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tv   The Eighties  CNN  November 26, 2016 4:00pm-6:01pm PST

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television, the reagan revolution and tear down this wall at 11:00. it is a special presentation of anthony bourdain in cuba. he filmed this before castro's death. "parts unknown" starts right now. >> good evening, my fellow citizens. this government as promised has maintained the closest surveillance of the soviet military buildup on the island of cuba. >> this is the cuba i grew up with. >> mankind, teachers precariously on the brink of a thermonuclear war. >> the missile crisis, duck and cover, hide under your desks, kids, cover yourselves with wet newspaper because we're all going to die. >> the flames of crisis burn stronger, fed and fan by the bitter tirades of fidel castro. >> and this guy, always in the fatigues, under lining with
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every appearance that we were two nations in a never-ending state of war. ♪ >> today the united states of america is changing its relationship with the people of cuba. we will begin to normalize relations between our two countries. ♪ i took a while through the beautiful world ♪ ♪ felt the cool rain on my shoulder ♪ ♪ found something good in this beautiful world ♪ ♪ i felt the rain getting colder ♪ ♪ sha-la-la-la-la ♪ sha-la-la-la-la-la
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♪ >> cuba has been sitting here for what, 55 years now, half an hour away, basically giving the super power in the world the stiff middle finger. 50 plus years of animosity, embargo, rags rationing and fidel castro is still hanging on. but recently there are powerful indications that everything is about to change. ♪ >> we are in a little fishing town. this place is called casa santione, two brothers that go out and fish every morning,
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bring fresh seafood. >> humble fishing village, traditional fishing family? >> yes. >> we're about to eat sushi. what is going on in this country, man? >> things are changing, anthony. what can i say? ♪ >> my name is hugo. i was born in cuba. i was one of cuba's most prominent schools but i made a joke about president fidel castro. i was a teenager and the kid that slept in the bunk bed on top of me recorded that conversation, and i was expelled from school. my mom said the only choice is for us to leave cuba. i'm a businessman. i have lived in miami for 35 years, it is my home base. i come back and forth from cuba. i have been coming the cuba for over 20 years. cuba is a communist country in economic transition. >> raul castro has allowed citizens to establish businesses.
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there are people making money, people that created a tremendous amount of wealth. >> people with family connections to the states, small business owners, taxi drivers, people operating in ever-changing gray areas of what is permissible. >> how does it work right now? if you're cuban you can sell your property. >> to another cuban. that's what is happening. a lot of cuban-americans and those living abroad are coming back and through relatives are buying property. obviously somebody has touched this building with some kind of investment. it is renovated. it seems to be like a hotel. somebody bought the building and turned it into a little hotel. >> however you feel about the government, however you feel about the last 55 years, there aren't any places in the world that look like this. i mean it is utterly enchanting. it is very seductive. there is no doubt in my mind somewhere like the four seasons hotel chain, they're looking at
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the sea front and thinking, you know, one of these days. and cruise ships, what happens then? >> well, look -- >> is it an inevitable march of progress? am i being a snop? >> no, you're being realistic. that's the concern of most cubans. i wouldn't mind seeing one or two starbuck's around havana. hope we don't go back to 1958 where the majority of cuban companies were owned by american corporations. i have to believe cuba will have the value that represents the hearts and souls of the cuban people. >> last time i was in havana, a meal would have been rice and beans. now sushi, a certain sign of impending apocalypse. >> that's good. >> ten years ago this restaurant would never have been allowed, not only because private businesses were not allowed --
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>> right. >> -- but the external fluence you are seeing, remember, this is a country where chewing gum and listening to the beatles were prohibited. one of the things i love about coming to cuba is the fact i can put my iphone away. who cares? look at what we have around us. i hope cubans if they have access to free information, they will still want to preserve the family times. ♪ >> tourists have been coming to cuba for sometime. predominantlyeuropeans, many of them men of a certain age looking for, how shall we say, company. but now it looks like americans looking to live out fantasy of godfather ii will soon be able to do so. ♪ >> and it is all still here for
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them. ♪ >> but there's new stuff, too. this is certainly new. ♪ >> fabrica de harte, the hottest spot in havana. a nightclub, performance base, art gallery, highlighting artists, musicians and deejays from around the world. quest love is scheduled the deejay here tomorrow night. >> it is like a big bag where all of the arts can fit inside. >> what is going on here? i ask enti herrera and exel. nothing like this existed before. did the government bureau of arts help you? >> at the beginning we had subsidies from the ministry of
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culture, even the building. we asked for the building because it was abandoned for 30 years. >> the place is very popular. >> right now, yes. >> who comes here? >> it is people that love art, but at the same time it is very diverse. >> it atracks a ontracts a once unthinkable mix of foreigners and locals and enjoys the support of the government, which without whom it could not exist. >> it is part of the art world here. >> the dog fish, with pickled vegetables. loin of pork pan seared with yuka and a riff on a traditional orange sauce with garlic and coriander. >> hmm, good. what do you think is going to happen when the door opens and you've got hundreds of thousands of americans flooding in here, looking desperately to spend money on anything cuban? >> i don't know, man.
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we are a small country. we have to adapt to new things, but i think it is a good challenge. >> i guess i'm asking how do you keep it real when you'll all probably be millionaires in a few years? >> us? >> yes. >> you think so? >> yeah. >> you know, it is not our goal in life, but that's -- >> doesn't matter? >> yeah, doesn't matter. gonna do more. ♪ we live in a pick and choose world.
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or maybe just how i want it to ♪ook. what was once one of the wealthiest cities in latin america left to the elements, left to collapse, were frozen gloriously in time. in fits and starts, cuba is changing, but it's not sugar or rum or tobacco or casino gambling that is the new god. it's tourists. ♪ all right. so here, chinatown. >> such as it is. >> but are there any chinese left in havana? >> no. there's a few new chinese. >> right. >> at one point the chinese
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community in cuba was huge, but they pretty much cleared out after the revolution as did most of the russian, jewish who were here so the state erected a few quintessentially chinatown gates. muster the 14 chinese people left and summon their relatives. >> for more than 35 years, john lee anderson has been reporting from conflict zones such as syria, lebanon, libya, iraq, and afghanistan. >> i lied about my age and traveled around africa. when i was 13, i told people i was 26. >> in the early 1990s while researching a biography, he and his family moved to cuba and ended up staying for three years. you lived here during the special period which was not so special. that was the bad times. the russians had pulled out. soviets all done. >> the economy went like this. >> completely tanked. >> 90%. it just tanked. >> cuba lost 80% of its import goods which led to widespread hunger, malnutrition, and a nose
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dive for the already difficult quality of life on the island. >> there was one place where we could buy food which was a soviet-style place with food that was flown in. quite bad food. under fidel's rule, that's the way it was. >> it's like a cargo cult version of chinese food here. dumplings. the szechuan chicken dish that's about as szechuan as, well, i am. what's going to happen? what's next? >> the uptick in tourism after the september 17th announcement, raul and obama, said we decided to make friends again. the surge in tourism and american interests in cuba is like this. you now have an island where every room is for rent because you can make $30 or $40 a day. that's more than a state employee makes in three months. >> there will be wealthy hipsters, women in tiny black dresses drinking ironic rifts on
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the mojito. lobby of the spanking new "w" hotel with [ bass ] in the background and it's in five years. >> yeah, i would say so. >> will every cuban have an unalienable right to education and health care? >> that's what they're worried about. the last time i was here in 2013, i counted 8 to 10 homeless garbage-eating people in the street. i thought, wow, i've never seen that in cuba. that's something that the old cuba, the socialist cuba that could look after all of its citizens would never have allowed. it's allowing it now. this period we're here in, it's the lull before it all hits. the train is coming. it's either going to roar by and they're going to be able to jump on and go with it, or it's going to derail and it will be a mess. all of it's possible. ♪
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[ speaking foreign language ]. >> my mom is asking me if you would like to taste the rice? >> oh, it's fantastic. like a lot of cubans, yosimi rodriguez lives in the same working-class neighborhood where she was born. >> i live with my mom, my sister, my niece. of course i would like to have my own bedroom, but there are people who don't even have a house. >> you were a translator, that's correct? you are now a journalist? >> i've been writing for "havana times" and another independent website. >> she struggles to eke out a living in an industry where the state firmly controls all media. what subjects in particular are of interest to you? >> racial issues. >> racial disparity. this is something that the
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revolution promised to address. >> their main mistake was to say that they had eradicated racism, that just like it could be eradicated just like that. on the street, for instance, policemen, the first people they stop, black people. if you're black, you are a potential criminal. ♪ >> her mom, rosa, prepares a cabbage stew with carrots, tomatoes, and green beans for her as yosimi is a rare vegetarian on an island where pork is king. fantastic, look at that. and for us, pork marinated in garlic, onion, and sour orange. please tell your mom it's superb, really excellent. [ speaking foreign language ] >> thank you. you have a very highly educated public here, one of the most literate nations on earth. >> that's funny, we're highly
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educated, but we're behind concerning internet and all that stuff. most the folk have access to only the official media, the official newspaper. if internet comes, and i think the government is trying to delay it, if that comes, many things will change. people will have access to different points of view, and i don't think our government wants that. >> if everything goes well, what will havana be like, what will this neighborhood be like in five years? >> you know, having an oppressive society, it is the same for everyone. you know, you see these people who have been able to use opportunities to open businesses, to open successful restaurants. those opportunities are there, but i cannot use them because i don't have money. i don't think it is possible to have a perfect society, but i think it is possible to try.
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all cuba seems waiting for something. for whatever it is that happens next. today, that's the roar of detroit's finest. circa 1959 and before, of course. american dream machines tricked out, babied, pampered, jerry-rigged or simply held together with duct tape or baling wire. ♪ ♪ >> nice.
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what's under the hood? >> translator: v8 american engines. we buy spares. we bring spares from america. [ speaking foreign language ] >> translator: all we think about through the week is our machines, our v8 engines. you know, car racing in cuba, they love it here as much as they love baseball. >> whoa. that's serious. they are diehard gear heads. drag racers who for more than 20 years have been defying the law and escaping the grind of daily life by pressing pedal to the metal and hurtling down the highway faster, faster, fast as they can go. >> they just find the best part of the day when there's not so much traffic. hundreds and hundreds of people on both sides of the road. >> before it was absolutely illegal. >> it's always been illegal. it's only the last couple of weeks that we're going to get sponsorship from the minister of
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the sports. >> everything is changing. it's entirely possible that soon you'll be able to order any part, any car, any car in the world. you can have it tomorrow. what would it be? >> corvette. >> corvette. which year? [ speaking foreign language ] [ engines revving ] ♪ >> this lunar picnic is only to
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be seen at night. the grills are painted with this fluorescent painting. it's very surreal. it's a weird sensation. it, like, make you hungry somehow. >> along with his creative partner, marco castillo, rodriguez is half of an artistic entity whose work is shown and collected all over the world. >> every single grill is a different theme. we have different technology to fabricate, to develop. >> they have managed to stay in the government's good graces by widely using irony to make their points. in the brutal and capricious contemporary art world outside of cuba, they are stars. they make a lot of money, but they always return home to havana. looks like we'll be eating well. >> tonight it's a party in
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dabo's backyard. ♪ >> he has made his much loved pig's head soup with pumpkin, peppers, corn, and plantain. i saw somebody's house, it was just an ordinary home, but they created their own fast food franchise. they made it look as if it was part of a chain. it was like mr. burger or something like this. >> this place can be a paradise for fast food. >> i hope they don't come here soon. >> this is my biggest fear is there will be a big glass box of a "w" hotel and start seeing starbucks and victoria's secret, you know, all of the people who make every place look the same.
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it would be awful. >> yeah, but we have 50 year lack of money. >> right. >> this is a big problem. the people will freak out with money when they have the money here. >> of course. >> i mean, if there's a $200 million hotel project that's sustainable, that preserves the facade of the city, that will get approved first before anything super american per se, you know? >> whoa, what's cooking over there? can't forget the whole roasted pig. a few years back a pretty unthinkable luxury for just about everybody. oh, wow. soup. >> wow. >> everything is biological. they have no money -- >> for, yes -- >> no pesticides or hormones. >> oh, wow. and tamales steamed in the broth from the pig's head soup. life is good.
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>> yeah, it is. ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ >> i think that our culture is so strong that it's going to take a lot of tourists, a lot of boats -- how do you say -- >> cruise ships.
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♪ this is a typical street of this neighborhood. houses of wood, houses of concrete. the street is not in good condition. here was the bus station. it's not a bus station anymore. now it's a building. it's a monument. of the past. >> montea is a suburb of havana, home to one of cuba's most celebrated writers. [ speaking foreign language ].
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>> author of the internationally successful mario detective series, padura has been able to portray the daily struggles, the absurdities of life in cuba. it's a delicate dance, and few have been able to replicate it. your hero in the books, does he live in this neighborhood? or another neighborhood. >> more or less. more or less. >> happy place to grow up, this neighborhood? >> yeah. i was totally free. >> i notice a lot of people just hanging out. who lives here? >> all kinds of people. doctors, for example. engineers. workers. and people who makes nothing, like that guy. >> right. >> he don't make nothing. >> how does he live? >> trying to find something to do or something to sell. making a small business.
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>> cafeteria a la bbq is one example of a booming do-it-yourself service industry. ♪ it's a place where you get a lot of bang for your money. nothing fancy. just delicious. fried pork, plantains. and the kind of deeply silky, satisfying beans that dreams are made of. good beans. you've never had a blacklisted or banned in cuba? >> no. >> have you been able to say everything that you wanted to say? >> i try to be the most honest writer that i can be, and i think that i say all that i can say. the problem is -- >> in cuba. >> money.
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it's a beautiful city but the people have many problems to live, with the space, with the structure of the buildings. >> for dessert -- awesome -- flan cooked in a cut down beer can. thank you. you're a successful author. you've been around the world, you've traveled? during difficult periods of cuban history, i'm sure you had many opportunities to live in miami or barcelona or los angeles. and yet you stayed in the same house, the same neighborhood. why? >> because i like it. i need to live in cuba, near to the cuban people, near to the cuban language. for me, it's very important. >> yes, the future is here. but the past, too, is everywhere.
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♪ the buildings, the cars, the gears of the whole system are still largely stuck in time. ♪ [ speaking foreign language ]. >> 93-year-old juana is very much a part of that past. [ speaking foreign language ]. long before the revolution, she was a shining star at the east tropicana. singing for capone, luciano. you know the names. >> juana! juana! [ speaking foreign language ]. ♪ [ speaking foreign language ].
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♪ cuba is not havana. it's a bigger country that you might imagine, and the road to santiago to cuba, the country's second largest city, takes you 12 hours on their less than modern highway system. along the way you see agrarian cuba, the country in which most cubans lived pre-revolution. ♪ >> santiago is a poor city.
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it's blacker. unlike havana, the symbols and faces of the revolution still seem to mean something. these brutalist prefab workers housing complexes are everywhere here, and at first glance, hell at second glance, they look like something you'd house animals in. but for many, previously living even poorer, harsher lives in the countryside, these offered something new. each group of buildings came with a doctor, a school. still, they look about as grim as grim can be. ♪ yet, santiago is anything but grim. sobani beach is where locals go on the weekend to kick back with family, drink the best rum in cuba, which means the best rum anywhere, swim, hang with family and friends.
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gentlemen. this is our local fixer. ruben is in the bar business. sergio rents rooms to the occasional tourist. everybody getting by making the adjustment to private enterprise cuba in their own way. until a few years ago you couldn't rent or sell, right? >> no. >> translator: a long time ago was allowed to rent house but no sell and buy. >> what kind of fish is this? >> dorado. >> it's huge. >> fresh-caught dorado and lobster is on the menu. do you think this is going to change? i mean, look, we've all been following the news. [ speaking foreign language ]. right. half an hour away. i mean, they can basically take a boat over for lunch. what do you think americans want? >> they have no idea because they never talked to an american
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tourist before. >> looking good now, man. good rum, cold beer, good fish, good lobster. you'll be needing a blender for pina coladas. >> if they have no machine, they're going to do it by hand. >> i'll put it this way, my friend. you're going to be making a lot of pina coladas. i think you're going to need the machine. ♪ ♪ ♪ >> nighttime is party time. where everybody it appears, at least from when i was there, hit the streets. mom, dad, sis, even grandma get, well, crazy. used to be some styles that
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ruled the street. this was where those musical styles were born, after all. now it's reggaeton and, of course, hip hop. ♪ alen garcia is the leader of the santiago based hip top trio tnt. >> we've been making hip hop for 15 years. which is quite difficult here in cuba. we've been in jail three days once just for make hip hop. ♪ definitely it's a change in cuba, but i don't think it's because the relaons with the united states are getting better. it's because the people just realize we need change. we still want a kind of society where everyone participates, everyone's the future of society. ♪
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>> so born and bred santiago? where the good rum comes from? >> exactly. >> so tell me, music business in santiago. what are you doing? >> music here is more important than -- sometimes people don't have money for proper food. money for a jar of beer and just enjoying the beer in a place with music. >> how much american hip hop do you get here? >> we get actually quite a lot. my friends, someone came from outside. i said -- in the '90s we started making hip hop here and we have a lot of problems. hip hop came from the united states, an everlasting enemy of the revolution. you're making music. we're making protest music. we a couple times in jail just for songs.
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>> now you can make money performing? >> yeah. >> you can maybe make money selling -- >> cds in the streets. but actually right now more possibilities are coming. when the opportunity to, like, promote music, when the opportunity to have access to internet, free access, i mean. >> that's going to be the biggest thing. >> yeah. if you want to spend your holidays properly, come down to santiago. i got a couple things to show to the world. >> cheers, man. >> cheers, man. to santiago. ♪ y starts better with a healthy smile. start yours with philips sonicare, the no.1 choice of dentists. compared to oral-b 7000, philips sonicare flexcare platinum removes significantly more plaque. this is the sound of sonic technology cleaning deep between teeth. hear the difference? get healthier gums in just 2 weeks vs a manual toothbrush
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♪ hola. >> hola. >> let's do it. ♪ hi, i'm tony. >> my name is george. >> how long you been driving a taxi? >> for more than 20 years. >> mostly cubans or tourists? >> tourists. most of them spanish, italy,
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even people from canada. a lot of canadian people. ♪ >> you from santiago? >> yes, i was born santiago. i used to live in russia for six years. i started there. >> really? >> yeah. i was really young, and i really enjoyed it. >> oh, yeah? it must be cold there. >> oh, can you imagine the difference, cuba, russia. snow, first time i saw snow. i sent to my mom a lot of pictures holding snow, throwing snow. >> what were you studying in russia? >> mechanical engineering. >> you went from engineering to taxi driver. >> yes. in 1990, we got in trouble with the economy, so i had to change my job. >> so it looks like the embargo might end. you know, a lot of money going to start coming to cuba. you think it's going to change? >> i think that the american businessmen will invest in cuba
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and that will be goofor everyone. >> how about going back to engineering? >> you know, that will depend how much it would pay. >> right. okay. ♪ what next for cuba? something is coming. it will come. from out there. but also from within cuba. it's already happening, but what is it? everybody knows. everybody can feel it. it smells like freedom. but will it be victory? ♪
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♪ snoech ♪ ♪ ♪
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♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪
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it's a time of enormous turmoil. >> the '60s are over, dad . . >> they don't pay me enough to deal with man mals like this. >> people are no longer embarrassed to admit they watch television. >> we have seen the news, and it is us. ♪
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♪ ♪ ♪ >> slowly but surely the 1970s are disappearing, the 1980s will be upon us. what a decade it is coming up. >> happy new year! >> as you begin the '80s in the
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television world, the landscape was on any given evening, nine out of ten people watching only one of three networks. >> more than 30 million people are addicted to it. social critics are mystified by its success. what is it? it's television prime time prairie pot boiler, "dallas." >> a move like that will destroy all of eweing oil and destroy our family name. >> i assure you knowing like that ever crossed my mind. >> "dallas" did establish new ground in terms of a weekly one-hour show, that literally captivated america for 13 years. >> "dallas" is a television show which in some ways is rooted in the 1970s, and one much the crazy things that emerges is this character, j.r.eweing as a pop phenomenon. >> tell me, j.r., which absolute are you going to stay with to night. >> what difference does it make?
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whatever absolute i'm staying with has to be more interesting than the one i'm looking at now. >> everyone was enamored by in character. >> at this point so many were watching television you could do something inuks pekted that it would become news overnight. [gunshots]. >> the national obsession in 1980 around who shot j.r., it is hard to imagine how obsessed we all were with that question, but we were. >> who shot j.r. is about as ideal a cliff hanger as you possibly could get. who did shoot j.r.? we may never get the answer to that question. i mean the people who produced that program are going to keep us in suspense as long as they possibly can. >> we shot j.r., and then we broke for the summer. then coincidentally the actors went on strike, and it delayed the resolution. it just started to percolate
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through the world. >> i remember going on vacation to england that summer, and that's all that people were talking about there. >> well, we know you don't die. i mean you couldn't die. >> we don't know that. >> how could you die? you couldn't come back next season. >> that's what i mean. i couldn't come back but the show could still go. >> oh, but you wouldn't. what is that show without j.r.? >> well, that's what i figure. >> well, i guess if you don't know by now who shot j.r. you probably do not care. but last night some 82 million americans did and they watched the much-touted "dallas" episode. it could become the most watched television show ever. >> who shot j.r. is a reflex of old fashioned television. takes moment that gathers everybody around the electronic fireplace, which is now the television set. >> how about one special american television program that critics say it transcends in popularity every other statement about war. something special happened today to mobile army surgical hospital 4077 that will touch millions of
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american. >> it was the kind of event that would drought the world's press, stage nine, fox studios, the end of the korean war, the television version "mash." >> it's been an honor and privilege to have worked with you. and i'm very, very proud to have known you. >> there were those landmark times when shows that had been watched through the '70s and into the '80s like "mash" had its final episode, and we were all sad to see them go. >> miss you. >> i'll miss you, a lot. >> all over the country armies of fans crowded around television sets to watch the final episode and to bid "mash" fair well. >> the finale of "mash" was unprecedented. 123 million people watched one television program at the same time. >> you know, i really should be allowed to go home. there's nothing wrong with me. >> when we end the show we got
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telegrams of congratulations from henry kissinger and ronald reagan. the size of the response and the emotional nature of the response that we were getting was difficult for us to understand. >> who shot j.r. and the last episode of "mash" are the last call for the pre-cable world of television. it is like they are the last time that that huge audience will all turn up for one event. >> all right. that's it. let's roll! hey. let's be careful out there. dispatch, we have a 911. armed robbery in progress. >> when quality does emerge on television, the phrase too good for tv is often heard. one recent network offering that seems to deserve that phrase is "hill street blues." >> hill street is one of the changing points of the entire
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industry in the history of the. >> we had all watched a documentary about cops and had this real handheld, in the moment quality that we were very enamored up. >> the minute you looked at it, it looked different. it had a mood to it. you could almost -- you could almost smell the stale coffee. >> we didn't want to do a standard cop show where, you know, you've got a crime and you've got your two cops and you go out and you catch the bad guy and you sweat him and he confesses, and that's it. cops had personal lives that impact their behavior in profound ways. >> well, what about it? is he here or elsewhere? >> don't get excited. we're working on it. >> how about this for logic, if he's not here and not elsewhere, he's lost. >> we didn't say that, counsellor. >> never in my entire life have
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i licensed to so much incompetence covered up by such unmitigated crap. find my client or i swear i'll have you up on charges. >> there would be these ongoing arcs for characters that would play out over five, six episodes, sometimes for the entire season and in a way for the entire series. no one had done that in an hour-long dramatic show. >> these past four months i've missed you. i had to find that out. come home, pizza man. >> i think in the past people had watched television passively, and the one thing i think we did set out to be were provocateurs. >> i'll tell you something, they don't pay me enough to work with animals like this. they see a white face and -- >> listen to me, it was a white
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figure that pulled the trigger, not a black one. >> it set a trend, that the audience could accept characters being deeply flawed even though they're wearing this uniform. i thought it was important to get across. >> don't do it! no biting! >> we wanted to make a show that made you participate, made you pay attention and i think it worked pretty well. >> and the winner is -- >> hill street blues! >> we got 21 nominations and we went on to win eight emmys and it put us on the map literally. that's when people finally checked us out. >> programming chief of one of the networks used the say to me about shows like "hill street" and st. elsewhere," what the american public wants is a cheeseburger and you're trying to give them a french delicacy. he said, your job is to keep shoving it down their throat until after a while they'll say, that doesn't taste bad and maybe believe and order it themselves when they go to the restaurant. >> nice of you to join us, dr. morrison. >> the success of "hill street
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blues" was a phenomenon that influenced everything that came afterward. then you saw shows like "st. else"." >> you know what people call this place, "st. elsewhere." a place you wouldn't want to send your mother-in-law. >> when it came on it was promoted as hill street in the hospital. >> you give your own the wrong antibiotics, write the worst progress note. you're pathetic. >> phil. >> what? >> dr. moore needs you right away. >> i'm sorry. >> "st. elsewhere" broke every rule there was and wrote some new rules. >> the blood bank called a while ago and ran a routine panel on the pint of blood. it was off. >> there was heartache in these people's lives and you felt for them. >> i've got aids? >> television at its best is a mirror of society in the moment. >> "st. elsewhere" challenged
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people and challenged you as an actor, much less the audience to think. the stuff they gave you was extreme and what they did, whether they were dealing with aids or having one of their main doctor characters raped in a prison, they tackled lots of difficult subjects. >> "st. elsewhere" was run by people trying to stretch the medium, and in the '80s television producers were encouraged to stretch the medium. >> clear.
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now people say they watch it on television. >> there's just a lot of excitement connected to sports in the '80s. you used to have to depend on the five minutes at the end of your local newscast. there hadn't been enough, you know. give us a whole network of sports. >> there's just one place you need to go for all of the names and games making sports news, espn sports center. >> what happened in the 1980s is sports becomes a tv show, and what are tv shows built around? they're built around characters. >> you can't be serious, man! you cannot be serious! you've got the absolute pits of the world, you know that? >> mcenroe the perfect villain, the new yorker people love to hate. borg, the cool sweed, never giving emotion away. >> what tennis wants is its best players playing over and over again in the finals, whether mcenroe and borg or chris everett and martina, that's what
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we wanted over and over again. >> three match points to martina nvratilova. >> this man has a smile that lights up the television screen from here to maine. >> there is "magic" johnson, this urban kid from michigan, and larry byrd, this guy who worked carrying trash. one plays for los angeles laker, the others for the boston celtics. it is a great story. >> "magic" johnson leads the attack. >> oh, what a show. >> when those championship games are in prime time and people are paying attention to that, television feeds into those rivalries and makes them bigger than they've ever been before. >> i didn't challenge with it, someone with primitive skills, they're as good as dead. >> every mike tyson fight was an event because every fight was
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like an axe murderer. when he fought michael spinks, you could feel the electricity on tv. >> he leads with the right-hand. there he goes! >> tyson was made for tv because there was drama. >> it is all over! mike tyson has won it! >> not a lot of junior high school kids can dunk, especially at five -- >> but everybody tries, man. everybody tries. >> i think he is starting to transcend just his sport, he is becoming something of a public figure. >> michael jordan becomes the model every athlete wants to shoot for. they want to be a brand. that's what television does for these athletes, turns them into worldwide iconic brands. >> here is michael in the foul line. a shot. goes in! >> athletes in the '80s became part of an ongoing group of people we cared about. we had an enormous pent-up demand for sports and the '80s began to provide. thank goodness. >> cable television is beginning
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to grow. it is estimated it will go into one million nor u.s. households this year. >> with cable television offer an array of channels, the aud yen bifurcated. that's something. >> i want my mtv. >> i want my mtv. >> i want my mtv. >> a new concept is born. the best of the combined with the best of radio, this is it. welcome to mtv, music television, the world's first 24-hour stereo/video music channel. >> music television, what a concept. mtv was pow, in your face. you were not going to turn us off. >> mtv did nothing but play current music videos all day long. so let me get this straight. you turn on the tv and it is like the radio? >> i'm martha quinn. the music will continue non-stop on mtv music television, the newest component of your stereo
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system. >> when mtv launched, a generation was launched. 18 to 24 year olds were saying, i want my mtv, i want my mtv videos, i want my mtv fashion. >> mtv was the first network really focused on the youth market, and it becomes hugely influential because they understand each other, the audience and the network. >> mtv had a giant impact visually and musically on every part of the tv culture that came next. >> freeze, miami vice! ♪ >> friday nights on nbc are different this season, thanks to "miami vice." it is a show with an old theme, but a lot of new twists. described by one critic as containing flashes of brilliance nonetheless, shot entirely on location in south miami, the story centers around two undercover vice cops. >> i don't know how this is going to work, tubs. i mean you're not exactly up my alley style and persona wise.
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heaven knows i'm no box of candy. >> television very much was the small screen. what was interesting about the private screen play for miami vice, he said it was exactly not that. very much the approach was, okay, they call it a television series but we're going to make one-hour movies every single week. >> here we go, stand by. action. >> police! place! >> you were describing the show as a new wave cop show. >> it is a cop show for the '80s. we use a lot of mtv images and rock music to help describe the mood and feeling of our show. >> in a lot of ways you don't get "miami vice" without mtv, because in a lot of ways "miami vice" was a long video. the music was beige part of that show. >> there was an allure to using great music everybody was listening to as opposed to the routine kind of the scoring of that period. ♪ i can feel it coming in the air tonight ♪
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>> it not only was not afraid to let long scenes play out, it would drag -- a car going from point ato point bcould be a four-minute phil collins song, and it was. ♪ oh no >> being able to take a television series like "miami vice" and let's really kind of rock and roll with this until somebody says stop, are you guys crazy, you can't do that, and nobody ever did. ♪ >> freeze, police! ♪ p is for privileges. o is for ordinarily i wouldn't. l is for layers of luxury. a is for alll the way back.
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♪ thomas magnum. >> marianne hammond. >> the private investigator? >> you're probably wondering about the goat. just let me drop off my friend and then we'll talk. >> when we entered the '80s, a lot of one-hour dramas that were lighthearted like magn magnum p.i. were very popular. after "mash" went off the air, the next season there wasn't a single sitcom in the top ten. first time that happened in tv history. >> the prevailing feeling was that the sitcom was dead. >> brandon tarnicoff, nbc program chief, says reports of
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the sitcom's death were greatly exaggerated. >> time and time again, if you study television history, when someone is counting a form out that is exactly the form of programming that leads to the next big hit. ♪ >> so 1984 "the cosby show" comes on. now, bill cosby is not new to tv. he's had other tv shows, but "the cosby show" is very different. it stands apart from what he has done. >> coming right up. >> they talked about parenting. previous to that on television, the kids were kocool and the parent were idiots. cosby says something new. >> instead of acting disappointed because i'm not like you, maybe you can just accept who i am and love me anyway because i'm your son. >> that's the dumbest thing i've ever heard in my life! >> you know, it helps the
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casting, anything helps a lot in television, and the kids were just great. >> if you were the last person on this earth, i still wouldn't tell you. >> you don't have to tell me what you did, just tell me what they're gonna do to you. >> unlike every other show on tv, it is showing an upper middle class black family. this wasn't "all in the family" they weren't tackling deep issues but it was okay. the mere fact that they issued was a deep issue. the decade was waiting for something real. in other words, unless it is real it doesn't seem like it moves anybody. if someone is feeling something, you get to the heart, you get to the mind. if you can hit the hearts and minds, you've got yourself a hit. >> how was school? >> school, dear, i brought home two children that may or may not be ours. >> "cosby show" brought this tremendous audience to nbc, and that was a bridge to us. i mean our ratings went way up.
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♪ sometimes you want to go ♪ where everybody knows your name ♪ >> even the theme sg to "cheers" puts you in a good mood. >> good evening, everybody. >> what's shaking, norm? >> all four cheeks and a couple of chins, coach. >> by the end of the "cheers" pilot not only did you know who everybody was, but you wanted to come back and see what was going to happen. >> it is like all you have to do is watch it once, you're gonna love these people. these are universal characters, and the humor worked on so many levels. >> was up till 2:00 in the morning finishing off a guide. >> i hope he thanked you for it. >> you have to create a community that people are identifying with, and "cheers" gives you that community. >> boy, i tell you, i've always wanted to sky dive. i just never had the guts. >> what did it feel like? >> well, imagine it is not like sex. have to imagine what sex is
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like. i had plenty of sex and plenty of this, too. why don't you just get off my back, okay? >> in the first episode there was a rather passionate annoyance. were saying, huh, something is going on here. >> a really intelligent woman would see your line of bs a line a mile. >> i never met an intelligent woman i would want to date. >> on behalf of the intelligent women around the world, may i just, shwoo. >> when we saw what ted and shelly had together, we said, oh, no, you've got to do this relationship. >> ted and i understood what they were writing right away. >> if you'll admit that you are carrying a little torch for me, i'll admit i'm carrying a little one for you. >> well, i am carrying a little torch for you. >> well, i'm not carrying one
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for you. >> diane knew how to tease sam, sam knew how to tease diane, and i gets we knew how to tease the audience. >> it was incredible chem try between the two of them ignited the show and drove the show for the first five years. >> i'm devastated. i need something brutal to numb my sensibilities and blast me into sweet oblivion. >> how about a boilermaker? >> make it a mimosa. >> we had the luck to be able to rotate cast, and every time we put somebody in they were explosions. >> boo. >> there was something very special about that setting, those characters, that i never got tired of writing that show. >> sophisticated surveys, telephonic samplings, test audiences, all of those things help to separate winners from losers and make mid course corrections. but you can't cut all comedies from the same cookie cutters.
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all you can hope is every night turns out like thursday. >> joe! >> max. >> how rude. >> he's quick, i'll give him that. >> all of television said, oh, well, maybe the sit coms are alive again. and that's all that it took. it took one success. >> a few years from now something new may tempt the people who pick what we see, but it is a very safe guess whatever gets hot for a season or two, the men and women who create good television comedy will be laughing all the way to the bank. (vo) when i brought jake home, i wanted him to eat healthy. so i feed jake purina cat chow naturals indoor, a nutritious formula with no artificial flavors. made specifically for indoor cats. purina cat chow. nutrition to build better lives. at red lobster's holiday seafood celebration nothing says "treat yourself" like any of these indulgent new dishes. so try the new grand seafood feast with tender shrimp,
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♪ this is my last broadcast at the anchorman of the cbs evening news. for me it is a moment for which i long have planned but which nevertheless comes with some sadness. for almost two decades, after all, we've been meeting like this in the evenings and i'll miss that. that's the way it is, friday, march 6 th, 1981. i will be away on assignment and dan rather will be sitting in here for the next few years. good night. >> uncle walter had dominated certainly cbs, but in a way the country. people used to say that he was the most trusted man in the country. >> once walter cronkite retires, all three network news anchors within the period of a couple of
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years switched to a new generation. the '80s may have been the last gasp where people watching the news liked and trusted the media. >> are expected to be the major topic of president reagan's news conference tonight. that will be nationally sell viced tonight. leslie stahl at the white house. >> in the '80s women came into the news room. when i first joined it was '72 and there were very few. by the '80s there were more and more. >> the decade of the '80s was still a time of sink or swim. you had to be resilient in your own way to survive in a period when you were going up against a lot of people who still didn't think women had what it took. >> these are some of the most famous faces in broadcasting, all of whom happen to be women. >> now, the best producers -- i'm going to get fired. the best producers at cbs news are women, and they are at the level of taking hold and making decisions about individual pieces. they're not yet executive producers of all of the news shows, but they will be.
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>> for the past 24 hours kristine craft has taken her cause to many of the nation's news and talk programs. >> i didn't set out to be joan of arc, but i think that what happened to me deserves some attention. >> christine craft had a very successful career, but there she was in her late 30s and the tv station said to her, we're taking you off the air because you're gotten older and you're not as attractive as you once were, which was outrageous. and she decided to make an issue of it. she filed a lawsuit, and it became a huge national topic of discussion. >> a jury said she got a raw deal because she is a woman. >> and so women in television news everywhere were asked, what do you think about christine craft? >> i think unfortunately in recent years the emphasis has been increasingly on physical appearance, and to the extent this decision helps swing the emphasis back to substance and to good journalism, i think we've got something to be happy about. >> it was important to make the point that what mattered was
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what kind of reporter were you. it took the christine craft incident i think to bring that conversation out into the open. >> this coming sunday a new television network opens for business, cnn, cable news network. >> you're throwing all of the dies on this one. >> why not? nothing ventured, nothing name. faint heart never won fair lady. >> on that original point, mr. tru turner, thank you very much indeed. >> i wanted to see what was going on in the world, and there was no way you could do it watching the regular television stations. tho it only comes on at 6:00 and 10:00, but if there's news on 24 hours, people could watch any time. >> we sign on june 1, and barring satellite problems in the future we won't be signing off until the world ends. >> it was believed this was a fool'ser rand. how can it possibly find an audience? well, he did. >> camera three, one center. >> good evening, i'm david walker. >> and i'm lois hart.
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now here is the news. >> television news before this was stuff that had already happened. for the first time, cn brought the world to people in real-time. >> cnn, the world's most important network. >> i didn't do cable news network because somebody told me it couldn't be done. i figured it was a very viable concept, and i went ahead and did it. it was after we announced that we were going to do it that the detractors showed up. >> is cable news network just going to be a new means of delivering the same kind of fare? >> no, it already does provide different fare, and cable news network is a perfect and maybe the best example of that. >> people love news, and we had lots of it. and the other guys had not very much. so choice and quantity won out. >> new york city, hello. >> the major catastrophe in america's space program. >> i'm lou dobbs along with
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financial editor. >> jessica mcclure trapped for almost three dayness a dry artesian well. >> i'm pat buchanan, the conservative in "cross fire." >> the american people appreciated the new television. they certainly came to cnn in droves. >> mr. gorbachev and i both agree on the desirable of freer and more extensive contact between the peoples of the soviet union and the united states. >> we began to realize that the best way to get a message to a foreign leader was to have the and make a statement, because everybody was watching cnn. >> cnn was a breakthrough. it changed the whole world. >> it changed quickly the network news business, that business that we weren't the only ones. and it was hard. you know, it is hard to be on the top little perch and have to come down off it. >> on special segment tonight, the network news, the first in a
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two-part series on the profound changes taking place in television news, changes being brought about by petition, competition and technology. >> there were a variety of reasons why people who worked at the broadcast networks were freaked out in the 1980s, one of them was cnn and the rise of cable. another was being taken over by foreign entities in corporate america. >> new owners spent billions buying the networks recently, and all of them want their money's worth. >> people began to find out that news could be a profit center, and that focused a lot of attention on us, a lot from people in wall street, for instance. >> if you think about the news divisions of cbs, nbc and abc, they were part of a really proud tradition, a journalistic tradition that really matters. we serve the public. this is not about profit and loss, and the people who worked at those news divisions were totally freaked out by what it meant that they were now owned by these larger corporate entities. >> the television news isn't
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profitable at some point, there won't be anyone television news on the networks. >> i worry about people only interested in money and power getting hold of television. it has higher purposes than that. >> we have seen the news, and it is us. david. what's going on? oh hey! ♪ that's it? yeah. ♪ everybody two seconds! ♪ "dear sebastian, after careful consideration of your application, it is with great pleasure th we offer our congratulations on your acceptance..." through the tuition assistance program, every day mcdonald's helps more people go to college. it's part of our commitment to being america's best first job. ♪
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unfortunately. >> i don't hear a lot of female voices in the halls of business. >> i'm surprised there aren't more shows about women talking about who they are. >> directing seems to be an area that is almost impossible the breakthrough. >> i think the '80s were the era when women were being looked at with a little scepticism, but definitely with more accept ability. you could see the door opening, but it wasn't wide open. >> "cagney and lacy" was huge, they would be two women solving crimes and they were on the street and that was emblem attic and out in front a little of what was happening in the country. >> so we're a terrific team. >> this is true. >> we're so terrific. >> there had been by that point hundreds of cop shows, but these buddies were women. it was never done before. >> i didn't go after this job
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because i couldn't find anything else, all right. i did not come here because i needed some kind of work to help pay the orthodontist. this means something to me. >> what are we talking about here! >> we didn't even realize that this was going to be such a big deal, and strangely all of these guys would say to us, well, yeah, i mean it is a good script but who is going to save them in the end? >> all right, come on. we're taking you out of here. >> where are you taking my wife? >> you don't take one more step, you understand me? >> sergeant nelson, you have until 8:00 tomorrow morning to turn yourself in to iad. >> phyllis! >> if you don't, i will. >> it was the time where you really saw an emergence of women on television who were not necessarily just 20 and blond and had a small role, but women who had substantial roles. ♪ thank you for being a friend ♪ traveled down the road and back again ♪ >> it was unpredictable that an
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audience, a young audience, a not-so-young audience and lots in between could relate to those older ladies. >> ma, if you continue see why didn't you call me to come get you? >> i tried to but every time i put in a dime and dialled, a condom popped out. >> i got five in my pocket. here, dorothy. a life-time supply. >> she was recently named along with norman leer and jim brooks as one of television's most gifted creative writers. when you look back at the past women role models on television, it is easy to see susan harris's impact. >> susan harris was the greatest writer in my opinion of her generation of that time, singularly. so all credit to her for coming up with so many iterations of something so amazing. >> do you think there is a woman's voice as a writer? >> generally they speak higher, softer.
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i don't know. yes, of course there's a woman's voice. women have a different perspective. women laugh at different things. yes, there definitely is a woman's voice. >> do you know how many problems we have solved over a cheese cake at this kitchen table? >> no, exactly, dorothy, how many? >> 147, rose. >> hi, brian. it is cut throat prime time this fall as some 23 shows compete in one of the hottest ratings races in years. >> here is one everybody predicts will be a big hit, "designing women" on cbs. four women forming a decorating business and giving each other the business. >> suzanne, if sex were fast food there would be an arch over your bed. >> linda bloodworth thomas created one of the funniest
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they were feisty and sexy, and linda's voice came through shining. >> a man can get away with anything. look at reagan's neck, it sags down to here. and everybody raves about how great he looks. can you imagine if nancy had that neck? she would be put in a nursing home for turkeys. >> they gave me 23 minutes to address whatever topic i want and it's such a privilege, it's more than the president of the united states gets and it's thrilling to have that every week and i would be lying to say i didn't put my opinions in the show. >> you look like you are in need of a little male companionship here. >> trust me when i say you have completely miss assessed the situation at this table. >> i don't enjoy being called a
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woman's rigwriter and i think labels are harmful to us. >> the civil rights movement and the women's movement had just begun to be reflective of the television in the '80s. >> they had great dinners and great guest and i don't get to go with one reason and one reason only and it has to do with something you got and i don't, a tiny, pathetic, little y chromosome. >> murphy brown was so popular and such a strong independent tough woman. >> no matter what you think of a guest or their views you are obligated to ask questions in a dignified matter. >> he thinks it's neat that his office chair swivels and he is calling me unprofessional.
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you are in a good mood tonight, and i will tell you we have put a great show together, and it will be on a week from thursday. >> he was making the transition of being the king of late night,
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and he was a throwback from the showbiz stuff. >> it's been a long time. >> you have been busy with other things. and -- >> the tide is starting to turn in terms of where late night television is going to go, and johnny was holding out and he was necessarily of his time in the '80s, but he did sustain a certain timelessness. he's the king. [ cheering and laughing ] . >> playing? >> my next guest doesn't only have a college degree, but also a high school degree. he hosted "the tonight show" as much as practically johnny carson, and he has his own show on weekday mornings at 10:00.
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>> it has gone awry. a fun-filled surprise turning it into an incredible screwup. >> david letterman originally had a one-hour daytime show, and nbc, after, like, 13 weeks, decided to cancel it. >> today is our last show on the air. monday, las vegas -- [ booing ] have these people been frisked. >> thank you for being with us tonight. thank you. >> in spite of all the nonsense that goes on in the background, stay with it and don't give up and sta with us in new york. >> i like it. >> dave is back in new york and you are going to host a late-night television program that premieres monday night. what are critics likely to say tuesday morning? >> i don't much care, because i found a way to deal with that, pills and whisky.
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>> you are on. proceed. >> oh, i am on? i was enjoying listening to you snort. >> they gave him the late night show, and everybody thought who is going to watch television at 12:30? who is up? i will tell you, young people, college people. >> this is a guy that needs a little support. >> he was anti-establishment at his core and he was thumbing his nose to any existing social structures. >> who are those women out there, by the way? >> neighbors. >> excuse me. >> he kind of spoofed the whole notion of talk shows. >> it's the late-night guest cam. please say hello to tom hanks. [ cheering ] >> there he is. nobody could go on the "david letterman show," and try to push
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a point of view, and you are on to do one thing and one thing only, be as funny as the rest of the show. >> we could send the crew home. >> as a comedian, you want the biggest audience you could get. for dave, he knew a lot of things he would do would alienate people, and he didn't care, he wanted his thumbprint out there and that's the most important thing. >> it's time for small town -- excuse me, paul, do you have any accompanying music here for small town news? paul schafer, ladies and gentlemen. >> the show making fun of itself, it w something kind of new. >> don't we look like guys that would be seen hanging around together. >> absolutely. >> would you like to hangout with me? >> nope. >> i thought i would never want to do this show with you. >> why? >> because you thought i was --
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>> an [ bleep ]. >> there's one rule i keep trying to abide by, and unfortunately i only get to it about 12% of the time, and that is it's only television. we are not doing cancer research. if the 40-yeardd history of commercial broadcasting has taught us one thing, there's nothing sacred about television. >> steven is upstairs -- >> i was just curious, is there any way i can get mtv. >> that's just a monitor, and all you can get on that is our show. >> that's okay. >> there was a degree san francisco cynicism, and it's a cynicism that became common sense after a while, because it never got old. >> i have watched johnny carson, and you are no johnny carson. >>


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