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tv   Witness History  BBC News  March 31, 2019 4:30pm-5:01pm BST

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this is bbc news. i'm shaun ley, the absolutely, but you see in the united kingdom it is not headlines at five. what next to an absolute right and you see break the brexit deadlock. tomorrow the problems of taking and please vote again on alternative this absolutist approach options and the plan for a softer to freedom of speech. brexit gets a majority in the what occurs if you have people commons, one cabinet minister says theresa may ought to consider it. i don't think it is sustainable streaming a mass murder? to say, well, we will ignore parliament's position and therefore leave without a deal. i don't think that is a sustainable landmarks around the world — have turned off their lights — position for the government to take. for 60 minutes to mark this year's earth hour. police in england and wales get world famous attractions in greece, france, russia, germany greater stop and search powers to and spain and here in the uk tackle rising knife crime. it is a very important tool. were all plunged into darkness. it is a vital tool in fighting serious violence. the event has been organised i want police officers by the environmental group wwf to feel more comfortable, to use it so they can and aims to raise awareness of climate change and other man made threats to the planet. protect all communities. it's been described as uber, a sharp rise in the number of adults but for haircuts — a new barber service is offering calling a national helpline for the male grooming on the go. dougal shaw has more. children of alcoholic parents. that is according this may look like an ordinary van on an ordinary street but there's something a bit different going on here. this is actually
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a mobile barbershop. it's a sight londoners might have to get used to if one young entrepreneur has his way. so when we originally created the idea, we modelled the customer model, we modelled the experience around someone like me, young, black male. he's been running his business for a year now from these offices in brixton, south london. more than 17,000 people have downloaded the app used to book the barber vans. he has a fleet of three which are fully booked, working morning to night. the idea behind the service is that a new generation of young black men doesn't have time to be waiting around in barber shops anymore. even though for many years they were an important social hub for the black community. and remain so. i'm 23, i'm managing properties and i work part—time. so i don't have time to go to a barbershop and wait for my turn. i can communicate him like a client rather than having the whole, like, background noise and everyone debating and everyone screaming.
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the team say that they were surprised by the demand for the service in the commercial areas of central london where a new breed of successful black professional can't find the kind of barbershops they want. the service has also attracted white and asian clients as well. and whoever uses the service, parking is always a consideration. but not everyone is convinced that the traditional barbershop has had its day. it's for socialisation and entertaining people around the community. when they all want to have fun, they come to the barbershop. there's a lot ofjokes that is going on in the barbershop. so we keep the place entertained. doug shaw, bbc news. now it's time for a look at the weather with helen willetts. it has felt much chillier across england and wales, even with sunshine today because we have
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changed the type of air across as and it has been pretty windy. but we have had a lovely day for the most part. dry with plenty of sunshine. we pay for that sunshine through the night, as the sun sets, we will see temperatures tumbling away down to frost levels quite widely. even some of the towns and cities. the temperatures do left for northern ireland overnight. that is the change for tomorrow but for most of us change for tomorrow but for most of usa change for tomorrow but for most of us a lovely start to the day. another dry and bright day. we are picking up those showers, temperatures are on a par with those today but it will feel more pleasant. in the south, it may feel more pleasant. but thereafter, it is colder with plenty of april showers to come. this is bbc news. the headlines:
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police in england and wales are being given greater stop and search powers to tackle rising knife crime. it rising knife crime. is a very important tool, it is a important it is a very important tool, it is a important tool in fighting violence. i want police officers to use it and protect communities. what next to break the brexit deadlock? tomorrow mps vote again on alternative options and if a plan for a softer brexit gets a majority, one cabinet minister says theresa may must consider it. i don't think it is sustainable to say we will ignore parliament's position and therefore leave without a deal. i don't that that is a sustainable position for the government to take. there's been a sharp rise in the number of adults calling a national helpline for the children of alcoholic parents, according to figures seen by the bbc. the founder of facebook, mark zuckerberg, calls for governments to play a more active role in regulating the internet. now on bbc news, it's time
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for witness history. hello and welcome to the programme. we are at the royal academy in london. today we present five extraordinary moments from the recent past, as told to us by the people who were there. in this programme, we will find out about the lasting effects of agent orange on the people of vietnam. we will speak to the man who pioneered the sport of snowboarding, look back to the moment when leningrad became saint petersburg, and hear about the historic shift within the catholic church, . historic shift within the catholic church,. but we start with a disturbing story from nicaragua. in march 1998, zoilamerica 0rtega murillo publicly accused her
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stepfather, daniel 0rtega of having sexually abused her since she was a child. president 0rtega has always denied the accusations. zoilamerica spoke to us. translation: for 12 years, i lived with physical sexual abuse. then another eight yea rs sexual abuse. then another eight years with sexual harassment. all i wa nted years with sexual harassment. all i wanted was to make it stop, once and for all. the abuse began between 1977 and 78. when i wasn't even ten yea rs 1977 and 78. when i wasn't even ten years old. at the time, daniel 0rtega was one of the main leaders. the guerrillas fighting the nicaraguan dictator. we just saw him as my mother's boyfriend. it began
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with him touching me and invading my proven sea as a little girl. i remember my reaction, to protect myself, was always to stay quite still and pretend to be asleep. i quickly learned that i could not stop him. in1979, stop him. in 1979, the dictator was overthrown. and daniel 0rtega became head of the governing junto, with even more power. the sexual abuse was always accompanied by profound psychological abuse. when he raped me, he told me that i was by then
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ready for it because my body was now developed. because he always made me feel responsible for what was happening, i was scared to tell my mother. i heard my mother berating daniel 0rtega about what was going on. it shows she knew from early on. but perhaps she never found a way of stopping him. today, i have decided to make it public that i am bringing a legal case against daniel 0rtega. my case against daniel 0rtega. my mother and daniel 0rtega immediately denied all the accusations i had made against him. translation: i faced translation: ifaced all translation: i faced all sorts of attacks and
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accusations, manipulations and conspiracies in my life. this is another conspiracy. translation: from that moment, they began attacking me, accusing me of being mad, habitual liar, a nymphomaniac, pa rt mad, habitual liar, a nymphomaniac, part of a political conspiracy, a cia agent, and they even said i was incapable of looking after my own children. daniel 0rtega appeared three years later in court, when he felt incomplete control of the judiciary. the court ruled that the statute of limitations had run out, but that doesn't mean that he was innocent. for me, he will always be the abuser. and she will always be the abuser. and she will always be
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the mother who was his accomplice. daniel 0rtega has been president of nicaragua since 2007. his wife, zoilamerica's mother, is now his vice president. during the vietnam war, one of the battle tactics of the us military was to destroy jungles battle tactics of the us military was to destroyjungles and vegetation that provided cover to north vietnamese fighters. the spray is used to kill the trees contained dioxin, one of the most toxic chemicals in the world. decades later, the vietnamese are still coping with the horrific legacy of the chemical warfare. this next report contains images which may be upsetting to some viewers. decades ago, american forces sprayed huge amounts of agent orange over vietnam. it was meant to strip trees bear, exposing enemy positions, but
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it also contained dioxin, one of the most poisonous substances ever created. in 19605 five, iwa5 most poisonous substances ever created. in 19605 five, i was a young medical student in saigon city. i liked very much to be an obstetrician and gynaecologist, so i took care of women and newborn babies. i saw in the hospital and increase of birth defects. it was horrible for me. very horrible for me. to see two or three times a week deformed babies, deformed children. i cried with the mothers of the babies. and i cannot eat for many
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days. the figures are startling. in this one hospital, 158 deformed babies were born dead last year. statistically, that is three times what doctors here believe should be the average. i didn't know the cause at that time. but later, in 1976, i read about the toxic chemicals used in vietnam during the wartime. agent orange is blamed, named for the orange is blamed, named for the orange bands around the drums, a defoliant containing deadly dioxin. the result then was a dead landscape. the result today, based on research at this saigon hospital and in america, is human tragedy. minute traces of toxic chemicals are being found in the uterus of
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pregnant women, even now, years after spraying stop. we carried out many studies. 1.8 million people in vietnam were exposed to the toxic chemicals. dioxin can get into the human body through the respiratory tract or through the food chain. incidents of birth defects and miscarriages, free till death in utero and cancer were more than four times higher among the exposed people and the american veterans are also victims of the spraying. dioxin can change the dna, so that it can
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be transmitted into many generations later. we have already the fourth generation is now affected. but we can detect very early the birth defects and cancers. i hope that in the future, in ten more yea rs, that in the future, in ten more yea rs , we that in the future, in ten more yea rs, we can that in the future, in ten more years, we can have a very small incidents of birth defects like in the other countries. 0ne the other countries. one of the terrible legacies of the vietnam war. now, onto the world of snow sport. in the late 1970s, jake burton, inspired bya snow sport. in the late 1970s, jake burton, inspired by a childhood toy, began developing the snowboard. in 1983 after much persuasion, ski resorts began allowing this new phenomenon onto their slopes. this
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was the first step towards snowboarding becoming a recognised sport. jake burton told us how it all came about. snowboarders, we have always stood out. and in the beginning, we stick out. and in the beginning, we stick out like a sore thumb. we had one board, we did not have ski boots on, we did not have polls, i think we we re we did not have polls, i think we were antiestablishment. you are a rebel, what you are doing is irreverent. when you do a turn and there is so much snow, that flies in your face there is so much snow, that flies in yourface and there is so much snow, that flies in your face and you can't see a damn thing. it isjust... my name is jake burton carpenter. i am referred to as the father of snowboarding. i am immensely proud of that. as a kid, i
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just always loved snow. it was something that just just always loved snow. it was something thatjust grabbed me, that whole winter mood and vibe was something that i loved. as a very young child. i was 13 or 1a when i got my first snowboard, which was simply like a skateboard for snow. it was nothing more than a piece of wood that was curved on the end. it had a rope on the front and that is how you would maintain your balance. i bought one andi maintain your balance. i bought one and ijust maintain your balance. i bought one and i just fell in maintain your balance. i bought one and ijust fell in love with the sensation of surfing on the snow. and i saw a sport there from a very young age. i mean, ialways and i saw a sport there from a very young age. i mean, i always thought that they would do it and it sort of was a fad that came and went, but it never left for me. but i knew that you needed to have your feet better
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attached to the binding. i had to make over 100 prototypes before i decided on a production board. i mean, iwas decided on a production board. i mean, i was clueless. when i started, i knew nothing about manufacturing. i bought this fancy pin router and twice, the thing shot the snowboard into the wall. like throwing a knife into the wall or something. it would have gone right through me. i can remember one moment when i was working with this company that was a manufacturer of furniture and we took some ward end we bent the turbine then ijust put bindings on and on my drive home, i jumped out of the car and went, yes, huge step. 1982, we had ourfirst competition. we were not even
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allowed on ski resorts at the time but 1983, stratton, the first major resort, stratton mountain and vermonters, caters to the new york crowd, they gave us an opportunity and it was a big milestone for the sport. everyday, we would find out about a new resort that they were allowing as to go there. and then 1998, that was when it went first to the olympics. it is very hard to get a sport of the ground, for it to ultimately get to the olympics, and idid not ultimately get to the olympics, and i did not do it on my own. i mean, i started and pioneered for sure, but so many people got involved. it is a tribe.
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jake burton, known as the father of snowboarding. remember, you can watch this programme every month on the bbc news channel or you can catch up on all our films, along with more than 1000 radio programmes, in our online archive. search online... in 1991 shortly after the full of communism in russia, a referendum was held in leningrad, asking whether it should change its name back to st petersburg. the issue divided the city. the campaign to restore leningrad to the original st petersburg is gathering momentum. translation: this was the first time in the ussr that citizens got to choose the name of their city in a referendum.
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saint petersburg was the cradle of the bolshevik revolution and it was renamed in honour of vladimir leading, founder of soviet commoners and ideology. now his ideology has been rejected, they no longer want his name stamped on the city. translation: rejecting leading's name meant a com plete rejecting leading's name meant a complete turnaround, away from totalitarianism, it was a new mentality it is the most european of all russian cities. its founder, peter the great, said it was russia's window on europe. the hardline russia's window on europe. the ha rdline commonest russia's window on europe. the hardline commonest site keeping women through fighting to keep leningrad and on this issue, they we re leningrad and on this issue, they were undignified scuffles. the old guard outraged at the challenge. translation: no one, not even ourselves, believed we would succeed in changing the
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city's name because the opposition was very strong. this was the last stronghold of communists. lenin and his legacy. i remember 24—hour vigils outside our home, where old communists shouted, we will not allow you to dump lenin's name! when pollsters predicted the result at 49-50, when pollsters predicted the result at 49—50, on the eve of the referendum, the orthodox church published its opinion. i quote, leningrad is an ideological construct, imposed upon the name of
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saint peter, in whose honour the city was named. a russian orthodox service was held on the steps of the cathedral, closed by the communists. church leaders want the name to bear the name of st peter. translation: do you know what our guiding light was? the words of saint peter himself, the impossible does happen. this was a surprising result, a slim but safe majority, voted yes to the referendum question whether leningrad should become st petersburg once more. translation: it was an indescribable feeling of great romantic illusions and hopes, that this was the first step at a great ladder. many of our hopes did not come to pass.
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for our final film, not come to pass. for ourfinalfilm, we head to the vatican city. in a surprise announcement in 1959, pope john xxiii called all the world's bishops and cardinals to rome to discuss modernising the church. the debate that became known as vatican two lead to major changes any practice and outlook of millions of catholics. rome, where this week there opens the vatican council, the largest and most important of any of the conferences in the whole 2000 years of the roman catholic church. it was summoned by pope john xxiii. it was summoned by pope john xxiii. it is probable the most important religious event of the 20th—century. an ecumenical council is a rare occurrence in the church. it was
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absolutely revolutionary. europe was still you might say recovering from the second world war. there was a lot of uncertainty, there was the cold war, countries in africa and asia were becoming independent as the great empires fell apart. there was this immense firm and both in the church and the world and i think it was the genius of pope john xxiii to say the best way to address all of this is to become —— bring all of the bishops of the world together to respond to these charges. i was in the middle of my theological studies in rome. the opening day, we were in st peter's square and we watched this procession of bishops and then at the end came pope john the. it was a very exciting day. 10% of all the bishops here today have come from africa. 20% have come from south america. it was quite an experience to be exposed to all of these different nationalities, different parts of the church from around the world.
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you could go into a restaurant and you would see bishops from france or bishops from spain and they would be a lot of spontaneous conversations. there was a tension between those who wanted to keep things the way they were and pulljohn the called them prophets of doom, who saw everything in a negative way. some of the debates could get quite sharp. there were a lot of human tensions, a lot of human dynamics. 0ne tensions, a lot of human dynamics. one of the major reforms that came out of the second council was that we moved from the one latin language to the entire church, to the mass being celebrated in the language of the particular country. when i was a child, everything was in latin, as it was around the world. for the vast majority of people, there was no understanding whatsoever. another very important development was the relationship between the catholic church and other christian churches,
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but also now a new attitude towards the jewish people, a recognition then that we ultimately are descended from the jewish faith and also that the church needs to be involved in issues of the world. it was because of the council that many priests and men's and bishops were in the forefront of the battle for civil rights, marching with martin luther king junior, for example. there was a group called the observers and they represented the various different christian churches, as well as non—christian religions. i gather there is pressure that women should be allowed in the cancel in one way. there were some women who were observers but obviously, if the council were to be held today, i think that would be quite different. what would have happened without the council is i think we would have found ourselves more and more irrelevant, stagnant and out of
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touch. pope john xxiii served only eight failures but what he did in terms of opening up the church to the larger world is invaluable. there is no question he is one of the great popes of all time. the revolutionary shift inside the catholic church, caused by vatican two. that is all from us this week. we will be back again next month with more first—hand accounts of extraordinary moments in history but for now, from beyond the rest of the team, goodbye. —— from me and the rest of the team, goodbye. —— from me and the rest of the team, goodbye. hello there. it has felt much chillier across england and wales, even with sunshine today because we have changed
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the type of air across us, and to add insult to injury it has been pretty windy in southern parts. but we have had a lovely day for the most part. dry with plenty of sunshine, light winds in the north, more to come for the next hour or so. then we pay for that sunshine through the night, as the sun sets, we will see temperatures tumbling away down to frost levels quite widely in the countryside. even some of the towns and cities. the temperatures do lift for northern ireland later in the night because we pick up some more cloud and some showers. that is the change for tomorrow but for most of us a lovely start to the day. yes, it will be cold with some frost around but another dry and bright day. elsewhere, we are picking up those showers, temperatures are on a par with those today but it will feel more unpleasant. in the south, it may feel a little bit more pleasant with lighter winds. but thereafter, it is colder with plenty of april showers to come. bye bye.
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