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tv   Africas Population Explosion  BBC News  September 1, 2017 9:30pm-10:01pm BST

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this is bbc news. the headlines: kenya's president said he would respect a supreme court decision of overturning the recent election result. they want an investigation into the conduct of the international observers who validated the vote. gas has suspended nine workers at an immigration removal centre for allegedly abusing detainees. it follows a bbc investigation claiming officers mocked and assorted people. european football's governing body is inspecting the record signing of neymar the psg. the world's most powerful x—ray laser has been switched on in hamburg. it cost more than $1 billion and will be used to make fundamental discoveries about the nature of matter at the atomic level. clive myrie will be here at ten o'clock with a full round—up of
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today's news. first, africa is in the midst of a baby boom. alistair lees had to investigate in africa's population explosion. the population of africa is set to double by the year 2050. the 2.5 billion people. —— to 2.5 billion people. the young are moving from the countryside to the towns. u nfortu nately for unfortunately for us, in the last two, three years it's been a deluge. but many end up in slums and cities are struggling to cope. an industrial revolution could
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transform african countries and lift millions out of poverty. every year it grows, 20 millionjobs per year over the coming decades. but i don't use could mean millions more migrants and drive many into the hands of islamist extremists. and thatis hands of islamist extremists. and that is everyone's problem. there is nowhere in the world where women have more children. half the girls here are married by 15. so it isn't surprising that children have children. we are on the fringe of the sahara
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desert, not farfrom we are on the fringe of the sahara desert, not far from nigeria's northern border. niger is one of the world —class northern border. niger is one of the world—class microporous countries. it is mostly agricultural. the average number of children born a woman is 7.6. and here it is even higher than that, so the government and aid agencies are trying to do something about it. tucked away, out of earshot, girls as young as ten talk about topics many adults here consider taboo. family planning, contraception, early marriage, and even forced marriage. three older girls take the lead. the
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aid workers who have trained them call this the safe space class. this woman is 27 and has four children. translation: one of the things we are teaching the girls here is about early marriage and the consequences of having children before they are 18. during the delivery a girl can lose her life, or the child could die. before this programme, women had many children, but with the coming of this programme the number of children is really reducing. who decides how many children you should have? translation: my husband, he decides that. and that's the crux of it, the husband decide. and so they started a husbands school.
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translation: if you give your daughter away at 12 it could be a disaster. the conversation isjust as open on this side of the village. translation: having fewer children helped the woman to be able to breast—feed properly. translation: before we learned from this programme many of our kids were not healthy, but now we don't have a problem. this man is 27, he is one of the more enthusiastic converts to the fewer kids philosophy. he and his wife have three children. translation: i come from a big family. my father has three wives. i have about 16 siblings. i'm not sure how many we are, but i think we are 16. the idea that more children means more hands to help on the farm doesn't ring true with him any more.
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translation: know, if someone has ten children, only three, four of them are healthy, so it's better to have four, that is better for work in the field. truly, there is a problem here with having too many children. but now we have been the husband school we know more. we can have a child, and wait for a while before having the next one. even if some people do change their mind and decide to have fewer babies, the dramatic growth in population will ta ke dramatic growth in population will take a long time to slow down. by 2050 the number of people in niger will triple the 21 million here today. traditions are hard to shift and the culture is to have many, many children. but this is the way to do it. show them what the options are ata to do it. show them what the options are at a mobile clinic. another case of tackling taboo four head on. and
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from the crowd, a woman decides to have a three—year contraception implant in front of everyone, saying she has had three kids and she is happy with that for now. translation: i decided to do it in front of everybody so they can see how it is done. because before there we re how it is done. because before there were rumours that while doing it it hurts. and they see themselves today that it does not hurt at all. and it did persuade a few sceptics. this woman said her husband had given her permission, in fact it was his idea, he is educated, she told me, and he heard them talking about it in husbands school. they are small steps towards bringing the birth rate down. this population explosion matters. across africa, but more so in niger, all of these young people area in niger, all of these young people are a bonus if the country is on the rise but can also be a burden. translation: the immediate
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consequences of having such a high birth rate is that it is impossible to feed, educate, and care for all of these children in the short term. in the long—term the very survival of the country is threatened unless we ta ke of the country is threatened unless we take this window of opportunity to make the most this youth dividend. it could encourage things like terrorism and immigration. there are fewjobs in the countryside. 0n there are fewjobs in the countryside. on both sides of this border between northern nigeria and niger boko haram recruit idle youth. those who can hit the big urban areas. from here we followed one man who has left to make it big in lagos. his family are talking about
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the son and brother, the husband and father, who left his wife and one—year—old boy behind. translation: we don't have money to eat, so we had to send him to look for money. he send around $100 every 110w for money. he send around $100 every now and again which they use for the farm, food, and clothes. it is quite a contrast, moving from a village of 7000 people to africa's largest city. this was not quite what he had in mind, but optimism is emblazoned across his chest. translation: i don't have it easy. but i realised how much hard it was to get work. but you can'tjust but i realised how much hard it was to get work. but you can't just sit here without a job. i wanted to buy and sell, to have a shop, and to make enough money to go back to school to get the rest of my education. every day thousands of
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people arriving lagos, africa's largest city, looking for the same thing, a new start in life. many end up thing, a new start in life. many end up in the slums, struggling to make a living. there have always been mixed blessings of having to deal with the influx of people. u nfortu nately for with the influx of people. unfortunately for us, in the last two, three years, it has been a deluge. we want the people to be here to bring ideas, values, and innovation. but we are onlyjust able to deal with it. this is what an african mega city looks like. it is crowded, chaotic, and crumbling. lagos is already struggling to howells, to look after, and to educate the way over 21 million people already living here. let alone the millions more predicted to crash into the city. —— struggling to house, to look after, and educate
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the way over 21 million people already living here. but with this worry also already living here. but with this woi’i’y also comes already living here. but with this worry also comes opportunity. this festival celebrates historic culture. in the overcrowded slums, masquerades represent the spirit of the dead, returned to cleanse the city of evil and pray for peace and prosperity. emerging from the rusted tin rubes is one answer to the prayers, building up. —— tin roofs. how are we going to accommodate all of the population? we must go up. this man has spent 25 years as an urban planner in los angeles. now he has brought his skills home. now that we are able to go vertically, we are able to reduce overcrowding.
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it gives the advantage of the air space, which has been lost. tower blocks are not a new idea and they are expensive, but lagos needs to renew without moving people out. one a nswer renew without moving people out. one answer is creative financing, till your private investment into affordable housing. —— to lure private investment. we can introduce some of the ideas i have brought from los angeles and see which ones are usable. this is the other way to deal with slums. this community was cleared in march, despite a court order protecting it. many people fear they will be next. a lot of communities will be under threat of eviction. about 1000 people will be rendered slowly if this action is carried out. two, three slums will
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rise up after this, because people need somewhere to sleep. there two main industries in the slums, fishing and dredging for building sand. but the beach is quiet. the people say the security forces came and smashed up the boats. translation: i am very angry. they destroyed my boat and my husband's boats. we have no money. we have had to withdraw the children from school. the state government cites security reasons and says people are never forcibly removed, but people here things it just never forcibly removed, but people here things itjust wants them out. all of these communities were demolished so that the rich would benefit from it. so, ifeel strongly that the state government is interested in the land, but we are not going to give in. the lagos
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government know that the waterfront community is expensive land. there are big plans for waterfront living. there is to be a manhattan style development. and there are other building projects. we are on the east end of the site. between here and there, we have the hotel... this man is developing a $100 million site. lagos has to balance a modern vision against its growing inequality. there will always remain the super—rich and the people just below the poverty line. the hope is that over the next few years you will see that gap bridged as more people getjobs. will see that gap bridged as more people get jobs. the only way to manage a massive, over growing mega— city is to invest in infrastructure, whether it be power lines, or rail
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lines. this will be nigeria's first—ever electrical light railway system. within ten years they want six of these lines crisscrossing the state, keeping lagos on the move. but the city is outgrowing efforts to house, employee, and serve its people. we are in an open age. people are going to keep coming. we have to find more creative ways to accommodate more people. climate change, drought, and a doubling population are already testing the continent's capacity to feed itself. and by 2050 a quarter of the world will be africans. farming needs to be much more productive. kenya is at the forefront of a big, international effort to create better plans that produce more crops
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in the harshest conditions. smallholder farmers here could easily produce four times as much food. this man is one of the guinea pigs. he has replaced most of his maize with a mixture of old—fashioned crops maize with a mixture of old —fashioned crops like maize with a mixture of old—fashioned crops like millet and peas, which put nutrients back into the soil. translation: these days we are getting less rain. when i applaud these crops i know i will have something. unlike with maize. millet and peas normally resist the drought. he's also been given new and improved plants, hybrids he is happy with. translation: these peas are bigger, they mature faster, and they can get two crops in a year, better than one. that is where the science comes m, one. that is where the science comes in, finding the best strains means crossbreeding hundreds of plants to isolate the traits they are looking for. we are trying to combine traits, characteristics from
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different plants into one, so we end up different plants into one, so we end up with a superior plant that is early maturing, high yielding, drought tolerant, and resistant to many pests and diseases. and as well as being highly nutritious. and this new dna profiling lab in nairobi makes that process a lot quicker. this machine tries to understand the differences in the populations of hundreds of crops. it isn't genetically modifying, but by sequencing varieties of 101 carefully chosen traditional african food crops they can go straight in to find the best performing strains. we have a random selection. we go for selecting only those types which contain the signatures of high yield and for drought tolerance. nutritionist have to get people excited about these crops in a place where maize is everything. so, the
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cooking school in rural kenya. —— to cooking school in rural kenya. —— to cooking school in rural kenya. these foods used to be staples in kenya. before colonialism brought maize along. they are more drought resista nt, along. they are more drought resistant, more nutritious, and pretty easy to rustle up into all sorts of meals. i have two... and this is the pigeon pea stew. the little bit of everything. very good. chuckles for young farmers —— four young farmers have been chosen to put them skills to the ultimate test... and the other thing is to persuade young people to stay on the farm. this reality tv show is kenya plus
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-- is this reality tv show is kenya plus —— is kenya's attempt to make farming scene cool. it is aimed particularly at millennials. it shows that farming is a business, that money can be made. it also helps older farmers up their output, making small holding more productive and profitable is one step towards growing enough food. but for the demographic dividend to be cashed in people need jobs. agricultural revolution is the precursor of the industrial revolution. here in ethiopian a grand plan. the first industrial park was built in addis ababa. but the biggest was just opened south of the capital in it has the fastest—growing economy, albeit from a low base, and it has become the darling of international investors. it is a phenomenal
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project... the architect of this new industrial revolution is meeting executives from some of the world's biggest textile companies. he built it and they came. ethiopian workers already have jobs making the fabric, putting the garments together. translation: the pay isn't great but it isn't just about translation: the pay isn't great but it isn'tjust about money, but about building a better future for me and the country. the big solution to the population explosion in ethiopian is putting its young people to work. they are building these vast industrial parks across the country, putting in infrastructure, training up putting in infrastructure, training upa putting in infrastructure, training up a workforce, and attracting foreign companies to make their shirts, skirts, suits, and socks here rather than in asia. as in much of africa, china has a hand in the expansion and sees echoes of its own dramatic growth. translation: why did we choose
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ethiopian? it has a stable political situation and a peaceful society. and it is the second biggest country in africa without a big population there is no market. there is a huge amount of building going on across ethiopian. scale and ambition is impressive. row after row, government built social housing. a new electric railway to whisk imports and exports between the capital and the coast. perhaps the most visible sign of ethiopian's growth is its airline. it has been dramatically expanding over the last ten years. it is government own. ethiopian airlines flies all over the world. what better advert for a country on the rise? we can learn from china that making investment in the long term in infrastructure is quite important. the population is
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growing by about 5%. we need to create close to 1 million jobs every year. this is a big challenge. manufacturing has a significant part injob creation. this provides an opportunity for what we call the demographic dividend. but without having a policy it will be difficult. aggressive policies in ethiopian mean a heavy hand. protests were crushed. a state of emergency hasjust protests were crushed. a state of emergency has just ended. there were questions about lack of freedoms and authoritarianism. building democracies that are sustaining means a lot of effort. we are going to put in a lot of effort despite theissues to put in a lot of effort despite the issues we have. ethiopian has also built a lot of universities, focusing now on engineering and technology rather than arts. but
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what about the dilemma? what is important, economic growth, or freedom of speech and democracy? it's not as if one is more important than the other, but definitely economic growth is a means to our democracy. it is a path for our democracy, a path forfreedom of speech. if there is the education in a country, and people are still hungry, what are they going to speak about? industrialisation isn't the only answer to africa's population explosion, but is already creating dividends for easier could's economy. if it gets the balance right it could to put a continent to work. in much of africa that is a big ask. in poor countries like niger it seems the economy won't come close to keeping up with population growth. in rich ones like nigeria it comes down to good thoughts and good actions. even if the speed and scale of urban growth offers its own set of challenges.
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this african population explosion is coming and its impact will be felt across the globe for good or for bad. as we step into the first weekend of september it is going to be a weekend of two pass. a fine start of the weekend with high—pressure sitting up towards the south and east. but things will change later in the weekend with the arrival of this system from the atlantic. saturday will shape up to be a fine day for most with lots of dry, sunny weather, and light winds. just a few isolated showers scattered here and there over parts of eastern england
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and southern wales. most places avoiding the showers. up to 21 degrees in the south—east feeling pleasant. high teens further north. things change saturday night. this area of rain and strengthening winds moves in from the west. some heavy rain at times across northern ireland, wales, the south—west of england, as well, but reasonably mild to start sunday with all of the cloud and wind around. the front moves in from the west on sunday. we still have this area of high—pressure sitting out near the —— sitting out at the near continent. patchy rain and strengthening winds moves in from the west. rain right to the central spine of the country. temperatures between 15 to 19 degrees. but frontal system tends to weaken as we move through sunday night and into monday. we still have the remnants ofa monday. we still have the remnants of a front. monday is a nondescript day. lots of cloud, some patchy drizzle, but it is towards the far
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north—west where we see more persistent rain working in again. this is a cold front bringing in wet and windy weather. across the rest of the uk we have mild conditions. brighter spells around, 22 degrees, so fairly mild. but we will start to see the cold front moving in once again from the north—west. heading on into tuesday, it is likely we will see that front bringing wet and windy conditions across parts of northern ireland and scotland. slowly edging south—east. the far south—east likely to stay dry and warm for a good part of the day. some uncertainty during the middle of the week about how quickly the cold front get out of the way. in the north atlantic we have two branches of the jet stream, one further north and one further south. how are they in the bag is going to affect how quickly that were different clears away. —— how they are going to interact is going to affect how quickly this all clears
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away. this could open the doors for an area of high pressure to build. that would bring a slightly quieter, drier, and brightest spell of weather during the middle of the week. but they may interact differently. the northern section of the jet stream could clear away to the jet stream could clear away to the north and we are left with a wea ker the north and we are left with a weaker branch, which would be slow in clearing away the initial cold front. and we are likely to see another area of low pressure pushing in from the north—west. a couple of scenarios in the middle of the week. by scenarios in the middle of the week. by the end of the week we are likely to see more unsettled weather across the north—west of the uk, some brighter and drier weather likely towards the south east. it's a rather unsettled outlook. there will be spells of rain in the forecast over the next ten days. brighter interludes. windy towards the north—west. unlikely to stay dry and warm in the south—east. we will keep you up—to—date throughout weekend. goodbye. —— the rout of the weekend.
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tonight at 10:00pm, the security firm gas suspends nine workers, over claims detainees had been abused at an immigration removal centre. the panorama programme went undercover at the facility near gatwick airport. officers are alleged to have mocked and assaulted those they were watching over. i'm absolutely disgusted by the alleged behaviour. it's totally unacceptable to me, to the organisation, to anyone else who would work in this kind of location. in this kind of vocation. tonight a home office official, who used to work for gas, has also been suspended. we'll have the latest. also on the programme...
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