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tv   Africas Population Explosion  BBC News  September 2, 2017 9:30pm-10:01pm BST

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this is bbc world news. flooding in south asia has left more than 45 million displaced or homeless. more than m00 people have died across india, bangladesh than moo people have died across india, bangladesh and nepal after torrential and soon reigns. donald trump is visiting the areas hit by storm system harvey. he has promised to seek nearly $8 billion in federal aid to help flood victims. the un says nearly 60,000 people from the rohingya minority have crossed into bangladesh as they flee a military crackdown. the metropolitan police has paid compensation to the former head of the army, lord bramall, and the family of the late home secretary lord brittan, who were falsely accused of child sexual abuse. now it's time for a special programme. africa is in the midst of a baby boom — the median age across the continent is just 19. the bbc‘s africa correspondent, alastair leithead investigates — in africa's population explosion
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the population of africa is set to double by the year 2050. to 2.5 billion people. the young are moving from the countryside to the towns. unfortunately for us, in the last two, three years it's been a deluge. but many end up in slums and cities are struggling to cope. an industrial revolution could transform african countries and lift millions out of poverty. every year it grows, 20 millionjobs per year
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over the coming decades. but idil youth could mean millions more migrants and drive many into the hands of islamist extremists. and that is everyone‘s problem. there is nowhere in the world where women have more children. half the girls here are married by 15. so it isn't surprising that children have children. we are on the fringe of the sahara desert, not far from nigeria's northern border. niger is one of the world's
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poorest countries. it is mostly agricultural. the average number of children born a woman is 7.6. and zinder it is even higher than that, so the government and aid agencies are trying to do something about it. tucked away, out of earshot, girls as young as ten talk about topics many adults here consider taboo. family planning, contraception, early marriage, and even forced marriage. three older girls take the lead. the aid workers who have trained them call this the safe space class. this woman is 27 and has four children. translation: one of the things
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we are teaching the girls here is about early marriage and the consequences of having children before they are 18. during the delivery a girl can lose her life, or the child could die. before this programme, women had many children, but with the coming of this programme the number of children is really reducing. who decides how many children you should have? translation: my husband, he decides that. and that's the crux of it, the husbands decide. and so they started a husbands school. translation: if you give your daughter away at 12 it could be a disaster. the conversation is just as open on this side of the village.
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translation: having fewer children helps the woman to be able to breast—feed properly. translation: before we learned from this programme many of our kids were not healthy, but now we don't have a problem. this man is 27, he is one of the more enthusiastic converts to the fewer kids philosophy. he and his wife have three children. translation: i come from a big family. my father has three wives. i have about 16 siblings. i'm not sure how many we are, but i think we are 16. the idea that more children means more hands to help on the farm doesn't ring true with him any more. translation: no, if someone has ten children, only three, four of them are healthy, so it's better to have four, that is better
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for work in the field. truly, there is a problem here with having too many children. but now we have been to husband school we know more. we can have a child, and wait for a while before having the next one. even if some people do change their minds and decide to have fewer babies, the dramatic growth in population will take a long time to slow down. by 2050 the number of people in niger will triple the 21 million here today. the culture here is to have many, many children. traditions are hard to shift. but this is the way to do it. show them what the options are at a mobile clinic. another case of tackling taboos head on. and from the crowd, a woman decides to have a three—year contraception implant in front of everyone, saying she has had three kids and she is happy with that for now.
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translation: i decided to do it in front of everybody so they can see how it is done. because before there were rumours that while doing it it hurts. and they see themselves today that it does not hurt at all. and it did persuade a few sceptics. this woman said her husband had given her permission, in fact it was his idea, he is educated, she told me, and he heard them talking about it in husbands school. they are small steps towards bringing the birth rate down. this population explosion matters. across africa, but more so in niger, all of these young people are a bonus if the country is on the rise but can also be a burden. translation: the immediate consequences of having such a high birth rate is that it is impossible to feed, educate, and care for all of these children in the short term. in the long—term the very survival
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of the country is threatened unless we take this window of opportunity to make the most this youth dividend. it could threaten the survival of the country and encourage different things like terrorism and immigration. there are fewjobs in the countryside. and niger, boko haram recruit idle youth. those who can hit the big urban areas. from here we followed one man who has left to make it big in lagos. it isa it is a well trodden route from this quiet rural village to the city. his family are talking about the son and brother, the husband and father, who left his wife and one—year—old boy behind. translation: we don't have money to eat, so we had
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to send the boy to look for money. he sends around $100 every now and again which they use for the farm, food, and clothes. it is quite a contrast, moving from a village of 7000 people to africa's largest city. this was not quite what he had in mind, but optimism is emblazoned across his chest. translation: i don't have it easy. but i realised how much hard it was to get work. but you can't just sit here without a job. i wanted to buy and sell, to have a shop, and to make enough money to go back to school to get the rest of my education. every day thousands of people arriving lagos, africa's largest city, looking for the same thing, a new start in life. many end up in the slums, struggling to make a living. lagos has always had mixed
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blessings of having to deal with the influx of people. unfortunately for us, in the last two, three years, it has been a deluge. we want the people to be here to bring ideas, values, and innovation. but we are just unable to deal with it. this is what an african mega city looks like. it is crowded, chaotic, and crumbling. lagos is already struggling to house, to look after, and to educate the way over 21 million people already living here. let alone the millions more predicted to crash into the city. there is an incredible energy about the place. it is about tapping out and using creative thinking to turn it into an opportunity. the festival celebrates old lagos.
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masquerades represent the spirits of the dead, returned to cleanse the city of evil and pray for peace and prosperity. emerging from the rusted tin roofs is one answer to the prayers, building up. lagos has no choice but to go up. how are we going to accommodate all of the population? we have to go up. this man has spent 25 years as an urban planner in los angeles. now he has brought his skills home. now that we are able to go vertically, we are able to reduce overcrowding. it gives the advantage of the air space, which has been lost. tower blocks are not a new idea and they are expensive, but lagos needs to renew
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without moving people out. one answer is creative financing, to lure private investment into affordable housing. currently we are looking at different areas we can come up with to introduce some of the ideas that i have brought from los angeles and see which ones are applicable and usable here. this is the other way to deal with slums. this community was cleared in march, despite a court order protecting it. many people fear they will be next. a lot of communities will be under threat of eviction. about 1000 people will be rendered homeless if this action is carried out. if you demolish a slum, two or three
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will spring up because people need somewhere to sleep. there two main industries in the slums, fishing and dredging for building sand. but the beach is quiet. the people say the security forces came and smashed up the boats. translation: i am very angry. they destroyed my boat and my husband's boats. we have no money. we have had to withdraw the children from school. the state government cites security reasons and says people are never forcibly removed, but people here things it just wants them out. all of these communities were demolished so that the rich would benefit from it. so, i feel strongly that the state government is interested in the land, but we are not going to give in. the basic reason is land grabbing. the lagos government
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know that the waterfront community is prime land. there are big plans for waterfront living. there is to be a manhattan style development. and there are other building projects. we are on the east end of the site. between here and there, we have the hotel... this man is developing a $100 million site. lagos has to balance a modern vision against its growing inequality. there will always remain the super—rich and the people just below the poverty line. the hope is that over the next few years you will see that gap bridged as more people getjobs. the only way to manage a massive, over growing mega— city is to invest in infrastructure, whether it be power lines, or rail lines. this will be nigeria's first—ever electrical light railway system. within ten years they want six of these lines crisscrossing the state, keeping lagos on the move. but the city is outgrowing
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efforts to house, employ, and serve its people. we are in an urban age. people are going to keep coming. we have to find more creative ways to accommodate more people. climate change, drought, and a doubling population are already testing the continent's capacity to feed itself. and by 2050 a quarter of the world will be africans. farming needs to be much more productive. kenya is at the forefront of a big, international effort to create better plants that produce more crops in the harshest conditions. smallholder farmers here could easily produce four times as much food. this man is one of the guinea pigs.
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he has replaced most of his maize with a mixture of old—fashioned crops like millet and peas, which put nutrients back into the soil. translation: these days we are getting less rain. when i plant these crops i know i will have something. unlike with maize. millet and peas normally resist the drought. he's also been given new and improved plants, hybrids he is happy with. translation: these peas are bigger, they mature faster, and they can get two crops in a year, better than one. that is where the science comes in, finding the best strains means crossbreeding hundreds of plants to isolate the traits they are looking for. we are trying to combine traits, characteristics from different plants into one, so we end up with a superior plant that is early maturing, high yielding, drought tolerant, and resistant to many pests and diseases. and as well as being
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highly nutritious. and this new dna profiling lab in nairobi makes that process a lot quicker. this machine tries to understand the differences at dna level in the populations of 101 crops. it isn't genetically modifying, but by sequencing varieties of 101 carefully chosen traditional african food crops they can go straight in to find the best performing strains. we have a random selection. we go for selecting only those types which contain the signatures of high yield and for drought tolerance. then nutritionist have to get people excited about these crops in a place where maize is everything. so, to cooking school in rural kenya. these smart foods used to be staples in kenya.
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before colonialism brought maize along. they are more drought resistant, more nutritious, and pretty easy to rustle up into all sorts of meals. i have two... and this is the pigeon pea stew. the little bit of everything. very good. four young farmers have been chosen to put their skills to the ultimate test... and the other thing is to persuade young people to stay on the farm. this reality tv show is kenya's attempt to make farming seem cool. it is aimed particularly at millennials. 0therwise otherwise they are leaving the
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village for the city. it shows that farming is a business, that money can be made. it also helps older farmers up their output, making small holding more productive and profitable is one step towards growing enough food. but for the demographic dividend to be cashed in people need jobs. agricultural revolution is the precursor of the industrial revolution. here in ethiopia there's a grand plan. the first industrial park was built in addis ababa. but the biggest has just opened south of the capital. ethiopia is flying high in africa. it has the fastest—growing economy, albeit from a low base, and it has become the darling of international investors. it is a phenomenal project... the architect of this new industrial revolution is meeting executives from some of the world's
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biggest textile companies. he built it and they came. ethiopian workers already have jobs making the fabric, putting the garments together. translation: the pay isn't great but it isn'tjust about money, but about building a better future for me and the country. the big solution to the population explosion in ethiopian is putting its young people to work. they are building these vast industrial parks across the country, putting in infrastructure, training up a workforce, and attracting foreign companies to make their shirts, skirts, suits, and socks here rather than in asia. as in much of africa, china has a hand in the expansion and sees echoes of its own dramatic growth. translation: why did we choose ethiopia 7 it has a stable political situation and a peaceful society. and it is the second biggest country in africa without a big
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population there is no market. there is a huge amount of building going on across ethiopia. the scale and ambition is impressive. row after row of government built social housing. a new electric railway to whisk imports and exports between the capital and the coast. perhaps the most visible sign of ethiopia's growth is its airline. it has been dramatically expanding over the last ten years. it is government owned. ethiopian airlines flies all over the world. what better advert for a country on the rise? we can learn from china that making investment in the long term in infrastructure is quite important. the population is growing by about 5%. we need to create close to 1 million jobs every year. this is a big challenge. manufacturing has a significant
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impact in job creation. this provides an opportunity for what we call the demographic dividend. but without having a policy that is very ambitious and aggressive, it will be difficult and a source of crisis. aggressive policies in ethiopia mean a heavy hand. protests were crushed. a state of emergency has just ended. there were questions about lack of freedoms and authoritarianism. building democracies that are sustaining means a lot of effort. it needs many generations. we recognise that. we are going to put in a lot of effort despite the issues we have. ethiopia has also built a lot of universities, focusing now on engineering and technology rather than arts. but what about the dilemma? what is more important, economic growth, orfreedom of speech and democracy? it's not like one is more
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important than the other, but definitely economic growth is a means to our democracy. it is a path for our democracy, a path for freedom of speech. if there is no education in a country, and people are still hungry, what are they going to speak about? industrialisation isn't the only answer to africa's population explosion, but is already creating dividends for ethiopa's economy. if it gets the balance right it could to put a continent to work. in much of africa that is a big ask. in poor countries like niger it seems the economy won't come close to keeping up with population growth. in rich ones like nigeria it comes down to good thoughts and good actions. even if the speed and scale of urban growth offers its own set of challenges. this african population explosion is coming and its impact will be felt across the globe for good orfor bad. hello.
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it's certainly turning into a weekend of two halves, first of all. i hope you made the most of the fine weather that we had on saturday. in early september, the land is still warmer than the sea, which is why we saw the cloud bubbling up over land and coastal areas were lovely and sunny. there was just sufficient depth to the cloud across suffolk and norfolk to give us one or two showers on saturday. those are clearing away. instead, the major changes are coming in from the atlantic. the cloud has been thickening up and these weather fronts will push rain very slowly eastwards into the uk for the second half of the weekend.
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there will still be some hazy sunshine for a while in eastern scotland and eastern england, and it may well be dry for most of the day. this rain is really quite slowly pushing its way eastwards initially, some heavy bursts of rain over the hills in the west. the rain becomes more drizzly and lighter through the day, but a lot of low cloud. it's going to be quite poor for western areas. less so near the coast, where we've got the best of the weather. even here, through the evening and overnight, we may see a little bit of rain cropping up. the tendency is for the rain to tend to peter out overnight. we are left with a lot of low cloud, hill fog and some warm air to start the new week. that weather front, then, moving into the uk, it peters out, weakens. the next one has got a bit more oomph to it and that is pushing into the back of the first one. that will bring a spell of heavy rain, perhaps to northern ireland, more particularly into scotland. ahead of that, to the south, across england and wales, still cloudy, still a bit damp out there as well. we've got some warm actually. a bit of tropical air in the mix for monday. despite all that cloud and damp weather, we could find temperatures
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into 22 or 23 degrees territory. on that weather front, though, there is potential for a wave developing which will stall the progress and could bring a spell of heavy rain across the uk on monday night. the worst of that rain clearing out into the north sea. the hang back of cloud and rain in the south—east for a while. then things brighten up. we get some sunshine and there'll be a few showers in the north—west. so, some muggy airfor a while towards the south—east, but fresh air is coming from the west, behind that weather front that does finally clear away. then we get this sort of attempt at a bump of high—pressure overnight. probably a touch cooler by the time we get to wednesday morning. there will be some sunshine around. still got a westerly breeze, mind you. strongest up to the north—west and this is where we are more likely to see some showers and perhaps some longer spells of rain. if we don't get the longer spells of rain on wednesday, it looks like we will get it in the north—west on thursday as these weather fronts approach due to that area of low pressure.
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that sets us up, really, towards the latter part of the week. the jet stream is roughly in this position, not as far south as it was over the summer. still close to the uk, picking up areas of low pressure, driving across the northern half of the country. further south, the azores, high, dry, coming into southern areas from time to time. and we are left, by the time we get into next weekend, with some very mixed weather across the north—west of the uk. closer to low pressure, it could be quite wet and windy for a while. higher pressure more towards the south and south east, here, next weekend, potentially something a bit drier and a little bit warmer as well. 0n the whole, the outlook to go further into september is very mixed. we are going to find that strong jet stream pushing in some spells of rain. there will be some dry and brighter interludes in between, but it may not feel that warm, actually, particularly in the north where the winds will be stronger. this is bbc news — i'm rachel schofield. the headlines at 10: on his second visit this week, president trump praises the people of texas as he meets those affected by flooding there.
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as tough as this was it's been a wonderful thing. i think even for the country to watch and the world to watch. it's been beautiful. the retired field marshal lord bramall, and the family of the late lord brittan receive compensation from the police, overfalse child abuse accusations. more than 11100 people have died and a0 million have been left homeless or displaced — after catastrophic flooding across several south asian countries a campaign group says hundreds of homes have been burned down in one village — as tens of thousands head to bangladesh.
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