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side effects may include headache, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. if you have persistent diarrhea, contact your doctor right away. other serious stomach conditions may exist. avoid if you take clopidogrel. nexium 40 mg is only available by prescription. talk to your doctor. for free home delivery, enroll in nexium direct today. hello. you're watching "gmt" on "bbc world news." the ukrainian president says an agreement over a cease-fire has been reached with russia, but the kremlin says they agreed on nothing more than a process to peace. we'll ask where this leads the deteriorating situation in eastern ukraine. amid all that, president obama arrives right on russia's doorstep in estonia with reassurance that nato states have america's full support. >> because we stood together, russia is paying a heavy price for its actions.
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and nato is poised to do more to help ukraine strengthen its forces and defend their country. >> the united states confirms a video showing the killing of a second american journalist by islamic state militants is genuine. also, in the program, marion looks at what is happening in business and talk of a cease-fire in crew jane hukrain affected russian markets. >> russian shares have surged off the talk of a cease-fire emerged from ukraine. we take a closer look at what the latest developments there mean for russia's financial markets. hello. 12:00 noon in london, 7:00 a.m. in washington, 2:00 p.m. in kiev where ukraine's president petro poroshenko says he reached an agreement with the russian president for a cease-fire process in the east of ukraine. but a spokesman said russia is
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not part of the conflict and so couldn't agree a cease-fire. but said steps towards peace have been discussed. now, this all happened as president obama arrived in the estonia capital of tallinn where he said the baltic states, that they can count on nato's protection against potential russian aggression. estonia is a nato member. the country's president asked the organization to establish a permanent base there. president obama said the world needs to stand behind ukraine and its economy. here what he had to say about the ongoing crisis and that reported cease-fire a short time ago. >> it is too early to tell what the cease-fire -- the cease-fire means. we haven't seen any details, we just have seen a couple of wire reports. we have consistently supported the effort of president poroshenko to achieve a meaningful cease-fire that could lead to a political settlement of the conflict.
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so far it hasn't helped. either because russia has not been serious about it, or has pretended it is not controlling the separatists, and the separatists, when they thought it was to their advantage, have not abided by the cease-fire. so we have not seen a lot of follow-up on so-called announced cease-fires. having said that, if in fact russia is prepared to stop financing, arming, training, in many cases joining with russian troops, activities in ukraine, and serious about a political settlement, that is something we all hope for. i've said consistently our preference is a strong, productive cooperative russia. but the way to achieve that is
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by abiding to international norms. >> we're going to be live in tallinn in a few minutes for more of president obama's comments. let's try to work out what is happening with that supposed cease-fire agreement. david stern in kiev for us, steve rosenberg in moscow. steve, cease-fire not a cease-fire. any more clarity on what the two presidents may have said to each other? >> not really. not for first time we're left scratching our heads really trying to interpret some of the statements coming out of moscow and kiev. this all started earlier this morning when the kremlin announced there had bp a telephone conversation between president putin and president poroshenko and the president said the viewpoints coincide greatly on how to solve the crisis. there was no talk of a cease-fire. then we heard the announcement by president poroshenko in kiev of an agreement on a permanent
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cease-fire and mutual understanding of peace. then we heard again from the kremlin saying, well, russia couldn't have agreed to a cease-fire because russia is not a party to this conflict, despite all the evidence in recent weeks, but russia is in some way involved and evidence of increasing russian military activity across the border. then, the word permanent seemed to disappear from the original statement of president poroshenko, on the presidential website. really, we're none the wiser about what all of this may mean for the situation on the ground. >> once again, we heard president obama repeating his accusation that russia is directly involved. this time doing it from estonia, right on russia's doorstep. >> that's right. i don't think there is anything that president obama said today in tallinn that would make president putin change his course. the russians heard all of this before. the united states has long been
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accusing moscow of sponsoring, funding, arming separatists rebels in eastern ukraine and of being involved militarily, directly in the conflict there, so i think nothing that was said today will actually make the kremlin change its policy. >> david stern in kiev. david, whatever was said definitively in that conversation between president putin and poroshenko, the two are actually still talking. >> exactly. and what should be said is there is positive, there seemed to be positive movement from at least confirmed from both sides. maybe not as positive as we were originally led to believe, but the two say that they are talking about peace. but remains to be seen what the reaction to the confusion will be if there is going to be some back and forth about who exactly said what, and why they came out with these statements. but as i say, the two presidents are talking about this, the
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russians publicly saying that they are not party to the conflict, but who knows what is being said when the two men speak by telephone. it also remains to be seen exactly what will come out of the conversation, which the two sides both thought necessary to talk about. >> with all the talk about what is going on in eastern ukraine, just remind us of what the latest picture is. we had shocking numbers coming out in the last couple of days, the people affected by the fighting. >> that's exactly right. there seems to be heavy casualties among the ukrainian forces, apparently among the rebel forces as reported and especially among civilians. the fighting continues, we have been seeing major fighting in luhansk, one of the cities in and around donetsk. the main city there. and, of course, people are still watching carefully what is going to happen in the city that is held by government forces, the one main city that is held by the government, which is now being moved in on by the rebel
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forces who say they're going to launch an attack. and it is the expectation that if the rebels do try to take mario mariopol, it could be a bloody battle indeed. >> steve in moscow, we heard talk of russia potentially re writing, changing the military doctrine. what would that mean? >> the russians started talking about this yesterday, saying that because of new threats to their country, it was necessary to update the current military doctrine, which i think was put together back in 2010. essentially, i think, it would mean making much clearer the russians' enemy today was the united states and nato. we heard this from a number of military officials over the last couple of days. so russia is expected to update this doctrine by the end of the year. moscow also announced today that there would be a new series of military exercises involving strategic nuclear forces later
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this month. so all of this coming on the eve of the nato summit in wales. >> steve, thanks very much. steve rosenberg in moscow. david stern in kiev. let's talk to our correspondent chris morris who in the estonian capital tallinn where president obama spoke earlier. we'll be speaking later on wednesday. chris, what was president obama getting at when he talked about complacency in europe about nato? >> it has been a long running cause for concern in washington that some european countries haven't been spending enough on defense and haven't been playing their role in keeping nato ready for any eventuality. i think that's something we shared here in eastern europe towards the borders with russia, estonia is one of those few nato countries that lives up to the nato pledge of spending 2% of gdp on defense. and in helping nato be ready. so that's one thing i think which will be a continuing conversation.
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but the president's main message is really political, i think. he said there has to be -- we have to make sure we continue to impose costs on russia as long as it continues to violate international law. and at the same time, we have to step up our readiness, which is why he announced that he was hoping to send further air force units in the u.s. air force to the baltics, possibly some of them based here in estonia. >> the estonian president has been very specific he would like to see a permanent nato base inside estonia. how realistic might that be as a prospect? >> at the moment, not that realistic. there are those who say very clearly that it would violate previous treaty commitments made between nato and russia. but as you heard from steve rosenberg, nato is -- russia is reviewing its relationship with nato and its military doctrine. and it is very clear from president he thinks nato should be doing the same, that the
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circumstances have changed, president obama agreed with that, but clearly the relationship between nato and russia has changed. but i think at the moment there is sufficient doubt within nato about permanent basing of forces here to mean that's not going to happen in the short-term. what we will see though and what has been clear from the nato secretary-general and rasmussen and others is there will be more troops rotated through eastern europe, more visible nato presence. just to make the point that, of course, unlike ukraine, these are countries that are in nato, in an alliance which relies on mutual defense and there is a determination to defend them if they become the subject of russian aggression. >> this crisis in ukraine, what it has done, it turned a regular nato summit thursday in wales. it has become a focus of the whole reason for nato existing, being questioned all over again. >> well, you know, in terms of
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nato drawing down from afghanistan, there were questions, what is nato for anymore. i think the crisis in ukraine brought it back to its roots, if you like, and made a lot of people perhaps further west realize what people in eastern europe have been saying for a long time, that the threat from russia potentially is very real. president obama went out of his way to say, look, we want a strong productive relationship with russia. we would welcome moves towards that. he said what we have been seeing over the last few months is aggression, and appeals to nationalism which are a serious cause for concern. >> chris, thank you very much, chris morris in tallinn, in estonia. we'll be back later in this program. let's bring you other news now because russia's state owned news agency says one of its photojournalists has died in eastern ukraine. andrei stenin went missing in early august. his body was recovered from a burned out car and is now being formally identified. it is thought he was following a
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refugee convoy which then came under attack by the ukrainian army. rival pakistani politicians have been meeting. they have been trying to find a solution to end weeks of protests against prime minister nawaz sharif. a few hundred people are still camped outside parliament in the red zone area in the center of the capital islamabad. mr. sharif refused to step down while protest leaders rejected his calls to come to the negotiating table. the tech giant apple has confirmed that some icloud accounts were broken into. the company says the hackers may have worked out the victims' log-in identification. statement follows the online lease of nude pictures of around 20 celebrities including the actress jennifer lawrence. stay with us here on "bbc world news." still to come, 100 days as india's prime minister arrives with a massive mandate, but has modi delivered any promises?
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islamic state in iraq are having an effect in blunting the group's momentum. he was speaking in response to the release of a video by the militant group showing the beheading of a second american journalist. the u.s. confirmed the video is genuine. steven sotloff was kidnapped in syria a year ago. islamic state says it has now killed the journalist in retaliation over american air strikes. here in britain, the prime minister david cameron condemned the killing as sickening and brutal and said the uk would never give in to terrorism. earlier today, he chaired a meeting at the government's emergency committee after the islamic state threatened to kill a british hostage they're holding. president obama says it will take time to degrade and destroy the group. he also expressed his condolences to the family of steven sotloff.
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>> like jim foley before him, steve's life stood in sharp contrast to those who murdered him so brutally. they make the absurd claim that they kill in the name of religion, but it was steven, his friends say, who deeply loved the islamic world. as killers try to claim that they defend the oppressed, but it was steven who traveled across the middle east risking his life to tell the story of muslim men and women demanding justice and dignity. whatever these murderers think they'll achieve by killing innocent americans like steven, they have already failed. they failed because like people around the world, americans are repulsed by their barbarism. we will not be intimidated, their horrific acts only unite us as a country and stiffen our resolve to take the fight against these terrorists. and those who make the mistake of harming americans will learn that we will not forget and that
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our reach is long and that justice will be served. >> let's get more on the u.s. response, security correspondent gordon herrera from the newsroom. what more do we know about this horrific video that has come only a few days after the one showing the beheading of another u.s. joir.s. journalist. >> the u.s. said they believe the video is authentic and it looks very similar to that of james foley, the man who was apparently the killer looks and sounds to be the same, someone with a southern british accent. and so it is clearly part of this propaganda campaign by islamic state to try to put pressure on the united states and also britain now with a british hostage there, to try and change its policy, to try and pressure public opinion. and the horrific video may not be the last, but it is certainly the second very similar one to the one we saw of james foley. >> and the word from islamic
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state, for the reasons for the release of this video and the killing of this journalist was american air strikes. >> that's right. it is interesting because it does suggest that they are hurt by those american air strikes. they reference in the video to american air strikes, amerli and the mosul dam where the u.s. has been hitting islamic state groups who are operating in those areas. and destroying them. and so clearly that may well be having some kind of impact on the battlefield and to the extent that islamic state is trying to stop that by using these hostages as propaganda tools to try and change that policy. but there is no sign and i think it is unlikely to be any sign that the u.s. or the uk will change their policy in that way as a result of these videos. the debate in london and washington is if anything to take more action in the u.s., whether to take action inside syria against the group, in the uk, whether to join the u.s. in carrying out air strikes in iraq. >> i suppose, gordon, the
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publicity, the shock value of just killing one person in these circumstances, of huge value. >> yes, it is important to say that islamic state is killing hundreds of people and killed many people in very brutal ways in iraq. many muslims in iraq and syria. but it understands the value of propaganda and it has been using propaganda and the media very carefully throughout its campaign, militarily. it used it to spread fear, ahead of it military advances in iraq and to spread fear about the tactics. and it is using a similar tactic here with the videos, to try and use fear and the violence of these videos to try and affect an outcome that it wants. >> gordon, how unusual is the use of journalists and hostages being executed like this. we have seen many hostages through the years, the last decade or so, on camera being killed. but what about journalists? >> well, you're right that we have seen similar use of
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hostages in the past, even in iraq. worth going back to ten years when you had a series of hostage videos, nick berg, ken bigley, people held in iraq, captured in these places and who ended up being killed after making very similar statements that they had been coerced into doing on camera. so the use of hostages in iraq is certainly not new by groups operating there. i think perhaps what is different is the media environment has changed, perhaps more journalists there who might be captured rather than contractors and others. and also the ability of these groups to get their message out, get their propaganda out in different ways has also changed because of some of the developments in terms of social media and the like. though there are attempts to restrict that flow of propaganda as well. >> gordon, thanks very much. the british nurse who contracted the ebola virus in sierra leone left hospital
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today. william pooley is the first briton known to have caught ebola. he says he feels lucky to have sur siph viv survived. india's new prime minister narendra modi completed 100 days in office. the right wing nationist leader with threat to power in in a with the largest mandate in three decades. powerful speaker who loved using social media, mr. modi had promised to bring good days to india during his campaign. bbc reports. >> reporter: india's new leaders and drive to attract foreign investment in the indian economy. his meeting with the japanese leadership, one of a series of high profile engagements as he attempts to put india back on the global map.
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large numbers of indians support modi, but the massive mandate brought huge expectations. how does mr. modi perform in the first 100 days. here are some key issues ♪ india's economy is growing agaiagain at the fastest in two years. there is a buzz in the marketplace which is good news. demand for the saris have picked up after years of stagnation. >> there has been a positive shift. the willpower has moved. we have seen a lot of people working in. >> reporter: women safety has been a key concern after an increase in sex crimes. mr. modi used a key speech to
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press for changing social attitudes. >> translator: so many restrictions on the daughters, questioning them about where they are going, who their friends are, but do you dare ask your sons the same question? after all, the person committing the rape is also someone's son. >> reporter: it started with a diplomatic call. an ice breaking handshake, mr. modi invited pakistan's leader nawaz sharif to his inauguration. three months later, relations between the two rivals back on familiar ground. hostilities along the border, differences over kashmir, followed by india, calling off peace talks. >> he hasn't deviated from the script, hindu nationalist trip where we are not going to meet you as equals.
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and we're not going to be realized. >> reporter: critics allege there has been growing religious tension since the new government took over. and it is ignoring the plight of muslims living in refugee camps. there are fears that under mr. modi, an unabashed internationalist, india is becoming less tolerant. bbc news, delhi. let's remind you of the main news. ukraine's president says he has reached an agreement with president putin for a cease-fire process in eastern ukraine, but as our moscow correspondent steve rosenberg has been stelling me on this program, we're still skrachg ocratching s trying to interpret what that might mean. the kremlin released a statement saying they can't agree to an actual cease-fire in ukraine because they're not involved in the conflict. they did, however, say they have agreed on a peace process. we'll try to decode that a bit
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more. coming up on "gmt," we'll be live in tallinn, getting the thoughts of estonia's minister of defense. stay with us. if you want to get in touch with us at "bbc world news," you can do with it by social media media, @karingiannone on twitter. (daughter) i'm really tired. (vo) the transfers. well, that's kid number three. (vo) the co-pilots. all sitting... ...trusting... ...waiting... ...for a safe arrival. introducing the all-new subaru legacy. designed to help the driver in you... ...care for the passenger in them. the subaru legacy. it's not just a sedan. it's a subaru. the last four hours have seen... one child fail to get to the air sickness bag in time. another left his shoes on the plane... his shoes!
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in this half hour, president obama is in estonia, a nato member on russia's border with reassurances the u.s. stands behind its allies, i'll be speaking to estonia's defense minister. do you recognize this language? probably not. because new research says endangered languages are dying out faster in richer countries. also in the program, marion looks at what is happening in business and changes at the top
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of japan's government. >> yes. fighting for survival, the japanese economy slows, prime minister abe unveils his new cabinet which he hopes will re-energize the economic and security agenda. >> ukraine's president petro poroshenko says he's reached an agreement with the russian president for a cease-fire process in the east of ukraine, but the spokesman for the russian president said russia is not part of the conflict, so couldn't agree a cease-fire. he said that steps towards peace have been discussed, though. it all happens as president obama arrives in the estonian capital tallinn where he's reassured the baltic states that they can council nato's protection against potential russian aggression. estonia is a nato member, and the country's president has asked the organization to
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establish a permanent base there. with me now from tallinn is estonia's minister of defense, sven mixer. thank you for joining us. may i ask why your president wants a permanent nato base in estonia? what do you see as the major threat and why? >> well, if the ongoing crisis in and around ukraine taught us anything, it has taught us that in today's world, in the changing security environment, crisis can strike unexpectedly, a warning time ahead of the crisis -- of a crisis has been reduced to virtually zero. so now i think that we need presence on the ground in the eastern most -- we need assets and we need good adequate plans backed up with sufficient resources, sufficient finances. >> some may be wondering why you are so determined that nato should have a base there in your
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country when there hasn't been any suggestion that russia has any intension of invading or threatening estonia. >> well, we have seen putin having some success with making the troops more deplorable. he's been able to move around his assets quite quickly sometimes under the disguise of snap exercises. so i think we need strong reassurance for estonia, but we need strong credible deterrent. we have full confidence, we want putin and his regime to be convinced that -- strong that allies are going to do what it takes to perfect and defend each and every ally. >> but couldn't that be seen as a potentially counterproductive step and be seen as an act of provocation by russia? >> well, i think quite the
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opposite. i think when you're dealing with a regime like putin's, weakness can be much more provocative than strength. when putin sees the allies strong and united, he can be deterred. when and if he sees that we are divided, that we appear indecisive and weak, i think he will sense an opportunity and russia to fill the vacuum. i think that in order not to provoke putin, we need to be strong and be strong. >> president obama has come to show support to your country, reassuring you that an attack on one country in nato is an attack on all of its members. if it really came to it, do you believe the people in the uk and america, for example, would accept their soldiers going to war with russia, potentially over your country? >> absolutely. i have no doubt whatsoever that it is rock solid, all the leaders in western europe and north america understand that if
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one of the allies were to lose a piece of the territory to an aggressor, that would mean the end of the alliance, the end of the current -- in the world. i have full confidence, however, i think we need to do everything we can to avoid or are prevent an event that would trigger article five. and i think strong credibility -- is the way to do it. >> what do you want to see coming out of the nato summit taking place on thursday in wales? >> well, i do hope that the summit will address the fundamentally changed security situation because this is not a short time, a long time change, and we need to re-adjust, we need to think of the presence of assets on the ground on the eastern most frontier states, we
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need to address the assets to address the capability gaps that exist in those particular countries, nations, and we need to update our trends so as to be able to respond to the challenges in this changing environment. >> sven mixer, thank you very much for being on the program. let's get more from moscow with ben judah, also written a book about vladimir putin. thank you very much. you've written an article saying the world needs to be honest with ukraine. what you to mean? >> for the past month, what was clear is that poroshenko was attempting to solidify his presidency and the revolution that is taking place in kiev, a revolution based on the aspirations of becoming the new estonia, the large one of joining the eu are of joining nato, of saying good-bye to putin's clutches and all of the lattice work of corruption and
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organized crime that means. and destroy a russian backed and lar largely -- on the east of the country, around donetsk and luhansk. and the west was largely letting this happen. west was not being honest toward poroshenko, not being honest toward poroshenko because it knew the moment that vladimir putin decided to commit russian forces to protect this rebellion, the west was faced with two choices. one of which was to either arm ukraine, the other was to tell ukraine to surrender this territory, creating what is called a frozen conflict. what it really means is the zone of russian occupation inside your country, which excludes you from ever joining nato and probably also the eu. >> what do you think when you hear estonia wants a military
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base of nato right there in their own country, given what president putin's reaction has been to nato being on russia's doorstep in the past, what would the response be? would that have a calming effect or would it have an exacerbating effect? >> well, we have to realize that -- we got to realize that when you talk about russians and talk about vladimir putin, a very big difference. so every year in moscow there is a nationalist march, called the march. and for the previous ten years, this march, very big, nationalist, has never called for the annexation of donbass or invasion of ukraine. this march has been about expelling illegal immigrants and we don't like people -- and we don't like muslims. this is never an issue until putin, through russian state tv and propaganda, created this issue. what it is like being in moscow
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right now is seeing how alarming it is, how large waves of the russian public have been -- 50% brainwashed and 50% horrified by seeing people in eastern ukraine who look like them, sound like them, and could easily have been them, being shelled into believing that russia is on the cusp of potentially a full conflict with the west. >> you've written a book on vladimir putin. what is going on in his head, do you believe ? >> that's a very interesting question. i'm a putinologist and what i like to be very clear with you is that what is so terrifying about moscow, about studying the kremlin, about russia, is that we don't know who vladimir putin is, like you can interview everyone you can from ministers downwards, and we really don't know. there is a kind of -- there is a mystery around him, there is an
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uncertainty, and that's why it is so scary. i think a lot of these attempts to psychologyize putin are trying to make him less frightening by saying, he must be an heir, maybe a conservative that we know what that means or maybe a nationalist. in fact, putin has been many different people, he's been very erratic. there are certain tendencies that we have seen over the past 14 years that conflicted by others. and we need to admit we're just not sure and that's why it is scary. >> ben judah, thank you very much. we have a special program on the situation in ukraine later here on bbc world news. the we'll get the latest from inside the country and a look back at how the conflict escalated. we'll also analyze russia's potential aid and the role of nato and the eu. that will be at 1500 gmt on "bbc world news." stay with us here on "gmt."
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you're watching "gmt" on "bbc world news." our main story, ukraine's president petro poroshenko said he agreed with russia's president vladimir putin on a process that would lead to a cease-fire, but russia says there never was any agreement. it comes as president obama arrives in estonia with an assurance that the baltic states have america's full support.
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we have been talking about russia a lot on this program. marion is here on how russian markets have reacted to the latest news from ukraine. >> absolutely. a huge reaction from the russian markets. let's look at the details. russian shares have soared and the value of the ruble has surged. thanks to that announcement to the permanent cease-fire in eastern ukraine. it came after president of ukraine said he reached a deal with president putin of russia. well that initial optimism was spoiled by an announcement from the kremlin that it hasn't agreed to any cease-fire and no indication so far that the forces in eastern ukraine have stopped fighting. >> reporter: just as the conflict in eastern ukraine and western sanctions caused financial markets in moscow to tumble over the summer, the announcement from ukraine's president of a cease-fire deal caused an immediate rally. shares on the exchange rose by nearly 3% in early morning trading. the value of the ruble, which had recently been plunging
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against the dollar, rose by 1.3%. but the optimism of the market is mixed. there is no indication so far that the pro russian separatists in eastern ukraine have in fact laid down their arms. financial analysts say because of the uncertainty around the cease-fire announcement, russian financial markets are unlikely to rally much further. jeremy howell, bbc news. >> moving on, the japanese prime minister shinzo abe announced a reshuffle of his cabinet. mr. abe promoted five new women, but the most senior seats in his cabinet remain unchanged. mr. abe enjoyed sky high public support when he came to power in december 2012, with his approval rating rising to 76% as its economic plan showed signs of early success.
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however, his three arrows economic policy, which involved massive monetary easing, spending and reform, appears to be faltering with no obvious solutions in sight. that send his approval rating to below 50%. is this all too little, too late and will the promotions settle tensions within his political party? well, let's talk about this latest move. how difficult has it been for prime minister abe to know what to do now that things started to go a little bit awry. >> i think what he's trying to do is sustain conservatism by employing quite a lot of conventional solid politicians as you just reported. but also gaining momentum by actually putting in five new cabinet members, women cabinet members, trying to basically prove his point, which is utilizing women in the workforce. so i think trying to kill two birds with one stone and
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basically i think he's looking for elections that are due in october in fukushima and okinawa in november, but particularly to the new regional elections coming up next spring. and that is right after possibly the increase of another set of atabs that will be conducted in october of 2015. >> looking at pictures of those women, new women cabinet members. what are the main economic issues that he has to get his head around right now in japan? >> it has been a very big disappointment on his first reform announcement. so in the second one, he's learned his lesson and basically promised tax cuts and also change of allocation of government pensions. and particularly introduction of code. all targeted very much to the equity markets and market as a hole. basically he has promised and now he has to deliver. what the market is waiting for is delivery of these things in addition to the fact that the
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comeback should take place in the second half of this year. >> good to talk to you. thank you very much indeed. now, the world's poorest countries are deprived of $1 trillion each every year through corruption. that's according to new research. analysis by the one campaign says it set out to expose the true cost of international corruption on developing countries including deals for natural resources, the use of anonymous shell companies, money laundering, and illegal tax evasion. well, let's turn to adrian robert, europe executive director at the one campaign. spell out what exactly or how are countries being affected by corruption on a daily basis? >> they're affected in a number of ways. first of all, we have these shell companies that are incredibly secretive, very hard to know who owns them, but home to a huge amount of money that has come out of developing countries and often finances illegal activity. secondly, you can look at deals
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that are done for oil and mining, dwgas companies, to hav the right to drill for oil. often the payments made by those companies are very hard to get into the public domain, so ordinary people don't know how much is being transferred to their government and aren't able to follow that money. a number of ways that we have seen that this kind of corruption and crime is affecting the countries. the key is the difference that makes in human terms. we estimate if that trillion dollars a year that is being lost by the countries could be instead focused on health care, for example, then you could save about 3.6 million lives every year. and make a huge step towards overcoming extreme poverty. >> what can be done to combat corruption in countries where unfortunately in many cases one has to admit corruption is engrained in that society. >> well, we need action on a number of levels, within those countries themselves, a job to do, countries that are making
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big progress on that, tanzania, for example, invested in the tax systems, and its capacity there has increased its tax revenues by about 17% a year over about a 10 or 12 year period. but what we're also really focused on with this report is the role that world leaders have to play, the g-20 leaders in particular, will come together in australia, in november. now, there is a big set of things that they can do to crack down, first of all, on the secretive phantom firms and make sure the ownership of those firms is made public to ensure that those big oil and gas companies publish what they pay to countries in order to drill and to mine. and if we do those things, a number of other steps that the g-20 could take, then in fact it will be a whole lot easier to make those changes in the countries concerned as well. it needs action within the developing countries and outside. >> okay, adrian lovett, good to talk to you. thank you for coming on to our program. that is the roundup of all the latest business for me. back to you. >> marion, thank you for now.
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see you later. now, new research into the extinction of languages has reeled economic development is playing a role. researchers from cambridge found that parts of north america, europe and australia are now becoming what they described as language extinction hot spots. scientists suggest one solution could be putting a language at the center of a nation's cultural life, in this case wales. uk is no stranger to pretty diverse languages. see if you can understand any of these three. ♪
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>> well, i wonder if you guessed any of those. with me, rebecca morell. why does economics make such a difference? >> very interesting this study. i think most people think about language extinction, there are been 6,500 languages in the world, you think about maybe sort of minority languages in rain forests and obscure places zp disappearing. but what they wanted to do was try to get to grips to where the loss was happening. and the result was a surprise. it is the most developed parts of the world where languages are disappearing the fastest. so the better country is doing economically, the more likely it is for languages to disappear. alaska, for example, there is a language which only has 25 speakers left. one in north america where there is only one speaker left. and europe too is losing
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languages and australia also. and the link has been economics. >> what happens? i suppose it is almost obvious, isn't it, that people go into a globalized modern society, they lose those langz, they adopt the main language everyone else is speaking. >> exactly. when you think about it, actually, it kind of makes sense in a country where you've got one educational system, for example, one government for people to adopt the main national language rather than to carry on with their traditional language, you know, in a place that isn't particularly joined up. and what is quite interesting about this, though, is it highlights places where future languages might be at threat. so they essentially highlight the himalayas. the tropics, they say too. and rapid economic growth in these regions make them the next hot spot, for the disappearance of these traditional tongues.
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>> wales and welsh is a very interesting case. explain what the government has done to sort of reverse the decline. >> this is interesting. the scientists say we need to focus on the developed parts of the world. and what else is an interesting case because the language was in decline, but making it compulsory on the school curriculum, and having welsh, i think making it part of -- a central part of cultural life there, male welsh voice choirs, beautiful singing in welsh, i think that can really help to halt the decline. i think in wales, the decline has sort of stabilized. there is still some worries it will vanish eventually, but there are examples of ways you can preserve a language. and it is important to keep hold of them. >> that's interesting because scientists are saying it is important. others might say why do we need
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to hold on to them. this is a sign of the times that things are moving on. >> i think with language, if you look at over to the longer term, languages change, evolve. that's part of their natural path the language takes, with globalization it does look like languages are going extinct faster than ever. they do have an important part of cultural heritage, so, you can't stop it from dying out, perhaps you can at least have a record of it written down or recording. the languages, you can't find a recording anywhere. it is really hard to track down a recording. and if that person is speaking that language. if you can't say it forever, at least you can preserve them in the historical record. >> thank you very much. let's remind you what our top story is this hour on "gmt." ukraine's president said he reached an agreement with the russian president for a cease-fire process in the east of ukraine, but a spoeftmkesmand
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russia isn't part of the conflict, so it couldn't agree to a cease-fire. it all happened as president obama arrived in the estonian capital of tallinn where he assured baltic states they can count on nato. want to get in touch on twitter, i'm @karinbbc.
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