tv Vital Signs with Dr. Sanjay Gupta CNN April 23, 2016 11:30am-12:01pm PDT
>> reporter: when you think of the future of technology what comes to mind? maybe robots or flying cars. what about technology's role in medicine? well, in many ways the future is already here. this is "vital signs." i'm dr. sanjay gupta. technology and medicine are a powerful combination. take emergency response systems, for example. ever since 1968, when there's a medical emergency here in the united states, you call 911. an ambulance arrives equipped with trained first responders and medical supplies to take you to the hospital. on the way there you're already receiving care. those precious minutes can make all the difference in saving
your life, but in many countries that's not the case. there is no emergency response infrastructure, but a software program calmed beacon is ready to change that. alongside lake victoria in east africa, this is tanzania. more than 800,000 people live here making it tanzania's second largest city, but infrastructure here is unreliable. bad roads and heavy congestion make accidents the leading cause of trauma in the city, and there's no modern emergency response system in place here or anywhere in tanzania. >> so this is dispatching room. >> reporter: marco is a recent medical school graduate here. at just 27 years old he's also the founder and executive director of the tanzania rural health movement. >> we look for partner who we can work with to start, to create a good
coordinated personal care. that is where the trek medics come in. >> reporter: trek medics first responder was started by jason friesen back in 2009. using a software system, they developed, called beacon, trek medics provide the foundation for emergency response systems in places that don't have one. like mawanza. >> so this office is a controlled room where we receive calls from community. emergency calls. and then where we put those information in our software on the laptop. >> reporter: marco partnered with trek medics to bring beacon here, as one of two pilot programs funded by a google grant. the other one is in the dominican republic. in tanzania, it's the fire station that serves as a dispatch office for beacon. >> so right now the system tells me there are ten active first responders. >> reporter: so here's how it works --
when a medical emergency happens, a traffic accident, for example, someone at the accident scene calls the local emergency number. a dispatcher takes all the relevant information and enters it into beacon. here's the critical part to understand. in mawanza, and across much of africa, nearly everyone has a cell phone. so beacon sends out a text message to first responders in the system. the first responders reply via text and the ones closest to the scene are dispatched. along the way, they can text information back to beacon, like the number of patients, the type of trauma, and estimated time to the hospital. the beacon project isn't just about the software. it's also about the training. focusing on a few key areas -- like major bleeding, and airway obstructions. nothing too advanced. just enough to stabilize a patient before the they arrive at the hospital. this program is only a month old, but in that short time, marco says they have saved 11
patients and counting. 9 of the 11 were involved in traffic accidents. the biggest challenge now is raising awareness that the service exists. >> it's a new system. people have never had this for free before. so they're used to putting a relative in a car. >> reporter: to raise that awareness and to assist in training the first responders, marco and trek medics run simulations. the first responders don't know the simulation scheduled for today. that's part of the training. they are simulating a severe leg injury after a traffic accident. don't worry. that's fake blood. marco places the call to beacon, starting the simulation. >> so we expect to have them here responding. >> reporter: it doesn't take long before a crowd gathers. that's what marco was banking on. it's part of the awareness aspect of the simulation.
he passes out flyers and most critically, providing the emergency number. in this case an ambulance arrives first on the scene. the responders stabilize the patient, applying a tourniquet to the thigh. getting him on a stretcher, and into the ambulance. then it's off to the hospital. during that critical time, care is being provided where it wasn't before. >> at the hospital, where it is end of our today's simulation, and it was a very good job done by first responders, as they responded on the call. just within ten minutes they already arrived at the hospital. >> reporter: so far beacon covers roughly 100,000 people in mawanza, but marco plans to expand to the city's full 800,000-plus population within the next six months. >> my dream for this program is to make it successful.
to make sure each individual can have access to this free hospital care. >> infrastructure is key here, but what happens when roads just aren't an option? that's the case in a lot of places around the world, and for timely responses like medical specimen testing, it's time to look to the sky. is there a future in health care for drones? >> announcer: "vital signs" with dr. sanjay gupta is brought to you by --
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according to the world health organization, non-communicable diseases kill 38 million people worldwide every year. we're talking about heart disease, cancer, diabetes. diseases that are not passed from person to person. these chronic diseases also require continued testing, often over the lifetime of a patient. that means access to labs for things like blood and urine samples. again, it's a matter of infrastructure, and, again, technology could provide the solution. this time, however, we're not looking to the roads, but to the sky. in the core laboratory at john hopkins hospital in baltimore, lab tech nixes are busy testing everything from hair to blood samples. some 10,000 samples come through here every day. dr. timothy amukale is a pathologist here.
after visiting labs around the world and particularly in subsaharan africa, tim had an idea. if transporting samples from medical testing was one of the biggest hurdles because of traffic, poor roads, lack of accessibility, why not remove those factors altogether? why not fly them in a drone? >> the idea for using drones first came from the problems of moving samples internationally. there's a lot of places in the world where there's no roads. there's trouble getting specimens to places that can actually do the testing. however, the advantage of drones is that they don't require -- they don't need roads. >> reporter: when you get your blood drawn or give a urine sample at the doctor's office, testing is rarely done at that location. there are roughly 200,000 registered labs in the united states, but tim says most of them are primarily collection sites that can perform a few key tests but not the full range, and that requires the samples to be moved. how important is speed when it comes to testing these samples? >> speed is everything for
biological reasons. not like moving a shoe or book. there for a day, it's okay. if it sits there a long time at some point the specimen starts deteriorating and is not so useful anymore. >> reporter: a lack of obstructions would speed up the process, and that's where the drones come in. >> so a drone is a transport mechanism, and i think in five or ten years they'll be just like having a motorcycle or something. where it doesn't matter what you put on it, as long as you package it safely and transport it according to the regulations it will be just fine. >> reporter: the first of its kind, tim ran approve of a proof of concepts study to see if blood samples in this case could be successfully transported via drone. tim took six blood samples each from 56 volunteers.
half the samples were taken to the hopkins lab. the other half -- were loaded on a drone and flown around for varies time periods between 6 and 38 minutes. >> my biggest concern, and this is why we addressed it first, is that the drone transport itself would deteriorate the samples. the pressure of the air. destroying some of the blood samples. so really they're that sensitive. so my initial fear was that transporting the drone, because of the engine, and the way its launched, it's launched by hand and the shaking and all that would deteriorate the blood specimen. >> reporter: what do you find? >> we found that they didn't. they worked just fine. it was great. ♪ >> reporter: i wanted to see the drone in action. so we drove an hour from johns hopkins to an faa approved drone field where tim performed the original study. waiting for us with a couple of drones is jeff street, an engineer who helped him with the study. >> so this is it? huh? this is the drone? >> yeah. >> i guess i'm not exactly sure what i expected, but here --
i mean, this is styrofoam, and there are rubber bands that are sort of holding the wings of the overall drone itself. and you've got the compartment here for the battery and -- i guess the specimens. that's pretty much it. >> reporter: these are not that expensive, and that's exactly the point. jeff says this hobby-grade drone costs less than $100. that's important, because if you're supplying these to developing areas, you don't want something incredibly expensive to replace or repair. >> all right. so now we're ready to fly. >> reporter: the drone launches by hand into the wind. >> imagine that? and just seeing those all across these remote areas of the world. carries specimens, medicines. >> exactly. >> that changes the game. >> absolutely. >> reporter: tim acknowledges this is just the first in a long line of steps. the regulations for drones differ in every country, and in many cases are still being
worked out. there are other questions as well. like, who would fly it? and how do they make it secure? the samples are packed in this foam with a special sponge so that if it does crash or a tube breaks, the specimen is fully absorbed. >> it doesn't answer all the other questions, but the key question was, does the blood arrive okay? because if it doesn't arrive okay, then none of it matters. >> reporter: the other hurdle, and perhaps the largest one, is the drone itself, or, rather, the word "drone." >> when we say the word "drones" people think of things that fly over their heads and kill their children. that's not what we're talking about here. we're talking about small unmanned flying systems. so we're talking about essentially a different way to transport goods. >> reporter: that's a perception issue. >> it's a perception issue. >> reporter: the next step is more testing. tim estimates he will have trials up and running in the
united states and abroad within the next six months. >> that represents a future to you. doesn't it? >> yeah. absolutely. absolutely. >> that's pretty neat. >> reporter: in many ways the future is already here. that's the case for some kids at children's hospital in st. louis, missouri. >> hello. >> hello, human companion. >> reporter: where a visit from dr. robot means a much-needed virtual escape beyond the hospital walls. it's true what they say. technology moves faster than ever. the all-new audi a4, with apple carplay integration. at our retirement plan today. not now! i'm cleaning the oven! yeah, i'm cleaning the gutters! well i'm learning snapchamp! chat. chat! changing the oil... (vo) it's surprising what people would rather do than deal with retirement. pressure-washing the... roses. aerating the lawn!
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>> celia the robot is becoming a familiar sight here at the st. louis science center in missouri. >> a robot! >> it's a robot. >> reporter: perhaps what makes celia so interesting is not the fact that she's here. it is a science museum, after all. >> it reinflates. isn't that cool? >> reporter: it's why she's here, and to understand that, you need to meet robert. >> he is a very easygoing kid. i mean, nothing bothers him. he just kind of goes with the flow. you know? >> he liked outdoor stuff. fishing and stuff. me and him go fishing. of course, his mom, too, and he likes to play ball. he loved playing ball. >> reporter: robert was a curious kid who loved being outside. so when he suddenly wasn't interested in doing that anymore, his mother knew something was wrong. >> he just wasn't robert. you know? he didn't go outside and play like he normally does. kind of sat on the couch and watched tv and -- just -- you
know. and he was kind of pale. he mentioned a headache. i thought, we better take you to the doctor. >> reporter: right after the doctor noticed his spleen was enlarged and a test reveal add white blood sell count of 200,000. that's 20 times higher than normal. robert was diagnosed with leukemia. robert was flown by helicopter to st. louis children's hospital while he parents made the three-hour drive to meet him there. robert started chemotherapy, and in the past three years, he's already had two bone marrow transplants. his little brother was the donor for both, and in just a few days robert is having her third transplant. he's only 14 years old. >> i think if he lives through this, it will change him in the future. he may not know it now, but he will when he grows up. >> reporter: remembering to enjoy life can sometimes be tough when you're stuck in the hospital for a long time. robert's parents say he spent
more time here in the last three years than at home, but today there's a special treat in store for him. >> hello, human companion. i am gngks. please tell me your name. >> robert. >> reporter: this is meccano. >> it is customary to shake upon meeting a new acquaintance. >> reporter: and this is keith miller, a professor at the university of missouri st. louis. here at the hospital, he's affectionately known as dr. robot. celia, the robot cruising around the science center, was his idea. >> robots have the kind of potential computers always had, but robots have this physical dimension. they can also go, they can move, they can have an affect in the world that computers, your pc just sitting there, can't have. >> it's slotted here. so we -- pull it down. >> i had never met robert, and
everyone i talked to said, robert's a great guy. he's really smart, really quick, but he's real quiet. don't take it personal. when that meccano got going, he wanted to know how that robot worked. he lit up, and i love to see that. >> reporter: meccano is just a warm-up. the real aim for this visit is to get robert out of his hospital room. he can't physically do that, but keith found a way to do so virtually. >> we had just ordered these vigil robots and the robots one of their selling points if a child is sick, the child can attend school using one of these robots, and i thought, whoa. there are a lot of sick kids in that children's hospital. maybe we can get them hooked up for a virtual visit to the science center. >> you can use a and s. >> reporter: keith's assistant trey helps robert set up a laptop. >> hello. can you say hi? >> hi. >> hi. >> can you hear us all right?
>> reporter: in no time at all, robert is virtually controlling the robot in the st. louis museum center down the road. >> so these guys over here are making parachutes. >> okay. >> reporter: he is driving it from the laptop. he can see what it sees through the camera. he can have conversations with people on the museum side, including his tour guide for today, christian. >> let's head our way to the pay paleo lap, see if we can find some dinosaurs. >> yeah. ♪ >> sodium chloride, lithium and copper. which one's your favorite? which color? >> green. >> the green. yeah. yeah. the copper is one of my favorites. >> even though we're just a few mimes from where that robot is, you could do this from here to tokyo, and it would have pretty much the same kind of effect. in fact, we're looking into that, is getting robots all over the place to talk to kids in lots of different hospitals.
>> reporter: on the museum end, kids at the science center noticed the robot, and come over to say hi. >> hi, robert. my name is james. >> they're making a connection. they're getting tied together. what a great use of technology, to get a kid who has to be at the hospital and a kid who's at the science center and they make a connection via the robot. how cool is that? >> reporter: robert via his robot travels through the science center, from the maker's lab -- >> get this guy in there -- >> reporter: to the dinosaur exhibit. and everywhere in between. >> this is one of his brow horns. so this would have been right above his eye. >> reporter: the entire time, a smile, ear to ear, on robert's face. >> i've noticed my son's lost his shyness. >> this is one of e fe opportunities i have found to have the kids be out of this place, emotionally. like, he's not here right now. he's not in that bed. he's not in the schoolroom, one on one with an adult.
he is out with those kids in the science center, being the coolest thing in the room, not the sick kid they feel sorry for. >> reporter: less than a week after we met robert he had his third bone marrow transplant, and we're happy to report it's been a suction so far. from a patient's medical care to morale, it's clear that technology has a big role to play in the future of medicine. for "vital signs," i'm dr. sanjay gupta. -- captions by vitac -- www.vitac.com
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♪ well, you are in the "cnn newsroom." i'm pamela brown in for poppy harlow on this saturday, and we want to take you right to the growing memorial outside paisley park where fans have been gathering all day to celebrate the musical genius of prince. the legendary artist who blended soaring guitars, funk and flamboyant dance moves, and as those tributes continue to pour in we're learning more about his final days. official cause of death, though, could take weeks as authorities await the results of an autopsy. we know the singer's body has been r