tv Fareed Zakaria GPS CNN May 29, 2016 10:00am-11:01am PDT
this is gps, the global public square. welcome to all of you in the united states and around the world. i'm fareed zakaria. we're starting with a tour of the world's hot spots. afghanistan, where the taliban have a new leader. iraq, whether there's fierce fighting to take back towns like fallujah from isis. israel, where there's an open revote against bibinetanyahu. and federal court order to desegregate schools. no, this is not 1954, this is the united states of today. the return of segregation. also facebook, pay-pal,
linkedin, reed hoffman has been crucial in each. the ultimate entrepreneur and investor will tell me what the future of technology looks like and how he networks. >> i'll be a janitor. i just want to start here and work my way up. >> finally, they are burning the barricades in france again. can you hear the people sing? well, surely you can hear them shout about what the french are being forced to do to actually improve their economy. but first, here's my take. donald trump's positions on public policy have shifted over the years, months even days, but on one issue, he has been utterly consistent. >> this country is a hellhole. we are going down fast. >> his message is to make
america great again. but in fact, it is increasingly clear that the united states has in recent years reinforced its position as the leading technological and economic power. the country dominates virtually all leading industries from social networks to mobile telephony. it has transformed itself into an energy superpower, while also moving to the cutting edge of the green technology revolution. and it is demographically vibrant, while all its major economic periods, while japan, and even china face certain population decline. the author of an intelligent new book "the seventh sense" argues that in an age of networks, the winner often takes all. he point out that there are nine global tech platforms -- google chrome, facebook, microsoft
office, et cetera that are used by over 1 billion people. all dominate their respective markets and all are american. in a pair of escales, two colors point out that china is the closest the united states has to a rising rival, but only on one measure, gdp, brooks and wohlford noe note that half of china's exports are assembled there, and exported out mostly for western nationals. take the most potent form of forced projection, aircraft carrier, the united states operates ten, china currently has one, a secondhand ukrainian ship that it had to retrofit. in the realm of high-tech -- war fare, drones, stealth, washington's lead is even greater. perhaps most important, the
united states has a web of allies around the world and is actually developing new ones like india and vietnam. meanwhile china has one military ally, north korea. the complexity of today's international system is that despite this american dominance, other countries have in fact gained ground. in 1990, china's share of gdp was 1.7%, now it's 15%. developing countries have gone from 20% of the global economy to 40% in the same period. while gdp is not everything, it is a reflection of the realty that no single country, not even the united states can impose its will on the rest. i tried to describe this emerging landscape in my 2008 book "the post american world" in which i wrote -- washington has true no rival and will not for a very long time, but it faces a growing number of constraints, china has large and growing influence in the world,
as can be seen by creating the asian infrastructure investment bank this past year over washington's objections. rising regional powers like saudi arabia and turkey, assert their own interests in the middle east, often disrupting american efforts. even pakistan, an ally and aid recipient quietly defies america in afghanistan by supporting the tal barn. the reality is that america remains the world's leading power, but it can only achieve its objectives by defining its efforts broadly and creating a network of cooperation. that does not fit on the campaign camp. for more go to cnn.com/fareed and read my "washington post" column this week. let's get started. ♪ there is lots happening in the world today, we have got a
great panel to talk about it. an marie slauter, is a former state dreamt. bret is the deputy editor of the pages editorial page. and he wall street a top state department official. and peter beinard is a cnn political commentator. brett, i want to talk to you about a rather controversial -- and rather graphic video. it shows an israeli soldier fatally shooting an already wounded palestinian man, suspected in a knife attack, the soldier's attorney says the soldier feared for his life, but an assessment by the idf found that the wounded man posed no apparent threat when the shooting took place. what then happened was the series of political events that ended with the firing of the
defense minister and seemingly with some top military officials criticizing the government. what is going on? is there a -- the way it's been portrayed is that the military, the generals in israel feel that the government has become too kind of aggressive in its -- in its use of anti-counterterrorism and is willing to violate basic military protocol? >> judging from the video, it seems clear that the soldier who killed that palestinian assailant pretty much in cold blood, he faces charges of manslaughter and up to 20 years in prison. and if what the video seems to show proves to be the case, i think he should serve a very heavy sentence, that is one issue. and this issue was taken up by a number of politicians, including the new defense minister, saying hey, this palestinian was trying to kill one of our boys and essentially he deserves what he
got. and, of course, the military is i think rightfully aghast at that point of view. it doesn't serve israel's interests in any way. but there's a secondary issue, which is the military's decision and of the former defense minister's decision to say to his officers, you guys can say what you want in public about the political statements and moves of your civilian masters and that seems to be a very separate issue. because in a democracy, a military staying away from politics, it's what obama asserted with mcchrystal and with douglas mccarthy. >> what i think the generals would argue is the behavior of these politician crosses a line where it threatens israeli democracy itself, right, peter? >> what's fascinating is that the most powerful opposition to benjamin netanyahu, is on the
military establishment on iran and very strong statements of former leaders and heads of internal and external security service about the path that israel is going down. what makes the problem complicated when you talk about the military's role in a democracy, is that for 49 years now israel has been holding a territory which is not a democracy, because the vast majority of people in the west bank cannot vote, are not citizens of the states that controls their lives. the new defense minister himself lives in a settlement. he does not live in a democracy, and i think this is the sense of fear, the erosion, in a way it's almost a parallel to what you're seeing in the republican party. the likud was a conservative party that had a parliamentary individual rights tradition. people like lieberman represent the overthrow of that with a hyper-nationalist, thuggish authoritarian policy, a little a la donald trump, and the military is pushing back.
>> that's all to one side. the basic issue is do the civilians control the military? whether you like the policies or views of those civilians. and that seems fundamental in any democracy. that that theory -- that view has to be established. doing las mcaural thurl probably better than the peoplesh >> surely the civilian control has some limits. if the civilian government violates the constitution, basic human rights, takes the country to a place that essentially upends the constitutional order then the military has the right to stand up and say that, and from what i hear, not only the israel and the idf saying, wait a minute, to the government, you are are putting personal and political issues ahead of the national interests and ahead of the values on which israel was founded. >> the issue is that i don't think any generals were fired in israel, but rather
a politician that tried to articulate the military's point of view was fired. >> the defense minister. >> and here with the issue of gays in the military, or other issues in the military, you don't have the secretary of defense getting fired for articulating the general's position. >> let me ask a question related to this. bernie sanders appears to have decided that he would like to amendment the democratic 6 platform to change the language on israel. what's going on there? >> it's an interesting development. the democratic party since 2004 has said it supports the two-state solution, but it only articulates the value of that in terms of israel's -- it does not in any of its platforms say anything about the fact that palestinians actually have rights and that is what bernie sanders' representatives, the platform committee is going to want to talk about. that is a important moral shift, particularly important in the face of like lieberman. if lieberman would like to get
itself two state solution by redrawing the border and essentially kicking palestinian citizens out of the country. bernie sanders is actually the an accidental figure talking about this. it's a sign about how the democratic party is shifting. >> what do you think hillary's reaction would be? you're a former top adviser to her. >> secretary clinton is clear about her support for israel's extraordinarily strong support for israel, but she's been very clear about the value of a two-state solution. and i think she would say it's in israel's interest because it is consistent with the country that israel was founded to be and israel's long-term stability and security. so i don't think she would have any problems talking about palestinian rights but that still is in israel's interest. >> when we come back, we're going to talk about the rest of the world. and i will ask brett stevens, "wall street journal" editorial page guy, who he is going to vote for in november. is commie label.
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and we are back with our panel. afghanistan, leader of the taliban killed, new leader in place. you handled this issue for richard holbrooke when he was the special representative. is there any hope here? i mean it seems like you wouldn't kill people you thought you could negotiate with, so it seems we're in this unending military campaign. >> well, i think at least there's been some time where there's a word in washington that afghanistan is going the way of iraq, it's not going smoothly and it may well collapse. i think there is a fear that we
will have a mosul moment in afghanistan. so the administration first tried to slow down the withdrawal, then tried to push very hard for reconciliation, reconciliation didn't happen. and i think there's an element of desperation here, because the administration essentially escalated the war with the taliban, and then declared it's extending the territory of the washington into pakistan proper with american military. we'll have to see if it's calling the bluff, or if the military is willing to reengage in this war the way it reengaged in iraq. on the ground, it was a very successful clinical strike. it was done well, but in reality, it shows that there's a huge hole in the administration's strategy and a lot of worry going forward. >> ann marie, that does soon right, that at the very least it seems like it suggests negotiations
are at a standstill and you're going to have to ramp up and you're ramping up in a situation where you've also alienated pakistan. it's worth noticing when osama bin laden -- when the currently leader is assassinated, he's in pakistan. when the current leader is assassinated, he's in pakistan. >> this was a very clear signal to pakistan, i think in many ways, independent of their actual goal of killing the head of the taliban, which is to say we are going after our enemies, the afghan government's enemies wherever they are, no matter. and i think you also have to read this together with an extremely important announcement this week, between india and iran and afghanistan, to build up an iranian port, to provided india access through iran into central asia. that's essentially saying, look, to the pakistanis, you can cut a deal, there can be
regional peace, or you're on one side, and we're going to take out our enemies wherever we find them. >> we want to keep going on the tour of -- it seems the iraqi government is now gearing up to try to take fallujah, maybe even take mosul, it's still not clear to me how that is going to work because somebody has to then govern the lands, and the sunnis don't like the shia government in baghdad running them. >> it seems like we're doing better militarily, the amount of territory isis controls is getting less. the amount of revenue they're getting is less. but you don't have a functional political compact to take advantage, even if you are to get military victories, isis, as horrible an organization is, is a symptom of the larger promise. you don't have a political compact there. you don't have legitimate leadership from the perspective of the sunnis and the united states probably doesn't have
enough leverage over the iraqi government to force the iraqi government to do the things it needs to do to gain. >> the iraqi political leaders are under pressure from their base to essentially protect them and to punish them for the amount of suicide bombings that are happening in iraq. partly the problem is we look at iraq the way we want to look at it. the iraqis are not in this fight in order to put iraq back together. they're wanting to protect the shias from what they see as an 'normous isis onslaught. to put the pictures of the saudi shia cleric that was killed on all the missiles. the message is very clear, that this is a shia/sunni fight, not about bringing iraq together. >> brett, i have to ask you, you have written eloquently against donald trump from the beginning, the rest of the republican establishment
has collapsed and surrendered to and entered he not particularly warm embrace. are you going to vote for donald trump in the fall? >> i most certainly will not vote for donald trump. i will vote for the least left wing opponent to trump and i want to make a vote and make sure that he is the biggest loser in presidential history since i don't know, alf landon or going back further. it's important that donald trump and what he represents, this kind of ethnic, quote, conservatism or decidively be rebuked that they will forever learn their lesson, they cannot nominate a man to manifestly unqualified to be president in any way, shape or form. so they have to learn the lesson perhaps the way mcgovern learned a lesson. george willis said let's have
him lose in 50 states, why not guam, puerto rico and the district of columbia too. >> and will "the wall street journal" editorialize also? >> the "wall street journal" has not endorsed a candidate since herbert hoover, and we will not repeat that mistakes. thank you all very much. next on gps, if you thought segregation in america was a thing of the past, you would be dead wrong. i will give you the data when we come back. it's true what they say. technology moves faster than ever. the all-new audi a4, with apple carplay integration.
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x1 makes it easy to find what you love. call or go online and switch to x1. only with xfinity. now for a what in the world segment. a federal court ordered a mississippi school district to desegregate its middle and high schools. no, this is not a headline from 1954. this ruling actually came down recently on the eve of the 62nd anniversary of brown versus board of education. that is the landmark case that deemed that racial segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. it has been six decades since the supreme court declared that separate education was inherently unequal.
but amazingly, since the 1990s, a complicated tangle of laws, discriminatory practices, and democratic shifts have led to a very real resurgence in america. let's start with education. they calculated the number of so called apartheid schools across the nation, schools with 1% or fewer white students and found that these schools had more than doubled since the peak of integration in 188. in 2011, there was 6,727 apartheid schools in the united states. a newly released government accountability office report confirms that in recent years american schools have become
ever more segregated. in the 2000-2001 school year, 9% of k-12 public cools were mostly poor or minority. these students were offered less science, less math and less college prep courses which compared to their peers in other schools. they were disproportionately more likely to be suspended or expelled, according to the gaou there's also a growing divide in america's housing. rutgers university professor says that between 2000 and 2013, the number of americans living in high poverty neighborhoods has nearly doubled from 7.2 million to 13.8 million. that income segregation looks a lot like racial segregation. he notes that nationwide more than one in four poor blacks live in extreme poverty neighborhoods compared to 1 in 13 poor whites. children are the most economically and racially segregated of all grooms. this is a tragedy.
we have lots of data that shows that separation is instead inequality. attended court ordered desegregated schools between the 1960s and 80s. johnson found that blacks who attended desegregated elementary schools were more likely to graduate and 22% less likely to be incarcerated as adults. blacks who spent five years in desegregated schools saul their health improve to the degree of being seven years younger. this group also earned on average 30% more annually than their cohorts who did not attend desegregated schools. what is more, johnson also found that the narrowing of the achievement gaps did not have any negative effects on whites on any metric. this all reminds me of something
the great martin luther king jr. once said -- it may be true that you cannot legislate integration, but you can legislate desegregation. while the law may not change the hearts of mention, but it changes the habits of men. when you change the habits of men, begin to change and attitudes will begin to change. up next on gps, billionaire reid hoffman, he's been visionary enough to get in on the ground floor of companies like facebook, paypal and linked in.
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where he today is the executive chairman he's also a member of the pay-pal mafia, the early employees of the payment site. and he invested early in facebook. hoffman also happens to be one of the most thoughtful and intelligent people i know in silicon valley. we met at his linkedin headquarters in silicon valley, in mountainview, california. >> reed, a pleasure to have you. >> a pleasure to be here. >> you must get this question asked a load -- what does the future of technology look to you. >> i think there's three things. there's a thesis, software eating the world. i think of it as transforming, rather than consumption, software is now becoming part of everything. and i think that changes the role in which bits shifted destinies of atoms. like to be very specific, you say, well, we're getting into personalized medicine, we actually have your genetic code.
>> or a simple example would be the bits of software is transforming the taxi industry by uber, so the bits are changing the atoms? >> exactly. so i think that continues. i think the next part of it is, again people usually refer to it as the data, i think of it as human index data. that's when we can build new kinds of application based on the massive amount of data is available. if you're talking about traffic, how do i get here and how do i get around the traffic. but it's thought of navigation, you're navigating a career, you're navigating a personal life, you're navigating entertainment and all of that navigation, can turn into new kinds of navigation. the third one is that we're beginning to get some very interesting direct connections between software and data and
biology. so the cost of sequencing the genome is coming down faster than moore's law. crisper, we are beginning to be able to rewrite the genetics in living organisms. for example if you have a specific genetic condition, that is just a few genes, you might actually save the child's life and have a feeling adult. like all technology, it's scary, but an amazing opportunity. >> one of the things you've often talked about is that silicon valley and the united states has a unique advantage but not in startup culture, but what you call blitz scaling, not just having the idea, but actually being able to take it to a wide number of people. explain that. >> so if startups were the only thing, which is usually the story you get from silicon valley, it's no fear of failure
technology, and taking risk. there would be companies all over the world. and yet when you look at the majority of the superinteresting tech companies that are all over the world, the majority are on the west coast and also in silicon valley. so why so many in an area with a total population of 8.5 million, 25 square miles, why facebook, linkedin, google, twitter, ebay, and the list goes on and on. what we have learned is not just startup, but also scaleup. and scaleup at speed. so i'm borrowing the blitzkrieg metaphor and it actually applies. the germans invented the changing warfare so you don't just advance to your supply chain, you carry enough munitions for one battle. so you either win or lose big. silicon valley has learned the same thing by scaleup.
a simple one was -- we won't do any phone customer service, we'll do it all by e-mail. that's the equivalent, we'll leave the supply chain behind us and we'll run very far and very fast out and establish the -- capture the market share and establish our businesses. the techniques are in hiring, the techniques are in management. the techniques are in customer support and we have kind of a living network of knowledge about what the new current techniques for that, and that's why silicon valley continues to create these massive technology companies, even though there's talent and capital everywhere. there's an appreciation of entrepreneur ship and risk everywhere. and yet the vast majority of the companies happen here. >> what you're not saying is because the venture capital firms are close by and stanford is close by. you're talking about a unique set of ideas almost. >> in particular, venture capital, capital is global.
there's a lot of capital there. stanford, i'm a grau, awesome influence, helped to get silicon valley developed, but it's actually in fact the network of all the talent that comes here and learns how to do this. >> and when you look at that ecosystem, do you worry that that ecosystem can be easily replicated in terms of, after all the ideas, you're saying >> you mean a foreign leader? >> we have had everything from french ministers, british ministers, a whole group saying what do we learn here and what do we do?
i think the world is better off. the more of these we have. it might make competition of silicon valley a little harder, but one of the things that's great about silicon valley is the network is kind of both cooperative and competitive at the same time. >> up next, how the ultimate linkedin guy reed hoffman networks himself and why this billionaire feels that he still needs to hustle. lessons for all of us, when we return. hmmmmmm..... [ "dreams" by beck ] hmmmmm... hmmmmm... the turbocharged dream machine. the volkswagen golf gti. part of the award-winning golf family. i am totally blind. i lost my sight in afghanistan.
we're back now with more of my conversation with reed hoffman, co-founder of linkedin, early employee of pay-pal, early investor in facebook, that is a resume that has made him worth almost $3 billion according to "forbes," but he didn't set out to be an entrepreneur. listen to his fascinating story.
>> i heard that bill gate said somebody asked him why did you become an entrepreneur. he say i didn't set out to be an entrepreneur, i was fascinated with software. it's not like if i didn't have that passion and obsession, i would have started a restaurant business. i was not trying to be an entrepreneur. you were similarly motivated by the substance of it? >> that's funny, i haven't heard that directly from bill. the very -- very similarly, i only realized that the word entrepreneur applied to me when i was in the process of starting my second company, i was like, oh, right, they call people like me entrepreneurs, i think it's extremely important for society, it's how we adapt to the future, it's how we create prosperity, but for me it was i'm trying to do this thing to help humanity involve in a good way and if you can change the medium by which we community indicate, we
collaborate, by which we value each other. it's very easy to do reference checking, it's very easy to do -- okay, my dream is when people will start telling me i'm reference checking prospective bosses before i go work for them and then i will know i provided a network age tool. >> one of the things that is clearly happening with technology and it's particularly happening as software begins to massively improve almost everything is that you're needing fewer people. what do you think is going to happen to people, the human
talent, this is something you centrally deal with. >> i think it is beholden -- so the classic economist answer which you're very familiar with is, we create new instruments of productivity and then jobs shift and then new jobs are created. it happened in the industrial revolution so we anticipate it happening now. hopefully that's simply true. >> in the long run? >> in the long run. there are arguments that maybe it's not true this time. >> the scale and speed of both technology and globalization. >> exactly. and the pain of translocution can be very serious. we as entrepreneurs, we as technologyists and we as influencers in our society, it should be all hands of deck, in that how do we create new businesses that create interesting jobs? right? and one of the ways to look at this is not just as job creation, which is very important, but also work creation, you may have a lot more entrepreneurial individuals who are enabling individuals to be small business and entrepreneurial. that kind of thing may actually allow work creates that creates meaningful work. >> your last book was the startup. you always taught about the individual and how he can best navigate this world. what is your advice to someone
who is listening to enhance their talents and opportunities? >> so the central things -- this is one of the things i learned -- i was lucky to have gone to stanford, i wouldn't have thought of this whole path if i hadn't gone to stanford. is connect yourself to central nodes in the network. so do whatever it take to say this is the direction i want to go, how do i meet some interesting people? if i look back on my career and say what do i wish i had done differently? i would have volunteered to work at netscape, it was one of the central internet company, i'll be a janitor, i just want to work here and start working my way up here, because the center node of this new technology and the commercial system of the internet. so find your position in the network. >> how do you make sure that you get out there in a way that people see this? >> well, some of the stuff that i said in the start up review,
is i present, one of the things i did when i was at apple, which was like my first real job, was i volunteered for work. i thought, oh, maybe i should be a user experience designer, i should be a product manager, that's a better fit for my skill set. so i walked over to the product manager group, i have a couple ideas of products we should be doing, i'm going to write them up and all i want is some instructions, how would i learn it? and they're like oh, this bright kid as volunteered to give us some ideas. you issue. i will then go work on those ideas. internships are valuable in that context. you go to the smartest people you know and say who do i need to build a relationship with? part of building a relationship, you say, look, i'm not just asking, i'm building a relationship, i'm trying to give as well. those are the kinds of things i think about.
you still think about networking, about putting yourself in the middle of information flows, people, even though you're one of the best connected, most successful people in silicon valley? >> that's the nature of the age. >> so you're still hustling? >> yes, always. >> reed hoffman, a pleasure to have you. >> a pleasure. next on gps, the french are at the barricades again, protesting the unfairness of their working conditions. protesting the unfairness of the work conditions. i'll explain the whole mess when we come back. show me movies with romance.
show me more like this. show me "previously watched." what's recommended for me. x1 makes it easy to find what you love. call or go online and switch to x1. only with xfinity. president obama visited vietnam. while he was there, announced an end to the long standing american ban on arm sales to that country. >> the united states is fully lifting the ban on the sale of military equipment to vietnam that has been in place for some 50 years about. >> it brings me to my question of the week. how much did trade increase between vietnam and the u.s. between 1995 and 2015?
five-fold, ten-fold, 50-fold or 100-fold? stay tune and we'll tell you the correct answer. this week's book of the week is actually a movie. hbo's "all the way." it may be the best political drama i have ever seen on screen. this is certainly the best performance ever by an actor of a historical figure. bri briyan cranston becomes lyndon johnson. the movie which centers on johns johnson's philadelphia rights bill is really about power, how to wield it, scompromise, but above all, how to get stuff done. >> you're not running for office. you're running for your life. >> and now for the last look. a fiery blaze, police uniforms general chaos, looking at these pictures, you might think you are looking at a terror attack. but this is actually an angry clash between police and workers who are blockading an oil depot in northern france.
strikes at refineries around the country have caused nationwide fuel shortages. france even had to dip into its oil reserves this week. one in three gas stations are short of or even out of fuel according to french media. and these are just the latest in a string of protests around the country. so why are the french so fueled with anger? union leaders are protesting a proposed labor law which that allows companies to decrease overtime pay and increase overtime hours. and they will have to say good-bye to 35 hour workweek. citizens feel betrayed by president hollande's socialist government. but many experts, including the imf, believe that these reforms are crucial, france's
high unemployment rate of more than 10%, as well as its huge public get. they say its reforms will make hiring and firing easy in a country desperately in need of a dynamic labor market. for now hollande faces an election next year, so is he running out of time to push through these crucial economic reforms. not to mention running out of gas, literally. the correct answer is d, bilateral trade between vietnam and the united states increased 1 oo 100-fold from $451 million to $45 billion not adjusted for inflation. trade between the u.s. and china by comparison increased a little over ten times but from $57 billion to almost $600 billion. it increased less than five times between the u.s. and mexico from $108 billion to $531 billion. just one note for our loyal viewers who caught our segment about sweden's so-called
minister of the future last week, we were surprised to learn that a cabinet reshuffle has made that position, well, a thing of the past. who could have predicted that. thanks to all of you for being part of my program this week. i will see you all next week. happening now in the newsroom, growing outrage after a gorilla is shot and kill in order to save a 4-year-old boy who slipped in to a zoo enclosure. 911 tapes capturing the voices of horrified on dlts lookers as the 400 pound animal carried the child for ten minutes. and plus parts of texas under water, search and rescue teams looking for a young child who has been swept away. and donald trump, along with thousands of motorcyclists, roll into washington for the ride for freedom. the republican presidential candidate speaks this hour on veterans