by foreign donors but members want it to become completely self-sufficient. leaders of sudan egypt and
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ethiopia have been meeting on the sidelines of that summit over a dam project on the nile by ethiopia and sudan's foreign minister told us the three countries have agreed on a mechanism to reconcile their differences. i can tell you that for now the dispute is over and i hope that this would not be a temporary reserve edition. the two presidents and if this was the met the president met also with the prime minister individually and then today via love to the meeting was held issues were discussed in of it through our spirit and for our commander and the city president agreed to address the issue of the. sporadic fighting continues in nafta what yemen's government called an attempted coup by separatists backed by the united arab emirates the interior ministry says government forces are now in control of the city including the office of the prime
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minister on sunday at least twelve people killed and one hundred others wounded in southern secessionists for the army for control of government buildings i'll be back with the al-jazeera news i in thirty minutes do stay with us. khartoum capital of sudan. the meeting point of the white nile from the great lakes region and the blue not from the ethiopian highlands. hamdi is a resident of tutti island where the two niles converge. he explains
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to his son the difference in the color of the waters. the white nile on the left and the blue nile on the right and how they join here to form one river flowing northwards to egypt. again after you're married and need the most beautiful thing distinguishing us from the rest of the world is the line of duty and love in your novel there is no other river like it. it's a great river heavenly and the life around it is unique really want. in this small truck each day having the delivers vegetables across the river to the market of miles. away. and the. idea of the nile it take visible that girl here to the market how would i live otherwise and liberals way even with i will be buried by the live in.
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sudan's road to independence started in the middle of the twentieth century. in one nine hundred fifty three britain and egypt joined rulers of a sedan for more than fifty years. signed an agreement giving the sudanese people the right to self-determination. two years later in one thousand nine hundred fifty five the sudanese parliament unanimously adopted a declaration of independence rather than unifying with egypt into a single country. on january the first nine hundred fifty six the sudanese flag was raised for the first time and khartoum. the largest country in africa was born a country flowing sixty percent of the entire nile basin area. sudan had enormous agricultural potential but there was
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a drawback. the one nine hundred twenty nine anglo egyptian agreement allotted only four billion cubic meters of nile waters to the sudanese territory. compared to egypt's forty eight billion cubic meters. the newly independent sudanese were not happy inheriting this colonial legacy. that this agreement the enforced gyptian dominance over the nile. and gave who done just a token amount. what was that it was done with each half most sudanese believe that the knowledge agreements were unjustly set and that distribution of the water should have been based on the size of the country isin the south. sudan share should have been much more than what was agreed upon because it's far larger than. the nine hundred twenty nine agreement
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had also given egypt the right to monitor the nile flow beyond the egyptian territory. under slightly i remember when i was young in geneva i moved to them my roommate was an egyptian engineer this was and his sole job was to check the amount of work that so then took from the nine. and to ensure that so then didn't take water during the drought these were your ideas but in the end. keen to assert its newly won sovereignty the sudanese government declared it was no longer bound by the one nine hundred twenty nine agreement. by nine hundred fifty eight relations between sudan and egypt had deteriorated. so dan's foreign minister travelled to cairo for urgent meetings. the two
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peoples had often described themselves as brothers of the nile valley but now there was a growing rift. but dramatic events in khartoum brought a sudden end to tensions in november one thousand nine hundred fifty eight the sudanese army staged a coup d'etat overthrowing the government. general ibrahim abood took the reins of power. looking back on events some see the hand the venue gyptian president jamal abdul nasser behind the coup. jamal abdul nasser like a military coup and it. and lieutenant general abboud was close to the egyptian regime. a year after the coup a sudanese delegation arrived in cairo to sign
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a new nile agreement. the one nine hundred fifty nine full utilization of nile waters agreement allocated a new share of the river ahead of the completion of the ass one high down in egypt . once constructed the dam was due to save over thirty billion cubic meters of floodwater and. egypt share of the nile increased by several billion cubic meters sudan's limited share more than quadruple. the one nine hundred fifty nine agreement between egypt and sudan consolidated a renewed the lion's. muscle issue that egypt and who then formed a joint committee wants a bid for monitoring that it in the two countries looked at that and increasing its water flow was the ad that it allowed. one way to
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increase the nile waters was to resurrect a plan dating back to british colonial times. over twenty billion cubic meters of the nile waters carried downstream from the great lakes region a last buyback aeration in the huge swamp area of southern sudan known as the sewage. the plan was to dig a canal diverting the nile to bypass this area reducing the water loss it was cooled the jungle a canal. there was one problem. sedan was far from stable. the nation had been born with a dangerous fault line between a predominantly arab and muslim north and a mainly christian and animist south. chief
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demi and is a village leader on the outskirts of juba the capital of southern sudan. he remembers the mood of secession in the south during the early one nine hundred fifty s. . but wondered whether because we were all us by arabs as second men in the government we want to give it. get it but at. night i thought up what they did mentally i'm not going to i'm as good as i've got i. am going to have a gun. in all this nine hundred fifty five the first sudanese civil war erupted between north and south. fighting raged for seventeen years. eventually a peace accord was signed in one thousand nine hundred seventy two in. the end of
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fighting meant that plans for the jungle a canal in southern sudan could now be brought back off the shelf. the. egyptian president anwar sadat and his sudanese counterpart just elma mary did exactly this and in one nine hundred seventy eight work started on the three hundred sixty kilometer canal. but the southern sudanese viewed the project with suspicion. the main tribes of the region such as the new heir and dinka made a living by grazing their cattle across the suit. the jungle a canal threatened to dry up significant parts of this wetland. from the start it proved harmful for the tribes and their livestock. i know they do and they don't
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look and i would be open i would still a young man and we still stuck in the stock of cattle coming from the east going to deny to bring water and a guest when in and they perished because of the big bank and that was. oppin he was a blues machine. a campaign against the jungle a canal project gained momentum reaching far and wide. with a little harmless shot while the dumbly canal was met with a hostile campaign to give a go but you know yeah but i was minister of education and i received letters from japan from environmentalists asking me why we would want to dry the wetlands in southern sudan and create a desert with a felix hardly a letter from someone in japan who wasn't even living here and had no rights to this food i'm less sure what it was part of the campaign of negativity aimed at
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creating instability and i would area. others said well if you want to help that. by the early one nine hundred eighty s. the project almost two thirds complete had become the focus for suspicion and wild rumors. well there was politics and you know politicians can create. stories to frighten people one of them was that probably there were a lot of it just was coming to stop a lock on the canal. that was natural but of course in the absence of proper information and i think would be really. relations between the north and the south began to deteriorate once again. in one thousand nine hundred eighty three a group of southern sudanese soldiers mutiny refusing to obey orders from the
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northern commanders. an officer by the name of john garang joined the mutiny is. he led them into the bush to start a guerrilla movement which came to be known as the sudan people's liberation army or s.p.l. a lot of. those sudan's people liberation army was not against the john meccano perfect such. turned out on the lead with billy i written his ph d. this is by the way on the donek now his program was not the person himself but his complaint was the sudden sit down also needs will too. and even not just been satisfied a little bit. the project
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provided one of the very first targets for the s.p.l. a at the beginning of sudan second civil war between the north and the south. and. the canals giant excavator lays in the spot where it dug its last home a rusting destroyed drink. eat eat eat eat the fighting lasted for twenty two years. two million people died and four million became refugees. the number get out well it was. just after a series of talks the peace agreement ending the civil war was signed in january two thousand and five in ny vashon kenya changed. the accord stipulated a referendum to be held throughout southern sudan on independence by january two
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thousand and eleven. the referendum resulted in southern secession. a new country was born. and a new question erodes. with a new country abide by previous water agreements allocating a share of the nile flood. even before the announcement of the referendum result the opinion from the south was clear. we must advise in those agreements. because saddam didn't become a different state then this was really vital was adams wouldn't you not only look at him but i get. a new denial basin country in africa rejecting that the liberty of old agreements. a new nation looking to secure its own share of the rivers
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waters something similar has happened before. in the one nine hundred sixty s. with european colonial powers declining a number of african nations gained their independence among them upstream states on the river nile. soon after they announced they would not abide by the one nine hundred twenty nine anglo egyptian nine agreement which had given egypt exclusive control of the river. at about fourteen deep of nine thousand internet argument he states very clearly that most states sand be able to utilize the nile river what us or that he was feeding their mates or the lakes wheat fields that he remained without the approval of the dance of they give him a government that alone gives veto to egypt or i doubt he probably unsticks.
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the two agreements from the previous century from nine hundred twenty nine and one thousand nine hundred fifty nine lie at the heart of today's struggle over the nile . egypt and sudan on one side see the agreements as historical legacies to be maintained. when i close some of the thought of so we must uphold agreements and treaties the holdup is that this is a logic that applies to national borders to me and hold all you can just change the borders of african countries because the demarcation had been rectified in pre-independence treaties there man i let you go and so you can just demand new stipulations in the light. especially since this is a crucial case reading to our livelihood then i want out of such a case egypt doesn't have any other water source. yet. on the other side upstream countries see the past agreements as colonial relics and demand their own rights to
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a share of the nile waters. we are aware that the argument on the usage of the made what. we're saying we're back in the tank. and since then i notice things have happened and therefore there was a need to review the argument itself and how the countries. through which the nail grows can benefit the temple. in an effort to resolve the growing dispute in one nine hundred ninety nine the ministers of water resources from all the nile basin countries met here in dar es salaam tanzania. the so-called nile basin initiative was launched aimed at promoting joint projects and reaching a new agreement over the sharing of the nile. but the mood of camaraderie at the initial meetings soon changed and would then work in the kenneth. i'd like it to be
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known that the relationship between us and them wasn't that amicable that he said they believed we were taking all of the water and that they were getting nothing from under her in the workplace and when we went for meetings in those countries they would say you are taking our water the whole of my of the land because i don't want to say it was a hostile atmosphere but it certainly wasn't friendly for in. the upstream countries accused egypt of digging in its heels by refusing to consider relinquishing the agreements from the previous century. negotiations continued over ten years. attitudes hardened positions became ever more entrenched. the egyptians saw their share of the river flow as both negligible and non-negotiable. ignite it either near the amount of rainfall in the entire
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nile basin area is one point six trillion cubic meters of hadassah. but what arrives downstream is eighty four billion cubic meters only which means less than five percent is a fuck so where does the difference go it's wasted in evaporation and swamps in forests and it is not used in upstream countries. either therefore we should put aside the small quantity which is less than five percent leave it aside and focus on building joint projects between the nile basin countries this will save part of the lost water then we can divide it in a fair way between the ten base and countries. hold and i felt. the upstream countries rejected the egyptian arguments. ethiopia was one of the countries which after years of being caught up in internal strife and tragedy was now pushing more forcefully for a greater share of the nile. when the whole is
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a not to be here to be negotiated because this is a visit on. the nature and it is agreed what are going in or that is not negotiated in any international argument and that's why it is a demanding the ny what are the when or whatever the reason it instead of telling it is a natural resource and that not one of the sort of is that. the resource of every. people. things reached a head in may two thousand and ten at a meeting in tempe uganda when for upstream nations signed a new agreement nullifying older ones and setting out policies for a more equitable share of the nile. to this date six countries are signatories ethiopia uganda rwanda tanzania kenya and burundi.
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egypt and sudan were absent having refused to even attend the meeting. there was a mood of celebration among those who signed the so-called mile quarter framework agreement and want to regulate ourselves. having come it's far. less than that why it's even more often said to make sure that all. the signatories believe egypt and sudan will have to come on board at some point and sign the new agreement all the time they walk out but they still come back because there is no in the souls that they can be able to use and what we have been telling them the only simple way is population was. sure enough a few weeks later in june two thousand and ten the egyptians return to the negotiating
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table. it was a bitter pill for them to swallow. however they have yet to sign the entebbe agreement. for the egyptians at least for the time being facts on the ground are more important than the signing of any a cool must of. egypt and certain neutral parties believe that we don't need to sign any agreement at the present time to add that there is no need for a framework agreement for the foreseeable future wouldn't we believe what is important is what is happening on the ground especially the fact that there are no big dam projects at the present time that may affect egyptian interest. but the status quo is unlikely to hold. african upstream nations are increasingly demanding a larger share of the nile waters. such demands are
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raising fears downstream. fears stoked up by a history of suspicion and rivalry. fears about countries not only on the nile but even beyond the great river itself. the river nile river vital source of sustenance to the countries and flows through business all think all on who can lay claim i'm a bit late isn't going to give them the resources we found both great but with this comes a destabilizing rivalry the country's suspicious of each other's intentions in the
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battle for control of the records transponding see consultation was not often included counters because what's on a long field struggle over the nile a does time on al-jazeera. from cool brisk noise and fuel rods. to the warm tranquil waters of southeast asia. welcome to look at the weather across america snow in south america suffer injuries were hints of some fairly heavy showers across parts of bolivia but slightly to continue during the course of monday some heavy showers here including the pass who also has some rain effects in parts of paraguay and the far south of brazil with that rio looking quite wet over the next twenty four to forty hours
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coming southwards we've still got one or two showers across parts of argentina but one is area should be drawing and fine same goes for montevideo and then as we head up into the caribbean region eastern areas to not looking too bad further towards the west with this line of cloud pushing towards parts of cuba and the bahamas also looking at some showers across parts of mexico mexico city to see and highs of eleven degrees celsius so pretty chilly conditions slightly better to have on through and to choose a bit of that stage so in the caribbean side of the isthmus heavy showers are likely let's head up into north america we've got a couple of frontal systems across the mid atlantic towards the eastern seaboard give you some really heavy downpours here another system across the pacific northwest central areas dominated by an area of high pressure so there's a forecast more rain into up a civic northwest with some snow over the rockies rain though clearing the eastern seaboard but tony little bit cooler here later. the weather sponsored by cat time
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piece. it was upon which modern day venezuela was established. for over a century this lucrative resource has divided the less than those with the world's largest reserves. charting the impact of industrialization and the legacies of it prominent leaders we shed light on the troubles the flick to venezuela today. the big picture the battle for venezuela coming soon or no just zero. twenty years of china's transformation. told through one young girl's journey. from birth to adult hood. two decades following the development of a life and nation. five years on rewind returns to the story of k.k. the girl from wang joe do you remember me at this time on al-jazeera. in
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a world where journalism as an industry is changing we had fortunate to be able to continue to expand to continue to have that passenger drive and present the stories in a way that is important to our viewers. everyone has a story worth hearing. will cover those that are often ignored we don't weigh our coverage towards one particular region or continent that's why i joined al jazeera . this is al-jazeera.

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