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tv   Finding Jesus Faith Fact Forgery  CNN  December 25, 2016 5:00pm-6:01pm PST

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this is cnn breaking news. i'm george howell at cnn world headquarters in atlanta. for the viewers in the united states, "finding jesus" will air in its entirety in a moment. first, the breaking news this hour. british pop star george michael has died at the age of 53 years old. he shot to fame with the 1980s duo wham and went on to have a successful solo career. george michael in 1987 debuted the album "faith" and sold more than 10 million copies. michael's publicist said, quote, george passed peacefully at home over the christmas period. michael told cnn eight years ago
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he was hoping to slow things down on the career front but seemed optimistic about his future. elton john posted on instagram, i have lost a beloved friend. and so it is for so many of george michael's fans who purchased more than 100 million albums over the course of his career. several other celebrities paid their respects online. talk show host ellen degeneres tweeted this. i just heard about my friend george michael's death. he was a brilliant talent. i'm so sad. comedian ricky gervais simply said, unbelievable. rip. george michael. william shatner also paid his tribute. is this year over yet? he wrote. too many people are passing away. i'm george howell at cnn world headquarters in atlanta. we return our u.s. audience to "finding jesus."
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an ancient burial box, inscribed with the name "james", son of joseph, brother of jesus. a box that might actually be a connection to jesus christ himself. but who was his brother james? >> the gospels are very clear that jesus had siblings. >> from doubter. >> can you imagine if someone said my brother is the son of god? >> james really is the forgotten man. >> embroiled in one of the longest forgery trials ever, could this box be the first physical evidence of jesus and
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his secret brother james? ♪ fall 2002. the royal ontario museum opens its doors to what may be the most significant discovery ever in biblical archaeology. a limestone burial box known as an ossuary, scientifically dated to the time of christ. on its side an inscription in ancient aramaic which reads
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"james, son of joseph, brother of jesus". >> it came just as we'd crossed the millennium threshold. we'd already had the y2k bug, and this seemed to be another one of those millennial happenings. >> it's claimed that this box, measuring 10 inches by 20 is no less than the burial casket of james, the brother of jesus christ. >> ossuary is so important, not just for the fact that it says the brother of jesus, but you have to understand that there's no physical evidence of the existence of jesus of nazareth
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dating from the time of jesus. there's nothing except the gospels, which were written down decades later. this would be the first physical evidence that jesus of nazareth existed. >> this is such a land mark. i mean, this is the only material evidence, nonliterary we have for the family of jesus. >> i think most people would be extremely surprised to learn that jesus had siblings, even though james is called the brother of jesus in the new testament, most christians grow up learning that mary was a virgin and that he didn't have any siblings, so i think most people would be astonished. >> the gospels of both matthew and mark name jesus's brothers. as well as james, there's joses, judas and simon alongside at least two unnamed sisters. but exactly whose these
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offspring these other children are is still the subject of debate. >> for catholics, there is that emphasis on mary's virginity. she was not only a virgin at the time of jesus's conception and birth but also afterwards. that's why i like to think of james, the brother of jesus as probably a child from joseph's prior marriage before he married mary. >> but not all christians are in agreement. >> protestants would say there are other children that are the biological kids of mary and joseph, in which case, jesus would be the older brother. and perhaps other siblings of jesus would have looked up to him. >> matthew 1:25 says literally, joseph was not knowing her in the carnal sense until she gave birth until jesus.
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now any normal reading of that sentence implies she went on to have more children after that, and his brothers and sisters are in fact his brothers and sisters. >> the bible tells us very little about the early life of jesus. >> the gospels really fast forward almost totally until he's 30 years old, and he's the son of god. >> what about all those missing years, when he was a teenager, playing around with his brothers, getting into trouble? >> written around 100 years after jesus' death, the infancy gospel of thomas is a collection of stories about his childhood. >> there is a peculiar story about james, and it's interesting picture of jesus and james together as children. >> joseph sent james into the forest to gather sticks. jesus also went with him.
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the gospel continues. an abominable snake bit james on the hand, and as he lay dying, the boy jesus ran to james. and did nothing but blow on the bite and immediately the bite was healed. >> james is put there with jesus from the very beginning. we see an organic connection between them. not only in terms of their relationship but also in terms of their common experience. >> but the story of james, the
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brother of jesus, will be forgotten. until this casket bearing his name reappears. to launch one of the longest and most controversial forgery trials ever. when are they leaving? grilled cheese and campbell's tomato soup go together like grandchildren and chaos. made for real, real life.
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the story of the james ossuary, the caskets that may have held the bones of james, the forgotten brother of jesus starts with one of the world's greatest antiquities collectors. >> oded golan is one of the great experts on archaeological artifacts. >> i have actually the biggest private collection of ossuaries in israel, probably in the world. >> most of his collection tells the story of the development of the civilizations here and that includes the biblical era. his collection must be worth millions and millions of dollars. >> according to golan, in the
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early 1907s, he bought an empty, first century ossuary from a dealer in jerusalem. >> i could see some of the names that are mentioned. the meaning, james, it came by itself without any item to accompany it. >> in first century jerusalem, the bones of the dead were placed in ossuaries in underground tombs. archaeologist byron mccain is a leading expert on burial practices in ancient palestine. >> we're just south of the old city of jerusalem. there are a number of burial caves from the time of jesus right around here. in the jewish tradition, on the first anniversary of the death, they gather the bones of their deceased loved ones, those bones are placed in an ossuary. the ossuary is marked with the name of the deceased and then placed somewhere in the tomb.
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>> back in 1970s jerusalem, there is a vibrant market for antique ossuaries. >> i didn't see anything particular in this ossuary. it was set for many times at my parents' apartment, together with several other ossuaries i purchased at that time, because i didn't put any special attention to this ossuary. >> but in april 2002, golan invites andre lemaire to examine some items in his collection. lemaire's attention is immediately drawn to the unidentified ossuary golan bought 30 years before. he deciphers the mysterious inscription. it reads "james, son of joses, brother of jesus." >> he found that there is a very high probability that it belonged to james, the brother
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of jesus christ. frankly, i didn't even know that jesus christ had a brother or sisters. >> golan immediately sends the ossuary to the geological survey of israel to help with its authentication, using high-powered mike scopes they inspect the patina coating the box and the inscriptions. they conclude the lettering has not been made by modern tools. >> it's not a question of authentic. it's a question of if it belongs to james. >> intrigued about the probability of finding the names james, jesus and joseph in more than one family in first century jerusalem, he asks a statistician to audit the names on the inscription. >> we have 168 inscribed ossuaries from that period in jerusalem. >> while the name joseph appears
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on 7%, jesus on 4% and james on 2%, he concludes it's improbable that another family combining these three names existed. >> it is very likely, in my opinion, that the james on this ossuary is the james, the brother of jesus. >> the likelihood that this could be some other family with those three names where the father is joseph and the two brothers are james and jesus seems very unlikely. >> 2,000 years ago everything changes for the brothers jesus and james when joseph dies. >> we really don't know when
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joseph died. but somewhere around 27 a.d. joseph is nowhere on the scene. >> family is the central core for jewish society. they had lost somebody who could be providing for this family, who were essentially living in a subsistence level. the family would really have relied on jesus to pick up the slack, to provide for the family. they would have needed his income. >> but aged around 30, jesus makes a life-changing choice. >> jesus leaves the family and goes walk about in galilee and judea. >> according to the gospels, jesus seeks out john the baptist on the banks of the river jordan.
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>> jesus' baptism by john the baptist really galvanized him, it got him thinking i must act now and convert people now. >> he begins performing miracles, casting out demons. >> according to the gospels, there are large crowds that are drawn to jesus throughout his ministry. jesus' miracles would have drawn a lot of attention. >> but while jesus embarks on his mission, his family remain in nazareth. >> jesus leaves james and the other brothers and sisters in charge of the family. >> hey, enough. >> and that's what's uncomfortable about this story.
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the village itself was a small village. so tongues would wag about this whole deal of jesus going off and doing some kind of ministry and leaving his family to take care of business. >> there would have been a lot of social marginalization that they would have experienced because they had this crazy, embarrassing brother. and we can imagine that would have created friction between jesus and his family. >> but as the fame of jesus spreads, the tension with his family will come to a head. >> james looked upon what jesus was doing as something that brought the family into dishonor. >> and set brother against brother. we're in 8th grade. technology is the only thing that really entertains us.
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capernaum. on the banks of lake galalee. a man asks jesus to cure his withered hand. >> jesus tells him to stretch out his hand, and he's healed. >> but this is the sabbath, and
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working on the sabbath is prohibited. >> the fact that jesus heals the man with the withered hand on the sabbath, in the synagogue suggests that he's just going to do what he wants. >> it's an action that brings jesus into conflict with the jewish priesthood. now his reputation precedes him wherever he goes. the number of his followers increases. the crowds he attracts bring him to the attention of the roman authorities. >> when jesus is active in galilee, those areas were under roman occupation. you could believe whatever you wanted to believe in the roman empire, you could practice your
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religion in whatever way you chose to practice your religion, but what romans didn't like is one charismatic figure, especially one who was messianic. >> fearing for jesus' safety, james and his family come to capernaum. >> i think it would be terribly frightening to have a member of your family get involved in that kind of religious environment, poteially leading up to violence. >> the family have heard these reports that jesus is preaching and casting demons out, and they think, has he gone mad. >> want to see jesus, it's his mother and brothers. >> when jesus gets word that his family has come for him, he refuses to see them. he asks, who are new mother and my brother? here are my mother and my
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brothers. whoever does god's will is my brother and sister and mother. >> he's saying to his family, if you don't support me, i'm going to deny you too. >> he won't see them. >> it's almost like he disses his family. >> that was actually a rejection of the flesh and blood family, and i think his family would have been shocked by that. >> go! >> james is not unlike us. can you imagine if your brother said, you know, i'm the son of god, you know, what would you say? obviously, we would think they're crazy. >> a few weeks later jesus enters jerusalem. hundreds of thousands line the
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streets. according to the gospels, he's later arrested in the garden of gethsemane and the following day is tortured. and executed. jesus' family have failed to save him. an apocryphal gospel not found in the new testament tells us about james. >> the gospel of the hebrews portrays james as being in jerusalem in the immediate aftermath of the crucifixion. >> james has probably found the whole business of jesus being crucified about as traumatic, about as life-changing as he can
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imagine. >> he goes into a period of fasting. and mourning. >> something that no one else of jesus' followers did. >> but then the bible reveals that james' grieving is brought to a sudden end. jesus returns. >> he was buried, and he was raised on the third day, in accordance with the scriptures. then he appeared to james. >> james has spent much of his life wondering who his brother is, especially during this extraordinary mission that jesus
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has been on. and the resurrection is the moment where james comes to believe that jesus really is something special. perhaps that was the moment where he came to acknowledge jesus was not just his brother but also his lord. >> james' life is transformed. now, from doubting brother, he will become jesus' most devoted follower and helps shape a new world religion. [engine revving] ♪ ♪ is it a force of nature? or a sales event? the season of audi sales event is here.
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october 2002. news of the most astonishing archaeological discovery of the new millennium makes headlines around the world. the james ossuary is put on display at the royal ontario museum in toronto, canada. >> at that point i thought we were dealing with just a fantastic archaeological story about perhaps the only item ever to come from the family of jesus. >> but controversy is about to engulf the ossuary. >> while it was on display in
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toronto some questions were asked here in israel as to how it got there. the antiquities authorities said we didn't realize that such an important item that he wanted to send abroad. >> two months after it was first put on display, the israel antiquities authority refused to grant oded golan an extension to his export license. they demand the immediate return of the ossuary to israel. >> the israeli police and the iaa felt as though they had been embarrassed in front of the whole world by oded golan. and they went after him. >> in july 2003 tel aviv police, accompanied by officers from the iaa swoop. >> his premises were raided, in the middle of the night. >> we came with a search warrant to search his apartment. >> along with the james ossuary,
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golan had other rare antiquities they want to examine. >> the whole apartment was full of archeological finds. >> they turned up all these boxes of materials and drawings and computer programs and other documents that they said looked like a forgery workshop. >> in the end, we had dozens of pieces that were supposedly forged. >> the police confiscate boxes full of artifacts for investigation, including the james ossuary. >> carefully, carefully. >> from that moment on, a totally different era of inquiry was opened. not just concealing antiquities from the authorities, but actually faking them and selling them, which is a criminal act. and so you have this very bright, quite obsessive character coming in contact with this strange world of
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antiquities, an awful lot of which is based on very shady, dodgy dealing and tomb raiding. >> it's an allegation oded golan vigorously denies. >> this is ridiculous accusation. what they hold in my hand was a smallpox of very old tools in which i use to restore antiquities like any other collector. >> for more than a year golan is held under house arrest while the iaa prepares its case. >> the story switched from being a nice, happy archaeology story to a story about a criminal mastermind trying to change the course of history. >> in december 2004 at the district court of jerusalem, golan and four others are charged on 44 counts of fraud and forgery. >> they accused him of being part of an international forgery ring, faking the historical
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record by forging such important items as the burial box of james, the brother of jesus. >> the prosecution launch a case to prove that golan added the three most contentious words "brother of jesus" to the inscription. >> it is a genuine ossuary from that period of time. but what oded golan did was he made a supplement and making the whole new meaning of them. >> part of the prosecution's case is based on an examination by epigraphy experts who analyzed the lettering for any inconsistencies. >> if you look at the inscription very carefully, you'll notice there's a difference in depth, clarity and the presence in the first half of the inscription and the
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second half of the inscription. >> i believe the chances of at least the second half being a modern forgery are at least 75% to 85%. i think the forger attempted to replicate the style of writing at the first half of the inscription but really didn't do it with enormous precision. >> but the defense disagrees. so next the prosecution turns its attention to the patina, the coating on the box. over the next five years their scientists repeatedly scrutinize the micro organisms embedded inside the lettering. they believe this is all the work of golan. >> he made the fake patina at home. he went to archaeological sites and took out dirt from that period, took it back home and mixed it with water and then poured it over the ossuary. >> now witnesses for the defense
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contradict this claim. >> to fake a real patina, you need time. you need years and years. maybe 50 years. maybe 100 years to develop this patina. by growing the micro organisms that form the patina. >> every day new evidence is presented. >> there were more than 120 witnesses in this trial. many of them leading scientific experts. >> the case itself lasted for almost eight years. >> geology, physics, chemistry, stone, glue, ink, you name it. >> i don't think there was ever any case like this in the world. >> the judge said to each of them, look, if you, the best experts in the world, can't tell me whether this is a fake or authentic, then how on earth can i decide? >> finally, in march 2012, after one of the longest-ever forgery trials, 12,000 pages of
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transcripts and more than 400 exhibits, the judge reaches a verdict. oded golan is found guilty on two charges relating to the trade in antiquities. but when it comes to the charges of forgery, he's found not guilty and acquitted on all counts. >> i felt the release, but i lost many years just trying to prove something that should not have had to go to court. >> but the case did not prove whether the ossuary is that of jesus' brother, james. that debate is still very much alive. >> by the end of this ten-year odyssey, what we're left with is an item that might be or might not be associated with jesus' family. >> but the bible does record what happens to james. his fate will impact the course
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therthere is nothing typical about making movies. i'm victoria alonso and i'm an executive producer... ...at marvel studios. we are very much hands-on producers. if my office... ...becomes a plane or an airport the surface pro's perfect. fast and portable but also light. you don't do this 14 hours a day, 7 days a week for... ...decades if you don't feel it in your heart. listen, i know my super power is to not ever sleep. that's it. that's the only super power i have.
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starts with a crust made from marie'sscratch.pot pie because when it's cold outside, good food and good company keep you warm inside. marie callender's it's thought this ossuary once held the bones of jesus' brother james. his story may have been hidden, but there are clues to his life. >> in the gospel according to thomas, jesus tells his disciples when they want to find leadership after his departure, they should go to james. >> james was a very devout man. a second century historian tells us that james was continually on his knees praying, so much so that he had calloused knees like a camel's knees. >> james becomes the first
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bishop of jerusalem. >> my brother. >> he becomes a kind of rock of the movement in many ways, because he provides the kind of stability that the new christian movement like that needs. >> over time, he progressively develops a sense of commitment and ownership for his brother's message. >> but his authority is soon to be challenged by someone who was once a sworn enemy of jesus and his teachings. >> paul had been one of the pharisees who was against the jesus group, who changes sides as it were. and once he comes into the community he just comes in incredibly strongly and takes a huge role. >> paul has been traveling across the roman empire, preaching his own version of the jesus message for more than ten years. his manifesto has even reached
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non-jews or gentiles. >> the tricky issue of what do we do with gentiles was the hot button issue in earliest christianity. you have to remember all of the earliest followers of jesus were jews. all of them. so where do the gentiles fit into this? >> paul doesn't want the gentiles to convert to judaism in order to become christians, to be followers of christ. >> his letters to the new christian community, the epistle epistles, make up a third of the new testament. his teachings show how determined he is to reach out to gentiles. >> jesus said, go and make disciples of all the nations, and that meant not just the jews. >> if i were james and i'd heard about paul and what paul was
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doing, i would be hugely frustrated. paul never met the human jesus. here was james, who was jesus' brother, and this upstart was presuming to teach jesus' message and go out among the gentiles with this message? >> things got so bad in the relations between paul and james that ultimately they had a big conference in jerusalem to sort it out. >> around 50 a.d., 20 years after the execution of his brother jesus, james presides over a council of the movement's leaders. the outcome will decide the future. will they remain a small jewish sect? or will christianity stand alone? >> paul comes to defend the salvation afforded by the death and resurrection of christ that also extends to gentiles, and he brings a "saved" christian to jerusalem in order to try to prove his point. >> here is my friend, a greek.
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>> paul brings with him titus, an uncircumcised greek, and he's a symbol of the gospel he's preached. he's bringing him there to say to everyone, what are you going to do about this? >> the only thing that counts is faith. >> when we read the acts of the apostles, it's quite clear that there's tension, and there's especially tension between james and paul. >> so if you were jesus' brother and this upstart came along preaching and teaching a different message from the one that you had learned from your brother, i imagine he would have felt immense frustration. >> what the council are witnessing is the birth of early christianity. >> the process by which christianity and judaism become two different things is a process that takes centuries. that said, in my opinion, paul's decision is a critically important moment in that
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division. >> jews or greeks. slaves or free. >> paul believes you really need to go out there and spread the message if your legacy's going to be protected. >> listen to me. >> james is a tora true jew, and he apparently got along just fine with the jewish authorities, but this jewish following of jesus had really taken on a life of its own. it wasn't just another sect of judaism. it was a movement. >> james eventually sides with paul. this decision will soon revolutionize christianity, but it will also seal james' fate.
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he is now seen as a threat to the jewish religious order. >> james was the face of early jewish christianity in jerusalem. he represented all of that. so, of course, the authorities are going to take out on him whatever they had heard about the revolutionary beliefs about the followers of jesus. at that point, the jewish authorities knew that they couldn't control this. >> in spite of james's good behavior, they still associated him with that trouble maker, jesus who was crucified in the early 30s. >> james's arrest on the orders of the same jewish priesthood who only three decades earlier condemned his brother, jesus to death.
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>> je ruse lum, ad 62. a leading member of the priesthood gives james an ultimateiment. renounced his brother jesus as his messiah or face death. but james refuses. >> the link between jesus and james ultimately means james can't survive. >> james is led to the temple walls. only a few hundred meters from where jesus was crucified. >> he is martyred for the cause
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and the sincere devotional. >> by pushing james from the walls, it doesn't kill him. ancient texts record that the final blows come when he is stoned to death. his is buried on the spot where he falls. in affordance with jewish custom of the time, a year after his death his bones would have been interned. >> it is likely that james's body was claimed by his followers and buried. there was considerable support for james to be honored against the demeaning death that was inflicted on him. >> after james's murder, the crucial role he played in the
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development of the early church will fade from view. but today in rejuice elements, james is vend rated. the 12th century armenian cathedral is dedicated it. >> st. james. we feel privileged that our brotherhood is in direct succession and direct line to saint james, the first bishop. in our daily prayer, james is our lord and sitting nox christ. >> it is claimed that the cathedral is built on the site of james's home. worshippers also believe his remains are buried here. >> according to armenian tradition, the bones of saint james were brought from the
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valley where they were originally buried and they were reburied under the main altar of the present saint james cathedral. >> what happened to the box that first held his mortal remains. >> is it real or not? that's a tough question. the jury is still out on that one. >> at the end of it, you still have a mystery. we will never quite know if the james is real or not. we will never quite know if it's that james, the brother of jesus. after he is acquitted, it is returned. now he is hoping to put it on display for a second time. >> it should be exhibited for those who have christianity and we have a lot of color that everyone can evaluate and read
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and get their own conclusion. >> the dispute left a lasting legacy. >> i think james is one of the most important figures in earliest christianity and the controversy has caused people to be more aware of the fact jesus had brothers and james was preeminent. >> why has james's memory been lost to history? >> we are going by they thisologist that suggests that mary cooperate have others than jesus. >> that are idea that mary is a perpetual virgin that kicked his siblings off the stage of
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christianity. >> the first gospels are there and christianity is moving away from the jewish roots. >> by the second century there were more gentiles than israelites. the memory of james was diluted. we come tong of him as a purely historical figure and not as the transitional figure that he was. . >> it becomes difficult for us to talk about the history of the early jesus movement. that does involve james. >> everyone else knew jesus. they knew jesus, the great teacher and the great healer. >> james knew the invisible
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jesus. james knew the jesus he was when no one was watching. i'm george howell at world headquarters in atlanta. for viewers in the united states, finding jesus will air in entirety in a moment, but the breaking news we are following here at cnn. the death of the british pop star, george michael. he has died at 53 years old. he shot to fame with the duo wham and had a successful solo career. his 1987 debut called faith sold more than 10 million copies. police say michael's death is being treated as inexplained, but not suspicious. we are staying in touch with authorities to learn more as the

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