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tv   Unreal Dream The Michael Mor...  CNN  December 5, 2013 6:00pm-8:01pm PST

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just about 9:00 p.m. eastern, remembering nelson mandela. more tributes from the first lady. we'll forever draw strength from his moore l courage and kind nsz. hillary clinton, he was a champion with unmatched grace. truly an big soul. professor, let's start off with you. oh -- all right. start with christiane, he's not there. your thought? >> we said so much of what he's accomplished. seeing these pictures, you get the sense of a man who enjoyed when he got into power. he smiled. he laughed. he inspired people by his body
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language. where so many leaders, it was such a burden and so difficult. he looked like he embraced it and enjoyed it and i think that translated to the people. >> rick, you spnlt a lot of time with him. >> he was a true, happy warrior as you said but i just want to rebut a couple -- how much time do we have? >> a minute or so. >> okay. no bitterness in his heart. that's conventional wisdom. he had great things and no bitterness and recented his family was taken away but he was a great politician and knew he could never show it, express it and had to embrace his enemy. that's what made him great, not that he didn't feel it but felt it and overcame it. >> that's fascinating. it's hard to over state the impact nelson mandela made. not many people come close to what he achieved. he'll be remembered for the freedom he brought to south africa. he talked about the power of words to change the world.
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listen. >> it is not of my custom to lose words unlikely. if 27 years in prison have done anything to us, it was to use the silence of solitude to make us understand how precious words are, and how real speech is in its impact upon the way people live and die. >> that's obviously not from earlier this year but a few years ago. that does it for our special edition. cnn special coverage will continue truth throughout the n. we'll bar back at 10:00 p.m. up next, the do documentary, nen up next, the do documentary, nen remembered
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-- captions by vitac -- from the very beginning, a struggle to find him branded a terrorist by a brutal regime. he refused to submit and when he walked out of prison 27 years later a changed man. >> we must forever act together as a united people for national rec reconciliation, for the path of a new world. >> reporter: it was nelson mandela who designed the struggle and freed his people. this is his story, nelson mandela. a legacy. a life remembered. where do you begin to tell the story of nelson mandela? perhaps there is no better place than here, the union buildings which were once the seat of
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apartheid and the heart of the do mac see thanks in large part of a political prisoner turned president. his weapon personality, charm and charisma coupled with an undying devotion to a cause that would define his life and the country's. >> on the day he was inducted as president, we stood there at the union buildings of victoria and he took my hand, and he took it up, and he put his arm around me and we showed a unity, which i think resounded throughout south africa and across the world. >> may 10, 1994 nelson mandela is inaugurated as president of south africa. >> when mr. mandela was inaugurated as our first democratic elected president, i
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said look here, i really do admire you if i die now, i mean, there's nothing to -- that is ever going to be able to top this. >> after decades of violent struggle with a racist white government, the movement succeeded. what mandela would do in those first moments in office would ensure the new found peace remained in the world's newest democracy. mandela's body guard rory stain remembers one of the first assignments with the president, an inauguration day football match. >> gets out of the car. doesn't say anything to any of us and starts walking across this reception hall to the vehicle rep where we should be driving out. and the only person there is this old police colonial, old school and the president walks
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directly towards him and as he comes closer this guy's eyes are getting bigger and bigger and bigger and he's thinking why is he coming to me? madiba shook his hand and he said colonial, i just want you to know that today you have become our police, and there is no more you and us. and that impacted hugely on me as a fellow officer of this colonial that was standing there. and he said, i'm now the president of the country, but i wanted you to hear this from me personally, you are now our police. this old guy, 55, 56 maybe with all the experience in the world and all the lines on the dial, you could see he's been there and done it and he started crying, and the tears -- i can still hear them, and that started to change my thinking, because remember, i'm not in the security police. i've been taught the ideology. they were our enemy.
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from that moment of this interaction between him and the colonial, i started to think hang on a moment, haven't i been wrong? >> he was mandela's personal assista assistant. >> those from the previous regime, from the clax government he called them and said to them, i know that you are afraid. i know that you don't know what to do, whether you should leave or join my office. stay in my office and help us. but i really need all of you, black and white and people from the previous regime and the newcomers to support us in achieving our goals for this pr presidency and that made people feel safe. people had a choice whether they wanted to stay and after a few months, they could clearly see what his agenda was for the presidency, unity and reconciliation. >> a defining moment of that presidency would come during the 1995 rugby world cup.
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after decades in isolation, south africa's sporting teams could once again participate against the world's best, and the country's first democratically elected president was there to cheer the spring bucks on in johannesburg. >> when he walked out of that tunnel wearing the number six jersey, that predominantly white crowd started chanting his name. [ cheers ] >> watch the footage. as i say, i get goose bumps. how could this ever happen? and yet, he just understood fund mentally understood that that kind of a symbolic gesture of putting on a rugby jersey and identifying with a logo, a symbol would go so much further than any speech or policy or, you know, political agenda ever
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and he brought -- i would estimate, 85% of white south africans on board right there on that day. >> it was magic. it was profound. it was incredibly necessary that the country and the people of south africa looked each other in the eye and said hey, pamate we're world champions. >> what did mandela say to you? >> very special. because when i walked on stage to get the trophy from madiba thank you for what you've done for this country and i became emerged because i can't believe he said that and my replay was no, mr. mandela, thank you for what you've done. >> it was just one of those moments, you know, you can't script it. hollywood can't write this stuff. you know, it happened.
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>> mandela did the unthinkable by reuniting the south african people, reaching out to the very people that imprisoned him and oppressed the majority. but it's what he did next that truly made him stand out. >> what marksman de s mandela's as president more than anything else is after five years he stepped down. there have been very few presidents in south africa that have ever given up willingly. >> in a continent known for leaders who take power for a lifetime. nelson mandela served one term, the man that knew the power of his actions. >> he was such a pillow of democracy in our lives, and his mere presence among us means that we cannot dilute the life
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he gave to this country. we cannot dilute the contribution he gave. we live up to the ideas nelson mandela lived for. democracy being the key one. >> but still, he was modest without bitterness or revenge for his years of lost freedom, years that he used to study his oppressor and unite a movement.
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south africa, 1948 after years of segregation, the new regime takes power and institutes apartheid. legislation, white supremacy legalized and the four racial groups, white, black, colored and indian are segregated. the resistant movement responds, led by a young black lawyer
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living in johannesburg, nelson mandela is one of the rising stars making him enemy number one for a state to stop at nothing to maintain power. >> south africa, post offices, library, restaurants, hotels, elevators, there used to be signs. europeans only, non-europeans not allowed. there was signs that said none europeans and dogs not aloud. >> he remembers mandela, a conrad for more than 60 years. >> the regime reduced human beings that were not white to the level of animals. so you saw that all over. >> 1960 a police massacre, 69 protesters are shot dead, many in the back. the government responds by banning all opposition groups
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including mandela's anc. the anc goes under ground and mandela becomes one of the leaders on the run. in his first television interview, mandela is interviewed from the world from his hide out. >> i asked what it was the african really wanted? >> the africans require want the franchise on the basis of one man, one vote. they want political independence. >> do you see africans being able to develop in this country without the europeans being pushed out? >> we have made it very clear in our policy, but south africa is a country of many races. there is room for all the various races in this country. >> is there any likelihood of violence? >> there are many people that feel it's useless for us to continue talking peace and non-violence against the
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government is on the attacks, on unarmed and defenseless people. >> mandela and others established the armed wing of the anc. the movement is militants. >> so i am prepared to die. >> this audio recording will be the last words mandela will utter in public for the next 27 years. chap to captured by authorities he's sentenced to life in prisonment. >> if need be, it's an ideal for which i'm prepared to die. >> george was on his legal team during the 1964 trial and says those words from his original transcript still rest nate. >> the courtroom was packed. even though the police tried to occupy many seats to keep a lot of people out, and it was what
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one may describe a great play, when the curtain goes down, the people have been so inspired by the play that the applause takes a little while to come, and then there was an absolute silence as if people have kept their breath in and he turned around and they were not allowed to applaud, of course, but their words, which i think will live forever. >> convicted, mandela is moved to the infamous robin island of cape town with other political i prisoners. >> i first really got to meet madiba in january of 1965 and my
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first impressions from that close range was of a person who appeared to you totally open. you felt he was embracing you, was focused on you, and he says to me, do you agree we're in for a protected war? protected war in those years was a favorite catch phrase. he said do you agree? >> i said, yes, yes, and ready to fight to the death. we'll defeat them in the end. he said how are you going to do that without understanding how he thinks? no amount of reading textbooks will tell you that. look at how he's performing, what he does in previous battles, but he says to understand him, you need to know his language.
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wow, i'm already man down. and then he kills me. he says, you have to study his poetry. you have to study his literature. you have to study his culture because he's going to react. those are the things that make him what he is. and for you to lead him into a trap, you need to understand how he's thinking. i had to study after cans. >> so we're in the archive room here in the mandela foundation and what struck me is how he learned africans, how he got to understand the psychology of the enemy and there is a good example here, isn't there? >> well, it's one of many but this is a letter to the minister of justice complaining about conditions for his wife winnie, who is also in prison at the time. raising other issues, as well. >> written in africans. >> it's in perfect africans.
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not only a question of language because you have to connect the learning of a language to the study of history so when he spoke to the enemy, he did so with an understanding that the enemy felt disarmed. >> smart and also by mandela learning africans and the africans history, he was playing the long game and it wfwas 20 years later, he would have to look them in the eye and negotiate with them. >> yeah, though you have to put yourself back to that kind of historical moment, it wasn't preordained. but he was committed to the long haul. this was something that he knew height take the rest of his life and might not suke secceed. for him it wasn't a choice. you have to put in place building block by building block. >> i was in the island and fest sent for almost two years before
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i was charged for the trial and on conviction i was taken. it was madness to think of escape there because you're surrounded by the sea, and it would not be very easy at all, and it never entered my mind. i felt later that one was serving a purpose even inside jail. >> after all the material deprivation and the assaults and the torture and the psychological, at the end of it, he himself says he realized that everything in prison was designed to rob you of your dignity. that's what apartheid was. but he says a profound thing. he says once i realized that, i knew they could not defeat me.
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>> through the '70s and '80s, the townships were burning and state of emergency in effect and the regime never seemed stronger, but international attention was also building. ♪ hey mandela, hey mandela, we want freedom in south africa ♪ >> in 1988 several big names in rock converged to mark mandela's 70th baiirthday and demand freedom. from inside jail, secret talks began between mandela and governors after studying the enemy for years in prison, this was his moment. >> my first meeting, i didn't know what to exexpect. there he was standing straight, being courteous, being a man of
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integrity. >> the government has taken a firm decision to release mr. mandela. >> a solute from mr. nelson mandela, his wife winnie, greeting the people outside the fences of the prison. that is the man the world has been waiting to see. his first public appearance in nearly three decades. >> when nelson mandela walked free out of prison, the people of south africa were free. but when he walked out, everyone was walking on air, and it was a -- the most joyous moment of all our lives. >> today the majority of south africans, black and white, recognize that apartheid has no future. >> after 27 years, nelson
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mandela was free and south africa has taken its first steps towards democracy but those decades in prison took a toll on his health and his family. .
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one of the saddest moments in my one of the saddest mom in my life in prison was the death of my mother. she came a couple tough times to visit me, but the last time she came to see me, as she left i looked at her and she walked up. i have the feeling that i have seen her for the last time and that was the case. the shattering spirit of the death of my oldest son in a car accident.
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he was not on my son but a friend, and i was very hurt indeed that i could not pay respects -- my last respects to my mother and to my oldest son. >> nelson mandela dedicated his life to freedom for all in south africa, but in doing so, he lost his own freedom and his family. >> whenever anything happened to the family, i would come back, you know, and find on my desk a curtain so that i should see what is happening to my family outside. that was very painful, cause wounds which cannot be seen and i spent time without sharing my pain with anybody. >> i was the most humiliated woman because we really never
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lived together. we lived together for a few months so our communication is really always through the letters, and when he was in prison, through the prison bars. even to this day, a part of me feels that guilt. you decide to choose between the nation and your young children and it was a very difficult choice. >> the former south african president endured many personal hardships, and yet, a complex and divided family. in 1944 he married evelyn, they had four children although only one survives today. in 1958 he divorced evelyn and met and married winnie. they had two daughters together. two years after he became south africa's first black president,
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they divorced and two years later, mandela married grac graca machel. >> he achieved most of his goals in life. he is really a deep, deep, deep fighter for freedom and feels freedom for his country is here. >> do you think he has had or had regrets? >> yeah, there is only one i know of. you feel he would have really liked to have much more input in the develop the of his children. >> i come from a divided family, and when you come from a divided family, there are things that -- not everything runs smoothly. there are struggles and things, and so sometimes we don't see
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eye to eye. it's just that, you know. for me, i couldn't understand for a long while, a really long while. >> couldn't understand what? >> i couldn't understand why he would choose politics over his children. that's how i saw it. >> she's the only surviving child from mandela's first marriage. >> in a sense, we had a father who was there who -- and in an actual sense he's never been there because he's been in politics and when he retired, you couldn't relate. i have children now robin. being a parent is not just about giving. it's being there with ups and downs when the child is sick. my father missed all of that. >> they were raised by winnie when nelson was in prison. >> my mother always had a picture of daddy on the dining room wall -- actually on the dining room door and so i had a vision of my dad being a very
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large man with a side part. so when i saw him when i was 16 the first time, i was quite shocked to see that he was very skinny. he didn't have a side part, but he looked the same as the gentleman in the photograph, that my father is quite authoritarian and from prison, he really ruled the family in terms of you have to get your education. this is the way i want you to behave, and those values were instilled in us, even though he was in prison. >> i remember one of my first trips with him to the states when he was president. he was mobbed by usual. there was a woman that came close to collapse because she was quite emotional and he was very quiet in the car and he was like really reflective and he said darling, did you see how emotional that woman was? i says, i wonder why? and for me, as a daughter that struck me and i thought he's very sincere but it didn't occur
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to him it does about him his impact on her. >> for as many grandchildren and great grandchildren, the lessons he passed on will be remembered forever. >> he's taught me about patience. he's taught me about wisdom. he's taught us as grandchildren just to be patient and make sure that in whatever you do in life, you make sure that you look at -- you look at him and say all those things are going bad, these -- the outcome can always be great. >> there aren't too many leaders in this world that are humble, humble enough to say to people, i'm just a messenger. that's one of the greatest lessons he taught us. >> what true inmortals and the small agents of kindness. >> i hope and wish apartheid, the history and what my grandpa did is something i can tell my kids and grandkids. >> his ability to see everything in a peaceful light and make the
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best out of a bad situation, and, you know, always smiling. always happy. never angry. >> as much as he is reviewed the world over, and we also, you know, very proud of him in those accomplishments, but i just believe that you-all need to make our own footprints and be who we are. >> i want to say that he's my role model. one person that i will forever treasure. it is men and women like him that have enabled us to be able to have this freedom and we ought to not take it for granted. we ought to ensure that ordinary men and women in this country, bled and died for our freedom and that's the legacy he leaves to us as a family and south africans at large. >> a father and grandfather often absent committed to the
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cause, but when we ask mandela on his 90th birthday if he had any regrets. >> i don't regret it because the things that attracted me were things that pleased my soul. >> convinced his would be a legacy shared not just by his family but with a nation and a world. [ male announcer ] here's a question for you: if every u.s. home replaced one light bulb with a compact fluorescent bulb, the energy saved could light how many homes?
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retirement, mandela style, he left public office but still tried to change the world. his personal assistant had been by his side since the early days of his presidency says their schedule was relentless. >> in the first years, we traveled non-staff and after his retirement, i referred to it as the crazy years. we work nonstop and travel all over the world. >> why did he feel the need to work so hard and travel so hard, not just when he was president but during his retirement years? >> you know, i think he's
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actually a person that's driven to make a difference. i'm convinced he wakes up every morning thinking how can i change the world? whose life can i improve? whose life can i touch? >> mostly he was raising money for causes close to his heart, children and hiv aids. >> as we're having a conversation about poverty and girls and how do you change poverty in the world? i said, one day i want to build a school. i meant one day, not that day. >> this is a president for anyone, anywhere who loves freedom madiba nelson mandela. >> the 46664 concept named after his prison number, raised money after the battle against hiv aids. >> at the small acts of kindness and carry that come from a place
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of real love and commercial started by protecting yourself and your loved ones, talk openly about hiv and aids. >> he represents something in humanity that we should all have and it's that thing that's special in each one of us where we need to reach deep to find it. >> in 2009, the united nations declared his birthday an international day of service. nelson mandela day was mandela's wish for people to give a little more of their time to help others. >> that you just don't do it on the 18th of july but every day. >> his life story and unwaivering philosophy gave him unique moral authority, challenging other world leaders.
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he ciriticized george w. bush fr readiness to invade iraq without the blessing of the united natio nations. >> bush and an idea which was sponsored by their predecessors, they did not care. >> i want your reaction to mandela. what kind of a man is he to you? >> a historic figure that made a huge difference in people's lives. >> he was quite tough on you, though, he cite sized you publicly about the iraq war. >> yeah, he wasn't the only guy. >> did you get backlash from people who he perhaps -- >> strangely, no. no one called us to say he was -- he was being too hard or harsh on people. i think you accept it when it comes from nelson mandela and you just live with it. >> and he probably knew he had that decredit, he could say this and other people couldn't. >> absolutely. it's the moral responsibility to say what he thinks and say he knows he's right is what made
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him such a great statesmen. >> a great statesmen and in retirement, an effective fundraiser. in the years you say he was so driven, particularly after he retired, what was driving him? he needed to see the world, he spent all sthothose years behin bars? drove him. >> et nelson mandela foundation and the roads foundation and so wherever he went, you know, he tried to include that. but again, that seems making a difference in the world even if it's in a rural community, building a school, clinic and improving education for rural communities, improving services for rural communities, he responded to whatever was needed at the time. ♪ happy birthday to mandela >> there were always strings
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attached. >> he felt obliged to do certain things. the pressure got too much and that's when he said stop. >> so in 2004, mandela retired from retirement. >> don't call me, i'll call you. >> no one would have begrudged him a quiet and peaceful retirement, but that was not for him. like the old man in dillon thomas' famous poem, he refused to go gentle into that good night. yet, neither did he rage against the dying of the light, instead he simply soldiered on raging instead against injustice and leading us toward the light. >> and while he soldiered on, his grandchildren said he lived a simple life.
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>> reading his papers, eating food, talking all the time. >> he still likes to keep in touch with what is going on, doesn't he? >> that's what he does. if you come in the house, in his chair legs up. >> while he with drew from public life, the public had trouble letting him go. his 90s were defined by ill health, a recuring lung infection he developed kept the eldest statesman in and out of hospital and in the minds of south africans. ♪ ♪ >> his fighting spirit for me is one thing that amazes me, and i don't know what keeps him fighting, and he's just stoic and determined that i will end things my way. >> as his health deter rated, his family battled to keep details of his condition
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private. >> it is our death. it is our dead. nelson mandela's blood runs through these veins, give us the space to be with our father. whether these are the last moments for us to be dead or there is still longer, but they must back off. >> they were the world's media but he was nelson mandela and in his final months as the public held vigil. he remained resilient fighting until the end. ♪ ♪
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hall we do is go out to dinner.? that's it? i mean, he picks up the tab every time, which is great...what? he's using you. he probably has a citi thankyou card and gets 2x the points at restaurants. so he's just racking up points with me. some people... ugh! no, i've got it. the citi thankyou preferred card. now earn 2x the points on dining out and entertainment, with no annual apply, go to
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the village of kunu in the eastern cape. a deeply traditional and rural area of south africa, it was here in 1918 that a boy named
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halisasla was born. the name means troublemaker in his home language, as custom at the time a schoolteacher gave him his english name nelson. he became known affectionately as mandiva, a clan name. >> [ inaudible ] could not afford clothing for school. he gave me his shirt. >> it was the experience of dispossession and poverty here that fuelled nelson mandela's life-long desire to oppose white supremacy and bring freedom to his people. among these hills the young man also experienced african democracy first hand. he listened to councils of elders and tribal chiefs debating issues for hours until they reached consensus.
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>> his sense of discipline, respect, sharing, his sense of humility. all of that comes of the traditional value systems he comes from. >> traditional leader says this vital lesson influenced mandela years later as president when he helped shape south africa's modern democracy and reconciled black and white south africans. >> he straded both the african and western, the bamming act that has been worked upon through mandela's leadership to ensure that a peaceful and free country. >> reporter: so it is here in kunu that nelson mandela will be laid to rest. inside mandela's home, his family shared stories of a man who savored life's simple pleasures. >> one time i was citying. i had just got here.
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it had been range. so he's looking outside and i'm sitting there quiet on my phone. he said, mbuso, when i was young i used to run outside naked in the rain. i think you should go and do that now. i started laughing. i started laughing. >> from rural roots to a leader of a movement to the father of a nation. >> his enduring legacy lives on. >> if you diagnose mandela's life and study his values, his morals, the great discipline that brought about so much respect, everyone can find the mandela within themselves. >> he sacrifice add lot for his country. he sacrificed a lot not only for black people or white people but for everybody. >> the one thing i told him, i wanted to make sure he understood how important his
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leadership and sacrifice has been to who i've become, to who my husband has become, and in short i just said thank you. it's really hard to know what to say to such an icon. >> in terms of the struggle for freedom and justice and equality in a world in which people are treated equally irrespective of race or color he is the most inspirational figure of the 20th century. >> what nelson mandela, he brought the change that -- he opened up doors for us which would never have been possible if he was not who he was. >> i said to him, did you ever lose hope in the 27 years that you were in prison? was there ever a moment when you fell fellow felt low? he said no. i was confident from the time i walked into prison that i would be free. i was confident that i would walk out of prison a free man and into a free south africa.
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>> i saw in him something that i try not to lose in myself, which is no matter how much responsibility he had he remembered he was a person first. and then i learned a lot about living from him, about living with adversity, living with setbacks, living with disappointments and living without anger. so quite apart from all the magnificent contributions he made to free his country and to inspire the world, i learned a lot about life from him. >> he preached we all need each other. he was inclusive in his thinking about all south africans. that, i think, will be his biggest legacy. >> he looked into the future and just took us all there. he just got all of us on board, which i think was really what so amazes me today.
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>> what he will be remembered for is his ability to bring the country together. >> mandiva's legacy will be every life that was touched and changed and every heart that was opened from the experience of his life here on earth. that's his legacy. that's yours. that's mine. it's how you lived and who you touched and what it meant. that's what your legacy is. >> there are many men and women from different political affiliations who have contributed to this struggle. i am one of those. i would like to be remembered not as anybody unique or special, but as part of a great
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hum human. good evening, everyone. it is 10:00 p.m. here on the east coast of the united states, 5:00 a.m. in johannesburg, south africa. tonight the passing of nelson mandela and the meaning of his remarkable life through grit and grace and the kind of generosity of soul that few people possess he led black and indian south after cans out of a second-class or in many case as barely human existence. he helped dismantel a police state birthing a new south africa all could be proud of. he inspired people all over the world to see things differently, look to their better angels. to prize justice over injustice, compassion over cruelty in the sometimes unforegiving world to champion forgiveness. this evening at a hanukkah celebration president obama paid
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tribute. >> tonight our thoughts and prayers are with the mandela family in south africa. they're grieving the loss of a man, a moral giant who embodied the dignity and courage and hope and sought to bring about justice not only in south africa but i think to inspire millions around the world and he did that. the idea that every single human being ought to be free and that oppression can end and justice can prevail. [ applause ] >> that was a supreme court justice who said yes. >> and from the first lady this tweet quote we will forever draw strength and inspiration from nelson mandela's extraordinary example of moral courage, kindness and humility." nelson mandela, mandiva was 95 years old when he died this evening at home. he lived his long final years well. so tonight along with sadness
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there is celebration at how far nelson mandela brought south africa and brought us all. we'll follow his journey including some who were privileged to share it. first the arc of his remarkable life. >> reporter: nelson mandela's struggle for freedom defined his li life. he was born in the remote hills of south africa's eastern cape. he was given the name halislasla which means troublemaker. he was given the name nelson by a schoolteacher later on. after moving to johannesburg and studying law, mandela's trouble-making politics began. and as a boxer he became adept at picking fights and sparring with the apartheid authorities which had increased its oppression against the black population. it was then that mandela made the crucial decision to take up an arms struggle, launching the african national congress's armed wing. he was militant and a firebrand,
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define thely burning his passbook, a dreaded document the apartheid authorities used to control the movement of south africa's black population. >> the africans require one to franchise on the basis of one man one vote and they want political independence. >> that simple demand and the methods mandela took to fight for democracy eventually saw him and others tried for trees on and sabotage by the apartheid government. acts punishable by death. but they got life imprison nt instead, banished to robben island, one of the country's most brutal and isolated prisons. another political prisoner, mack maharaj remembers the first time he saw mandela in the prison yard. >> i could see from the way he walked and from his conduct that he was a man already stamping his authority on prison regime. >> reporter: mandela was
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released 27 years later. >> i have spoken about freedom in my lifetime. your commitment and your discipline has released me to stand before you today. >> reporter: and his lack of bitterness towards the apartheid authorities helped him to lead one of the most remarkable political transitions of the 20th century. mandela, the trained lawyer and life-long rebel, outmaneuvered the apartheid leaders. and he steered south africa's peaceful transition to democracy. he won a nobel peace prize together with his former enemy, the apartheid leader f.w. deklerk. >> to devote myself to the well-being of the republic and all its people. >> reporter: then he became south africa's first black
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president in 1994. >> so help me god. [ cheers and applause ] >> what marks mandela's career as president more -- almost more than anything else is that after five years he stepped down. there have been very few presidents in africa who have ever given up willingly. >> don't call me. [ laughter ] >> i'll call you. [ laughter ] >> reporter: his retirement years were busy with fundraising for charities close to his heart. he celebrated his 90th birthday with much fanfare. and told cnn in a rare interview that looking back, he wouldn't do anything differently. >> i don't regret it. because the things that affected me were things that pleased my soul. >> reporter: now those who loved and respected him look to his legacy. >> and if we want to learn from him, learn that life is not made
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up of all straight victories, it's made up of mistakes, zigzags, and stumbling, picking yourself up, dusting off the dirt, treating the bruise, and walking again forward. and that's what mandela is. >> goodbye. >> reporter: cnn, johannesburg, south africa. >> tributes have been coming in all night of course from former president bill clinton quote today the world lost one of its most important leaders an one of its finest human beings. we'll remember him as a man of uncommon grace and compassion for whom abandoning bitterness and embracing adversaries was not just a political strategy but a way of life. former president george w. bush says president mandela was one of the great forces for freedom and equality of our time. he bore his burdens with dignity and grace and our world is better off because of his example. this good man will be missed but his contributions will lifl on
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forever." former secretary of state colin powell said "a great man left us today and went to his reward. nelson mandela, madiba, led his people to freedom and by his example inspired the world. i was privileged to know him." >> this is past 5:00 a.m. in soweto in the outskirts of johannesbu johannesburg. cnn political commentator donna brazil joins us outside harlem's apollo theater. congressman rangel joins us. your thoughts on nelson man dell last i know you went there to south africa, you met him. you knew him. >> well, god must have spent a whole lot of time in making nelson mandela. and as heavy as my heart is, i
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can only thank god that god shared him with the world. and he's been an inspiration to so many people. i'm here on 125th street in the heart of harlem, adjacent to the apollo theater. and all i can think about is when david jenkins invited president mandela to come to the united states, to come to harlem, and the throngs of harlemites and people from all over the city came to see and to hear nelson mandela. i heard what you have said, and i know everyone knows the great contribution that he's made to the world. but let me say from a very personal point of view that african-americans, the most loyal americans, have really been denied what most americans enjoy, and that is their history from where they came from. and not only were our names taken away, our songs, our history, our culture, our
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language, but africans were demonized. when i was a kid, the worst thing you could do is call anybody an african. but when nelson mandela came on the scene, where every black kid could say, gee, mom, that great guy looks just like me, doesn't he. he has given to african-americans something that you can't get out of churches and you couldn't get out of schools. he gave us an identity to know that when god made him and made us to look like him, he was thinking about all of us. and so i don't know what it takes for god to pick up a saint, but i tell you one thing, he'd win in any election for sainthood all over the world. >> well said. rick stangel, i want to toss it to you. one of the things that congressman rangel was saying which is interesting about him identifying as an african. as a young man, as a child, he
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was born in his ethnic group. at the time the white regime really used those ethnic divisions between zulus and hosa and other groups within south africans, indians and others, to divide and maintain power. and it was mandela the change in his consciousness seeing himself as an african first, not just as an hosa which was really a crucial step for him to take >> yes. i mean, part of the evil genius of apartheid it didn't just separate whites and black. it separated black from each other and tried to engender rivalries between the tribes. one of the most powerful aspects of the african national congress which incorporated the black consciousness movement was hey, we're all together. wh what uniteds us is much greater than what divides us. >> it was the defiance campaign
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which brought the unity between the column so-called colored. a civil disowe paid yens campaign. >> it galvanized not just south africa but the rest of the world as well. when president zuma today paid respect and announced to the world that the greatest south african, he said south africa's greatest son has passed on, has departed, he said it wasn't just us but the rest of the world who embraced mandela. and he paid tribute to the sacrifices that he had made. we note sacrifices his family has made. he paid tribute to the sacrifices of his family and called this a man of humility, humanity and compassion. and on a night like this i think you remember and you're just sort of galvanized by how this man who wasn't an aristocrat b treated brutally. by forcing them to respect him.
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the guards respected him, the system respected him. he was able to reach out and negotiate in a very sophisticated political manner the end of apartheid. >> filmmaker spike lee joins us now on the phone. spike, president mandela had a cameo in your film "malcolm x" where he played a teacher in south africa reciting the final lines from malcolm x's "by any means necessary" speech. what was it like to know him, to be impacted by him? >> well, anderson, thanks for having me on the show. and during my research i found out that the autobiography of malcolm x is one of many books that kept nelson mandela going in many years of imprisonment. so i got the idea that we should have nelson be in the last scene in the film. and at this time, apartheid was still in place. and we all knew it was going to end and he was going to run for
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president. but the last line of the speech was, "by any means necessary." nelson told me, spike, i can't say that. i cannot say by any means necessary. so then i said okay, mr. mandela. so then we just cut to archival footage of malcolm x saying "by any means necessary." so i'd like to say one thing. a lot of revisionist history going on. because at one time, the united states and many other countries said that the anc was a terrorist group. >> right. >> you know, let's not forget that. there in apartheid trying to free themselves under the hate regime, and they are a terrorist group? let's not forget that. the united states believed that, too. the united states believed that anc was a terrorist group. that was not true at all. they were freedom fighters.
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let's not forget that fact. >> an important point to remember. and rick, i mean, that is certainly true. there were many leaders in the united states, many people, many leaders around the world who viewed nelson mandela as a terrorist. >> he was the number one terrorist in the world in the early 1960s. the oral misnomer, he was not an american exceptionalist. he didn't know that much about american history. and he didn't necessarily believe that american's support for anti-apartheid was the thing that brought apartheid down. remember, he identified with the leaders who supported him in the 1960s, leaders that we abjured like gadhafi and castro. so he didn't see america as this shining city on a hill because america didn't see him that way. >> and spike, there was something interesting that rick said in our 8:00 hour. i don't know if you heard it. i want rick to reiterate it. all of us so often comment that he was without bitterness. he was without anger toward his captors. you were saying at the 8:00 hour
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there was bitterness there after 27 years in jail as understandably as there would be. but he knew he could not express that. explain that, rick >> yes. i think it is again a bit of a misnomer that he had no bitterness in his heart. he had tremendous resentment and bitterness for what happened. he was mistreated in a way that is hard to imagine. >> his life was taken away from him. >> right. but he knew that the only way he could bring reconciliation to his country is that he could never let anyone see that bitterness, never let anybody see that resentment. he had to open his arms to the whites who oppressed him. that was what made him successful. >> and that's the same reason why he said spike, i cannot say "by any means necessary" at the end of the film. he said spike, i can't do it. >> that's right. and because there was a time in the 60s before he was finally tried and sentenced where he was with his fellow activists in saying, should we maybe be more violent? have we been doing the right thing here? and after he came out of prison,
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foreswore that and said, throw away your knives. >> one of most interesting things he said to me was this idea of nonviolence. remember we compare him to gandhi, we compare him to martin luther king. he said i was not like them. for them nonviolence was a principle. for me it was a tactic. and when the tactic wasn't working i reversed it and started his way. that's a very important difference. >> i want to bring in robin purnow in johannesburg in terms of what is happening now, we've seen folks in soweto there out at 5:00 in the morning celebrating his life, remembering his life, singing the songs of the struggle, songs of mandela and his life. what happens today, what happens in the days to come? >> reporter: well, just picture this. a lot of south africans will only be waking up to this news now or in the next few hours. you can see dawn is breaking and
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the announcement came just a few minutes before midnight from president jacob zuma that nelson mandela had passed away. so while there has been a sense of mourning in the last six, seven, eight hours, i think you're going to see a real sort of wave of emotion, of shock, of understanding, of knowledge, as people wake up to this news. so i think there is going to be a sense of thankfulness, though. i think you're not going to see hysteria, you're not going to see sort of great scenes of overemotion. you're going to see people singing and dancing. there's going to be a sense of thankfulness, although also deep deep deep sadness. >> and spike, i know you've got to go. but just to bring it back to rick stangel's point. to me that is what leadership is all about. to push down whatever feelings you may have very legitimate feelings after having been in prison for 27 years and to reach out to those who jailed you who
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oppressed you, oppressed generations of your brothers and sisters. to me that is just an extraordinary, extraordinary thing. >> yes. and that's why he was a great man -- i'm going to say is, not was. and the world is mourning him today. >> and i think the way it showed itself was the truth and reconciliation committee. that is the massive example of how you suppress bitterness. instead of vengeance, instead of trying to get blood, he wanted to get something different. >> and to spike's point earlier, it's about not forgetting history. it's about having people who committed crimes acknowledge the crimes and apologize for it and not -- they would not be punished as long as they stood up to the history, to the horrors that they had committed. extraordinary thing. spike lee, great to talk to you as always. thank you very much for calling in we appreciate it. we'll continue the conversation
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shortly. let us know what you think. talk about mandela on twitter right now @andersoncooper. tweet #ac360. i want to talk about the kind of place south africa was. it's important not to forget this and put anytime context the way it was. it is sichlfully mind-blowing the horror of that regime for all those -- for all those years. as we go to break take a look. no greater tribute to nelson mandela right there and to how far south africa has come, a statue of mandela outside the south african embassy in washington. ♪
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it is not my custom to use words lightly. if after 27 years in prison have done anything to us, it was to use the silence of solitude to make us understand how precious words are. and how real speech eggs in its impact upon the way people live and die. >> nelson mandela understood both the power of words and
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strength of bearing and later life that meant forebearance and forgiveness. earlier he embodied fierce resistance. here again robin kurnow. >> reporter: the 1960s in south africa began with a massive government crackdown on the opposition to apartheid. the african national congress and the pan african congress were banned. anyone connected to those organizations were arrested. but the resistance did not stop. it went underground. and the tactics became more violent. >> in december 1961, the military wing of the anc was launched. the leader of it was nelson mandela. >> reporter: also known as mk was responsible for attacks on public fa sill tis in the early 1960s. nelson mandela was soon back in jail for inciting workers to
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strike and for leaving the country illegally. in 1963, mandela and other contra leaders went on trial on charges of guerilla warfare and planning bomb attacks. the rivonia trial found them guilty, and they were sentenced to life in prison. >> the day before the judge gave his verdict on the 12th of june, 1964, he made a remarkable speech. because he thought -- they thought that they are going to get the death penalty. >> i have cherished the idea of a democratic and free society in which all persons will live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. it is an idea for which i hope
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to live for. but, my lord, if it need be, it is an idea for which i am prepared to die. >> an idea for which he's prepared to die. back with our panel,less bring in senior political analyst david gergen as well. congressman rangel, i want to start off with you. in an interview you gave you said one of your proudest moments was meeting mandela not long after he'd been released from prison, he not only knew your name but also your nickname, bloody charlie rangel. tell us what that was like and what he was referring to. >> it was the bloody rangel amendment. someone implied earlier in the show that nelson did not appreciate the united states of america being a late comer to the battle against apartheid. and that's just not so.
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nelson mandela recognized that the racist country that he had to battle with the whites in south africa that racism in america was there. he understood that. but when america came, we didn't come just with hopes that it would happen. the rangel amendment was a part of an overall grooagreement tha ronald reagan signed that forced the united states firms doing business in south africa to not be tax-exempt and to pay taxes here as well as to the people in south africa. and as a result of that, the companies left. nelson mandela knew thought was the pressure that we put on american firms that broke the economy, that led to the crushing of apartheid. and he was deeply appreciative of that. he knew that we had in america spots that we were not proud of on our history. but he also knew that it was our
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constitution and our love for freedom was what he was wanted to and did bring to south africa. so anybody that would say because castro and the other countries were more sympathetic than we were, you bet your life we're not proud of the fact that we were late to get involved in this freedom fight. but nelson mandela loved america, and he loved the appreciation that we have given to him. but finally i want to say one gift that he gave to black america was our heritages. we have been raised and separate from africa from the time we came here in slavery. we lost our names, our culture, our music. and not only did they take it away but they would have us to believe that the people in africa, the place that civilization was born, was inferior. one thing is abundantly clear, that when nelson hit harlem, when nelson was freed, when nelson became president, people of african descent all over the
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world and especially in my harlem, he gave us a gift that the country never gave us. >> donna brazil, you went to south africa to help in the elections in advance of '94. when you look back at your own life, i know you say mandela was a tremendous inspiration for you. but i think it's important that we also remember the horrors of apartheid, the reality of it. i think for many people who didn't grow up underneath it, it's hard to imagine what it was actually like. >> well, just talking to people in south africa, what they describe at times the segregation, of course, lack of jobs, opportunities, the fear of going into another neighborhood without proper credentials or papers. it was quite heart-blareaking b at the same time inspirational. they wanted, they yernd for freedom. they supported nelson mandela. they looked forward to the election of 1994 and they celebrated. they celebrated by standing in
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lines, anderson, for almost 24 hours anticipating that they could for the first time, many of them in their lives, vote. they wanted to be able to say that they voted for nelson mandela. it was a joyful occasion. >> and david gergen is joining us for the first time tonight. david, your thoughts on this mandela who was really an adept politician in many ways. i mean, walking that line in south africa in advance of his first election was an extraordinary thing. >> yes, absolutely right, anderson. what you find frequently among these giants who walked among us, gandhi was -- martin luther king and also nelson mandela, all three underneath were extraordinarily good politicians. so was abraham lincoln. they really understood. and they relished the exercise of power. rick stangel who knows nelson mandela better more than anybody else i've known and just written a wonderful book about him will tell you that underneath this
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dignity and this aura of love, there was a tough guy. and i think it's one of the reasons he succeeded as well as he did. >> and robin kurnow in south africa, we mare nelson mandela referred to as mandiba. his name actually was not nelson. that was a name given to him by a schoolteacher on his first day of school. what's the significance behind the name mandiba? explain that. >> reporter: it's a clan name. it's a familiar name. it's a sense of belonging. and i think people used that across the clan, the various clans in this country. rolislasla is his given name. it means in literal translation troublemaker. and he has and was a troublemaker. a rebellious man. he was stubborn. he was pig-headed at times. just look at the way he's fought for his health in the last few years. i mean, he did not go gently into the good night to paraphrase that poem.
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this was a man who fought and fought until the end. and he did. i think what is also key i think some of your analysts have referred to it is also the sense that he also kept a lot of himself to himself. that time in prison, also cut himself off emotionally to survive he had to have a mask as one of his grandsons told me. and he found it very difficult coming out of prison. and his family found it very difficult when he came out of prison to connect. had he had to be taught how to be a family man again. and i think there was a lot of shifting and a lot of blame and a lot of emotions in the last 20 years as he tried to learn how to be a family man. because he had cut off so much of that to survive emotionally within prison and within the psychological warfare of challenging apartheid. >> we'll have more with robin coming up. congressman rangel, appreciate you being with us. donna brazil as well. nelson mandela leaves behind a large family. to them he was a husband,
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father, grand father. some of their memories ahead. more also about the reality of apartheid and south africa today. what is happening there now. it's important we talk about that as well. this was the hardest decision i've ever had to make.
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freedom obviously came a great personal cost to nelson mandela and his family. his 27 years in prison robbed him of time with his family that can never be recaptured. in the years after his release he watched his family grow into a sprawling clan. they're the ones who knew him as no one else could in many ways. we wish them strength obviously in the days ahead. once again here's robyn kurnow. ♪ happy birthday to you >> reporter: nelson mandela had a large family. children, grandchildren, great grandchildren. who gathered each year to sing him happy birthday. in return he sometimes offered advice, some of it useful, some of it not. said his grandson mbuso speaking to cnn in mandela's house during his 94th birthday celebrations. >> it had been raining. he's looking outside and i'm sitting there quiet i'm on my phone. he said you know, mbuso, when i
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was young i used to run outside naked in the rain. i think you should go and do that now. i started laughing. i started laughing. >> what a great piece of advice. [ laughter ] >> reporter: mandela was not only irreverent, humorous. >> i am a yankee. >> reporter: and a lifelong rebel, but he also taught his children about humility said his daughter zinzie in an interview in 2010. >> i remember one of my first trips with him to the states when he was president, he was mobbed as usual by people. there was a woman there she came close to collapsing, she was quite emotional. he was very quiet in the car. even overnight still very quiet, very reflective. then he said, darling, did you see how emotional that woman was? and he says, up wonder why. >> zinzi mandela was just a small child when her dad was sentenced to life in prison robben island. she only saw him again when she was a teenager. the original drafts of letters
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he wrote to his children while in prison are now archived in the mandela foundation. >> this is written to my darlings. his two young daughters. >> zinzi and zeni, yeah. >> i love this line here where he compliments zeni for learning to cook chips, rice, meat and many other things. then he says the most poignant thing in 1969 "i'm looking forward to the day when i'll be able to enjoy all that she cooks." he was only released in 1990. >> a long way to go still. yea yeah. >> reporter: he wrote those letters in the cell with the strain of worrying about his family growing up without him is evidence in his prison diaries, transcribed by an archive it in 2008, mind mandela reported his dreams, a psychological record of the dread, the anxiety he felt. >> dreamt of kata falling into a ditch and injuring leg. dreamt of returning home late at
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night almost at dawn, embraced sickly zami as she enters the back door of our orlando home. zeni is about two years and has swallowed a razor blade which she vomits out. >> reporter: but nearly three decades of being locked away from loved ones taught him how to bury those fear, said his granddaughter in 2012. >> he keeps his emotions very well guarded. and understandably so. because for more than two decades, it's something that he could master. and he keeps those close to his chest. >> reporter: inside his home, during his 94th birthday celebrations, his other granddaughters rearranged family photographs, reminders that when he eventually did come home, 27 years later, nelson mandela found his family still there waiting for him. >> and from johannesburg, robyn kurnow is joining us along with
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our panel. robyn, in south africa today the anc is facing great divisions right now. >> reporter: absolutely. the anc of today, of democracy 20 years on after mandela became the first black president, it is in many people's view not the vision, not the party that mandela envisioned. there's a lot of corruption. there's a real sense that the party perhaps has lost its way. many people still deeply devoted and still reliant on the fact that this was the liberation party. there's still an emotional attachment to the anc. but a lot of people here and within the anc are starting to question where this party will take them in the next 20 years. and i think it's going to be a very difficult road, not only for the party but for this country, as it navigates i suppose the post-mandela era.
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and i think there are, depending who you speak to, there are challenges. there are complexities. and south africans are very much aware of that. >> sort of the young firebrand leader who's broken away from the anc, created his own party. >> he's caused a huge amount of trouble, julius melema. they've kicked him out of the party of that wing. even president obama when he went to south africa just a few months ago talked about the great transformation in all sorts of ways. there are many many ways, south africa for awhile was the engine of africa for a long time after mandela and democracy came. but it's slowing down obviously the growth, and there is massive corruption as robyn said. and the president pointed that out. this is something that's really sort of harmed the fabric of society there. it is now one of the most unequal societies in the world. and really that hope of the rainbow nation which mandela and mandelaism sustained is being very, very, very, very stressed and the fabric is tearing apart.
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>> and they're new to democracy. we've been working at it for two centuries. to go back into the days when i was working with him during the election in 1994, he was determined to win more than two-thirds of the vote so the anc could amend the constitution. it is a one-party state. they saw it as a one-party state. they didn't see anything wrong with that. as democracy becomes more sophisticated it has to become a multi-party state. and that is where the growing pains are going on in south africa now. that's a real struggle for them. >> david gergen's with us as well. we have a picture of mandela with president obama, then senator i think obama in washington, d.c. david, do you think the legacy of nelson mandela and his ability to steer south africans to democracy should be used as a template for other places where the few oppress the many? >> oh, yes, absolutely. and it's more than that, anderson. first of all, i don't think nelson mandela should be held accountable for what happens
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after he dies. other great leaders have been founders of a country. our own george washington, we had a lot of problems in this country after he died. and yet we look upon him as this heroic figure who helped to found the country and set the example. i think in nelson mandela's case he's a more transcendent figure. he transcends south africa and he belongs to the world. because there's something about his story. joseph campbell some years ago wrote this book called" the hero's journey." it was about the notion that in cultures all over the world all three the centuries there has been a central story about someone, a young man often or young woman who goes out into the world and faces enormous adversity, overcomes that adversity and comes back as this sort of moral leader. and that's what's universal about nelson mandela. he had the hero's journey. and we haven't seen someone like -- that's very rare we see someone like this. and i think he's inspired the world. i think people feel he doesn't belong only to south africa.
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of course he's their son. but he belongs to us. he belongs to all of us. and that's what makes him inspirational. >> it's an interesting point. we're going to continue the conversation. coming up next there are so many iconic moments from nelson mandela' life. we're going take a look at the 1995 rugby world cup. an extraordinary moment where he reached out to white afrikaners in a very unique way, in a way that only he could have done. why it was so much more than just a sporting event. we'll be right back. i have low testosterone. there, i said it.
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welcome back to our continuing coverage of the life and death of nelson mandela. i want to focus on a moment when nelson mandela really showed south after caricans a vision o the country could be. this moment certainly changed many minds in south africa, certainly white south africa about nelson mandela. here's robyn kurnow once again. >> reporter: a defining moment of that presidency would come during the 1995 rugby world cup. after decades in isolation, south africa's sporting teams
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could once again participate against the world's best. and the country's first democratically-elected president was there to cheer the springboks on in johannesburg. >> when he walked out of that tunnel wearing the number 6 jersey, that white predominantly afrikaners crowd starting chanting his name. watch the footage. as i say i get goose bumps. i could not believe what i was hearing. how could this ever happen? and yet he just understood fundamentally understood that that kind of a symbolic gesture of putting on a rugby jersey and identifying with a logo, a symbol, would go so much further than any speech or policy or political agenda ever. and he brought, i would
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estimate, 85% of white south africans on board right there on that day. >> it was magic. it was profound. it was incredibly necessary that the country and the people of south africa looked each other in the eye and said, hey, mate, we're world champions. >> what did mandela say to you as that trophy was lifted? >> very special. because when i walked up onto the stage to get the trophy from madiba, his first words were thank you, francois, for what you havedom done for this kumpblt i became so emotional because i couldn't believe what he said that to me. i said no, mr. mandela, thank you for what you've done. >> just one of those moments. you can't script that. hollywood can't write this stuff. >> incredible moment to see it again. more now on the people who knew nelson mandela not just as a resistance leader but before
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that. george bezos was on the legal team that represented mandela. they first met in the late 40s when they were college classmates. i spoke with him by phone earlier. >> mr. bezos, let me ask you, because you were involved in the truth and reconciliation commission. you were involved in the formation of the constitution in south africa. how did nelson mandela not have hate in his heart after 27 years in prison? how did he not hate those who had taken his life away? >> let me give you an anecdote. when he was sent to robben island in 1964, six weeks after his imprisonment i went to visit him. i saw him being marched by no less than 12 afrikaner warders,
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white afrikaner warders. i slipped through the first, two two in the front, two at the back, two on the left, two on the right, and embraced him. this absolutely shook them that a white man would embrace a black man. and then he asked me how his wife was and how his daughters were. and then he said, george, you know, i haven't been here very long. but i have forgotten my manners. i have not introduced you to my guard of honor. >> his guard of honor. >> he proceeded to introduce me by the first name and surname in afrikaans. >> that's incredible. >> and they were actually mortified. what is this business? we're not accustomed to black people behaving this way. even though many of the warders
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would not treat black prisoners as human beings, he made it his business to treat the warders as human beings. and being a lawyer, you know they had their small problems and things that he would discuss with them. and he wanted to persuade the people of south africa as a whole that they did not have to be afraid of fundamental change in the country. >> to meet that kind of hate with compassion, to give legal advice to the white afrikaaners who were oppressing him and jailing him is an extraordinary thing. mr. bizos, i appreciate you spending some time with us tonight. thank you. >> thank you. >> we're going to be right back with some final thoughts from our panel. life with crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
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back with christiane amanpour, rick stangel and david gergen. it's remarkable to hear george bizos right before the break. >> it really is and talking about how he was so polite to his guards. some might think this is because he was a polite, aristocratic man. but i think he was a brilliant politician. he played the enemy. he got into the head of the enemy. he knew the white man, learned the white man's language and
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gradually wore them down. by keeping that dignity he forced them to respect him. forced the adversary to respect him. >> forced them to treat him as a human being. >> it was very tactical. he would often recite afrikaaners poetry with me. when he first met with p.w.boto and f.w. de klerk he would talk about rugby scores. it was very tactical and effective. >> an amazing astute politician. >> yes. as christiane amanpour said. and philosophical about life. that came in prison, wonderfully interesting years. in the 90s when he was out he came to see bill clinton. clinton was going through the tra vail of monica. he came to the united states a day early so he could spend time with president clinton and counsel him about all the pummelling coming his way.
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clinton said later what nelson mandela told him was, they can imprison you. your enemies can go after you. what you cannot give them is your heart and soul. you must keep that for yourself. if you can do that you can maintain your dignity. >> and nelson mandela did that throughout his entire life. david gergen, thanks for joining us. rick stangel fascinating as well, christiane amanpour no doubt we'll be talking a lot in the days ahead. thanks for watching cnn's special coverage of the death of nelson mandela. it continues next with wolf blitzer. welcome to our viewers in the united states and around the world as we remember nelson mandela. i'm wolf blitzer in washington. we're learning new details about tribut tributes south africa's first black president and president obama intention to attend a memorial service for one of his personal heroes, who transformed his country and inspired people all over the world. >> we've lost one of the most influential, courageous and


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