tv NEWS LIVE - 30 Al Jazeera August 25, 2018 10:00am-10:34am +03
day all that is left of the sugar war is a field. of the two hundred fifty sugar refinery is active in the late nineteenth century only to remain in operation. in two thousand and seventeen at home in rap archeologists examine the remains of the son shocked residents and sugar refinery. a mill stock rooms and three rows of so-called negro huts where hundreds of slaves used to be confined. in this concentration camp like universe men was but one tool among others he was a mechanized emaciated body consumed by work until his last breath. both the
time in which the slaves were digging the cane holes and the times in which their harvesting are really the peak of the labor on a plantation you could almost see the slaves wasting away when they were digging these cane holes because the work was so strenuous and they were getting fed so poorly. you found women in all of the gangs oftentimes doing the hardest dirtiest labor on the plantation alongside the men or even before the men and one of the things that means when you find young women doing this quite debilitating labor is the birth rates are very low and the mortality rates the infant mortality rate is shockingly high in the mid eighteenth century people talked about nine out of ten infants born to enslave jamaican women dying right within the first year. so there's no way in which the plantation can reproduce itself under those kinds of conditions. he said
as though he's sick but he needed to absolutely get amended displayed is broken in as well as we need to come and look since we're going to sell to do that this. dollies of all the other he says she'll be nice to discover about this. shit dale human did goodly zest woman if i join. with us in the us but our cake this is just that it boded most it doesn't look as mickey musial businesses don't get that just a point it's all still more of the one coupon was awful you actually i think safely just chill i think cebu and i think. with the sugar plantation slavery entered a new era the stronger the demand for sugar the more the slave trade expanded and the more the slave traders sought bank support to finance their expeditions.
london is one of the oldest centers of global finance the city of london was the first to create a commodities exchange to develop credit markets and tissue bank notes on a massive scale. without the invention of a centralized banking system the explosion of the slave trade in the eighteenth century would not possible. preparing for a slave expedition was expensive and having a financial arsenal gave england a decisive advantage over its competitors. you've got to remember that the state is getting a tremendous amount of revenue from the plantation complex so they have a very strong vested interest in the slave trade if you had gone to the king of england in sixteen eighty. and said look i'm going to give you a choice you can either have these thirteen colonies in north america or you can have this one little island called barbados you of taken barbados of the split second because of the sugar revenues and this is something that's going to persist
as a very important interest for european states up until the very end of slavery. to support the civil war the city lent money with abandon. in the midst of these glass buildings the two pillars of english economy that finance the slave trade still dominate the london skyline on one side the very honorable bank of england the world's first central bank. on the other the u.k.'s most powerful insurance company the prestigious lloyd's of london. within the atlantic slave trade slave traders had to take on heavy debts to charter their ships without an insurance company most would risk ruin on their first expedition. you could lose a lot you could lose this ship if the ship was your own. you could lose the crew
you could lose the cargo that you put on board to barter for slaves in africa and you could also lose the supplies you carry on board for the journey and this business slaves were just another commodity of varying quality that slave companies sought to sell off the best parts a sixteen eighty six letter from a slave trader to his associate illustrates this. convoy is the natural country on the twenty first of february via the only street on the first of march be on the merry arrived day on the twenty ninth of june with each boat having lost over one hundred of the runners and it was transporting. the rest how about a flute and i invited by physical condition which will him to the south we said we must let them go for i have a lower rate if we can even sell them at all. we on the difficult position of not knowing what to do with a new rivers and such bad conditions and i would need to come aboard to buy them.
the slave traders invested in the trade as if it were a game of poker the risks were high but if successful the return on investment would far outweigh any other type of investment. insurers like lloyds had everything to gain by participating in this game of chance a successful expedition could yield up to three times the initial stake. in the lloyd archives barely any evidence remains of the profits amassed by insuring these perilous expeditions. most accounting records burned in a fire and eight hundred thirty eight the same year slavery was abolished in the british caribbean. ports had to adapt to this race to africa and the caribbean. in london black while became a slave to. it's principal war. here trade goods were embarked precious fabrics
jewels porcelains weapons and brandy's all bought on credit with the banks money around this pier a giant port complex gradually unfolding a city within a city entirely devoted to this new business. following london six hundred sixty three the great seaports all rushed one after the other to take advantage of this lucrative trade going on copenhagen. bristol not liverpool bolo and to work from all over europe slave ships that sail for africa. when i began to see slave ships leaving from not just liverpool anon but from every port in the atlantic as soon as a port becomes big enough to contemplate the trans oceanic voyage there's a good chance that voyage is going to be a slave trade voyage and we've got like one hundred and seventy separate ports tiny
places today they've got no idea that once upon a time they send a slave boy just simply to support in the child's charming place and yet it's a slave trade pored. over a period of two centuries more than three thousand five hundred expedition set sail from french ports. more than half of them left from the port of not the french champion triangular trade. the sculpted figures along the kid love us or fiddle island are reminders of an era when great slave trading families displayed their pride in being the main architects of the city's well. it was they who made not france's leading commercial pork. that is that is the if it's what is clever. well clearly negroes here all is a home at sixty point reason really. they'll go live ali for you to put
your daughter far in you put your daughter to. be sixteen sixty nine. from not bald zero dollars shell and slavery money flowed back up rivers to all. and. it had such repercussions on inland areas that it became a national objective to the fourteenth fully understood this to win the sugar war you would need a powerful fleet. to the fourteenth ordered the construction of five hundred gallons. elana became the theater of a naval war between france england and holland a fight to the death in which each something ship was a total loss of the country's economy. citric would cost. made to be a. vehicle to source and get to know if not more he said but screw. loose nor small to see garrulous nor small in their yard or game design so no.
more. thousands of military ships followed in the wake of the slave trade fleet. sixteen thousand gallons were already protecting dutch commercial ships while the three thousand lightning fast royal navy cruisers terrified their adversaries france paled in comparison to such armada us. each nation needed a fortress in africa it was to compete in the atlantic race. just like the caribbean islands these forts were the superstructures of the triangular trade genuine military platforms the offered protection for guarded goods and captives before departure by sea. in less than eighty years forty three four to rebuilt from senegal to the niger delta. every stone and every beam every. element of masonry
was transported by boat from europe. most of these fortresses are built by states individual capitalists or even groups of trading capitalists did not have that kind of money in order to build those sorts of fortresses. in sixteen eighty four giambattista cost director of the company just any god wrote a progress report for the real fourteen on the construction of force. from. the king kept an eye on spending every penny invested in the slave trade had to generate profit. cost of all its necessary to know what size the fortress must be the height of each bust in time to control the quantity of bricks sand and whitewash that needs to be carried. out as this expense would be considerable it is possible to provide some
through congress but the chopper aid fortresses on to training posts on the gold coast it is easy to judge the considerable sums now from since they supply six thousand negros p. at. our fortress will supply more through the colonies when they require a very large number of near us which will infinitely multiply a sugar manufacturing. for the time being france only had one fort on the gold coast. they had to make up for lost time. the english already had thirteen the dutch ten the danish five even the prussians with their three forts surpassed the french. on the gold coast on the side of
present day ghana the fanti and ashanti rented europeans plots of land to build their forts. the europeans established trading posts and fortresses all along the atlantic coast when the airway territory of the congo kingdom equitorial africa became the world's main source of captives. in this royal african company accounting document written in sixteen eighty eight we learn that over an eight year period the english company shipped sixty thousand seven hundred eighty three captives. each captive cost them eight to twelve pounds sterling equivalent today between eleven hundred and seven hundred dollars. all of them were bought with trade goods. the demand for slaves was so high that the europeans urge their african partners to plan rationalize and industrialize their
methods of mass deportation. slaves or often bought on credit. and sold out amount that european ships would come they would have a whole cargo full of textiles different metal wearer. tobacco whatever and they these would be given to the local merchants extended to them on credit and then the merchants would go inland with those goods and buy slaves and come back the biggest impact was the level of. the level of violence the rising level of violence the level of uncertainty. that permeated society everywhere and also the opportunity for new put new big ben. to emerge new powerful leaders somebody gets ahold of more firearms somebody gets more aggressive they build their own personal chiefs up to suddenly they're powerful.
among these bosses was duke a major african broker from calabar. in his diary he spoke of the methods he used to terrorize captives kidnapping sequestration assassination. about four am i caught up awful rain i will talk to the city train pass and i met on the thames and. we got many to cut off hats. five am we got decapitation snakes.
fifteen and served out that. very clearly these sacrifices were intended as a form of terrorism that were meant to make it very clear to the population who was the boss and who was not the very much the way to. the mafioso type organizations. behave in terms of making sure that the members of the association respect whoever the godfather is and if anybody steps out of line they can be assassinated or killed and so they don't step out of line obviously. he is a self-proclaimed messenger of god painting millions of devoted but his path to
enlightenment involve the rape and abuse of his followers when he used investigates the fall of one of india's most powerful spiritual gurus on al-jazeera. al-jazeera. where every. it takes discipline and camaraderie. this is not a game or is it. what is a healthy balance between work and play when playing is a job at hand and fortune combat should be made. the story of the highs and lows of young idols in the fast paced world of the pro gamers. the state of play a witness documentary called as he. and nine hundred seventy eight.
disappeared after boarding a plane to libya. for over thirty s. his disappearance remained tragic in mystery. but after colonel gadhafi his downfall in two thousand and eleven new evidence came to light. al-jazeera world investigates the case of the vanished in. and out to syria. another check of the headlines here on al-jazeera donald trump has criticized china for a lack of progress on the denuclearization of north korea the first time he's acknowledged problems with the outcome of the deal he signed in june with north korea's leader kim jong il and he says beijing isn't helping as much as it should because he
launched a trade war against china last month here's more from share returns ian washington d.c. just a few days ago donald trump again pretty upbeat about negotiations with north korea telling reuters that pyongyang had taken steps towards denuclearization the missile testing had stopped and he was looking forward to another summit with north korea however it has to be said mike compares last trip to north korea was a bit of a disaster by many accounts kim dragoon even snubbing compare there was a great deal of pressure for something tangible to come out of this one. federal prosecutors in the us have granted immunity to the chief financial officer of donald trump's business empire and by the berg is also treasurer of trump's charitable fund foundation has been questioned as part of an investigation linked to michael cohen trump's former personal lawyer and of course on tuesday pleaded guilty to breaking campaign finance laws and accuse the president of directing him to do so cohen is now assisting with the special investigation into russian
interference into the twenty sixteen election. judge in ecuador has suspended the recently imposed entry restrictions for venezuelans fleeing the deepening economic and political crisis earlier this month ecuador announced venezuelans needed to have a valid passport to get in the court order means they will now be allowed in with just their id cards for the next forty five days. zimbabwe's highest court has upheld the result of last month's presidential election ruling there was no proof of irregularities and narrowly won the vote but the opposition refused to accept what it called fake results the result now that was meant to go will be sworn in on sunday and the u.s. is cutting more than two hundred million dollars in aid from its programs in gaza and the west bank so already withheld sixty five million dollars from the un relief agency for the palestinians and at least one hundred eighty nine palestinians have been injured in clashes with israeli security forces along guards as border on
friday these protests which have been going on for months now dubbed the great march of return and news are in twenty five minutes back now though to slavery rates. on the island of south told me the portuguese invented an economic model with unprecedented profitability the sugar plantation. almighty as a. kind of asuka nearly thirteen million africans were thrown on to new slavery or is to the new world where the english the french and the dutch hoped to become wealthy immensely wealthy. for the benefit of a handful of enterprising unscrupulous profiteers the entire continental economy was disrupted. on the coast african brokers knew all the inner workings of the
sugar plantation. a slave ship from some on the. dock that you all go in the kingdom of congo. its captains drawings provide exceptional details of the negotiations between europeans and africans. the merchants from the coast knew that the mary fix captain was in a hurry he absolutely had to arrive in the west indies before harvest time. this was the time of year when slaves sold best and when the best sugar was available. so they deliberately prolong the goshi ations to drive prices up. three hundred twelve captives rounded up in one hundred sixteen days african response to the expansion of trade was directly tied to the fact that people in the various embarkation points in the african coast knew exactly what was going on in the
americas all of these individuals were were entirely aware of the plantation system of the americas. the merry staff eco arrived in send one year after leaving friends only nine captives had perished a good ratio for the crew which celebrated success. in the drawings of the mary star sheik no allusion to the slave suffering appears. they were dehumanized shadows tallied and lined up like barrels at the bottom of the hold it in many cases the transportation of human beings turned into a nightmare. it's very important to understand that violence on board slave ships would be used selectively in other words no captain wanted to kill the entire allotment of people on board because that voyage within have no profit so when there was resistance what the captains would do is organize
a a spectacle in which a small number of people would be executed and if stream leave vicious horrific ways as a means of terrorizing everybody else all of the enslaved would be forced to come up on deck in order to view these executions one slave ship surgeon said that frequently the decks the main deck of the ship would just be completely awash in blood and the aftermath of one of these failed revolts revolts were common and they were almost always suppressed but the captains would use that situation to kill a small number in order to intimidate everybody else sending the message that if you resist us this will be your fate. on caribbean beaches captives disembark as blacks in a world dominated by whites. an
outlet for a society founded on violence and race the carnival echoes the days when the shooting. industry imposed its rhythms rites and seasons and set the pace for island life. i an era when drummers announced the end of winter and the resumption of cutting when flying slaves covered themselves molasses oh and others the for the hands of their persecutors i know not the. the plantation was a machine that devoured its workforce. it needed a constant supply of newcomers. land owners wanted to transform the slaves bodies into tools on plantations being in torture methodically used to deprive them of
their humanity. in this torture garden. the master's authority was absolute. so you take for example a character like thomas this a wood and you can almost see in his diaries the escalation in the violence that he has to mete out or the things he has to mete out to the enslaved to keep them working on the plantation. by a riot as a foreman on the new plantation and learning to use a gun. had to carry out justice in the negro who had escaped. we civilly with him and rubbed salt in lime juice into his good news.
three days later the body of another slave to his scheme was brought to us cut off his head. these kinds of tortures and these kinds of punishments this kind of brutality actually became commonplace on these plantations where you had white people working out among armies of slaves who they feared they could not control the sound of the screaming and the stench of the burning bodies that also became a fundamental feature of the jamaican landscape right that is what plantation society is it's that smell it's that sound it's that fear and terror that's compelling people to work and to obey their masters there's no way to separate vaca and of terror from the labor on the plantation from the profits that that labor produced. but the plantation owners could not squander the slaves they had bought
on credit the state had financed the shipment of slaves and wanted its return on investment. sixteen eighty five. in france the way the fourteenth promulgated the code now are a set of laws designed to regulate the relationships between masters and slaves. tical for. only modest as can china and be this lays with canes all rob's when they believe their slaves have deserved this. they are prohibited from the ministry torture from any major nation of limbs. in all legal systems in which sort of slavery there are limitations that the law applies on what kind of violence you can commit with respect to whether it's the code no are whether it doesn't matter what it is there are specific limitations but in the end there is nothing to prevent
a slave owner in any situation from from committing the worst forms of abuse and we have tons of example of that happening and then getting away without without any punishment without any. without any consideration of the state in terms of protecting the individual who was abused. plantation society relied soley on market forces violence was a necessary cost and us included balanchine's. it took four years to amortize the price of a slave thereafter he was valuable only in so far as he could still hold the
machete this was the price to pay so the europe could each other i don't think that it's possible to reduce another human being to a mere cipher to a mere extension of your will and that's where a lot of the tension in the possibilities for slave revolt and resistance come in because if my purpose is to subject you absolutely but you can never be subjected absolutely we're always going to have conflict at the extremes of human domination even in slavery we find there is always resistance there is always tension and there's always struggle. because that right next to the lost and found an article runs through the list of negroes on the run. he was detained it went to jail a small negro cool job lot of good looking eighteen years i have years of age belonging to mr nadler who claims to be called family high five foot around
fourteen years of age a very large amount of creole origin twelve years of age could leave us name shall not good looking beautiful skin eighteen years of age. throughout the caribbean escaped slaves took refuge in the heart of the most remote forests their nickname ruined slaves in reference to the spanish word. which originally designated cattle but it escaped into the wild in the most remote areas they began to organize resistance on each island men and women stood up against their oppressors in jamaica captain leonard parkinson the leader of the maroons and grandy nani and ashanti known as the marine priestess in barbados who saw an evil war chief through valiant insurgents found a name and identity. all throughout the mountainous areas of jamaica you have these communities of formerly
in slave people who have escaped and they learn the territory they learn to cultivate crops there and they learn to fight as well harassing plantations taking gunpowder getting new recruits and maintaining a building communities in the mountains where this becomes increasingly a problem for the british and by the second third decade of the eighteenth century it breaks out into major war and the british aren't even sure they're going to be able to maintain the island. therefore done. here for yours where they. come from.