tv The Seventies CNN January 7, 2017 11:00pm-12:01am PST
>> it's a giant love-in. >> people should be uninhibited in their sexual expression. >> you cannot ignore it, a change in morality. >> they're fascists. they don't like hippies. and they don't like the things we do. >> we do have to maintain law, order and decency on the streets. >> what we're thinking about is a peaceful planet. we're not thinking of anything else. >> they're trying to do what no one else has ever done before, find a new way for humanity. ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪
♪ america in the early '60s, it was a real good time of prosperity, but it was also kind of a stagnant time in terms of spiritual growth. things were kind of at a standstill. >> the baseline culture was materialism, and also the feeling that the culture itself didn't honor the human spirit and didn't honor creativity. >> the early 1950s, the nation recognized in its midst the social movement called b generation.
♪ a novel titled "on the road" became a best-seller. >> when kerouac's book came out, it became a revolution, defined a new generation of what being beat means, and it defined it as a spiritual revolution. that if we're living in an age of conformity, if everybody's trying to work for the corporation, that you're losing a sense of self. >> i was traveling west one time at the junction of the state line of colorado. i saw in the clouds huge and massed above the golden desert of even fall, the great image of god with four fingers pointed straight at me. come on, boy, go thou across the grown, go moan for man. go moan, go groan, go groan alone, go roll your bones alone. [ applause ] >> jack kerouac became like a godfather for counterculture. >> the village has a life and language all its own. if you dig it, you're hip. if you don't, man, y're uare.
coffey houses, the neighborhood bars of bohemia, where the strongest potion is coffee, and the coffee house poet is the speciality of the house. >> to find a place where the eyes can rest. >> beatniks, they had these coffeehouses they would go in and play chess and read poetry, and those same coffeehouses became kind of a proving ground for folk singers. >> all young kids were running out to buy guitars and banjos. ♪ >> folk music gives me a lot more than the popular music of our own time does. my out look is that topical songs, popular songs should be sung because we don't do anything about say the bomb, you know. the whole situation come to an end. >> there's got to be an alternative to whatever ways of life are offered to them, you know? i mean, democrat, republican. and i would like to offer some kind of alternative, somehow, you know? >> folk revival scene had a big part of politics.
you can't get left politics out of woody guthrie or pete seeger. so the greenwich village movement was there to celebrate people's culture. >> if you like the music, you were really signing on for their ways of looking at the world, too. ♪ and then, eventually, one guy emerges as being special. ♪ ♪ a bullet from the back of a bush took medgar evers' blood ♪ >> during that time in the '60s, as that cultural revolution was slowly bubbling and kids were starting to question authority, question what was happening in their country, they're looking for answers. >> bob dylan thought that folk music was poetry. he took beat energy and mixed it with folk culture, and it's more lyrical intensity than anybody's put to song before. ♪nd the negro's name is used, it is plain ♪
♪ for the politician's gain as he rises to fame ♪ >> up until the time of bob dylan, there were the songwriters and there were the singers. dylan started writing his own music. >> he says, i am going to comment on the world, i'm going to comment on the nature of this human experience. bob dylan was sort of in this white-hot moment of saying more in the popular song than anyone ever had before. ♪ only a pawn in their game [ cheers and applause ] >> after the revolution of bob dylan, the music world moves west. ♪ got to go where you wanna go, do what you wanna do with whoever you wanna do ♪ >> laurel canyon becomes the
epicenter of the rock revolution. >> the music scene was not happening in new york anymore. it was now l.a. everybody moved to laurel canyon. >> actors, musicians, artists, and so it was a kind of whole community, very open. if you were driving over laurel canyon and you saw somebody hitchhiking, you'd just automatically pull over. hey, brother, get in, you know? where are you going? >> laurel canyon was an incredibly interesting place to live in those days. i lived on lookout mountain with joanie mitchell. crosby was close, stephen was close. >> now it was all these artists singing this truth, and their truth was this idyllic sense of freedom. >> there was a thriving community of kids that were discovering their new life and couldn't wait to play the new song they had written. >> it was a lot of freedom. there was a lot of drugs. this was a lot of beautiful women. there was a lot of good rock and roll being made. it was a fabulous time. ♪ ♪
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♪ these are students at a suburban high school in los angeles. they reflect the sudden sensuality and affluence which dominate life in southern california. the latest fad is the sunset strip. during the past year, it has become a playground for southern california's mobile, restless teenagers. it is the place to go.
>> people would meet at clubs on the sunset strip and they would go to the trip or they would go to the whisky a go go. it was a real happening. >> we changed from a culture of grown-ups that sort of looked down on kids to kids leading. >> it is the creation of the teenager, and the revolution begins. ♪ ♪ i got a light on you, babe >> the los angeles county sheriff's office has begun foot patrol on the sunset strip to cope with the growing influx of youngsters. >> the notion of teenagers who had a culture of their own, that weren't listening to their parents' music, kind of opens up this giant space for rebellions large and small. >> at least 10% of the students have used and are using marijuana.
also, probably a very significant thing is that acceptance is gaining steadily and the usage is really increasing very rapidly. >> in l.a., we were all kind of, you know, smoking god's herb, whereas up in san francisco, it seemed like they were experimenting more with mind expansion, you know? ♪ >> ken kesey took classes of writing at stanford university, and he writes the great novel "one flew over the cuckoo's nest," and this makes him a celebrity. >> while i was at stanford, i was given the opportunity to go to the stanford hospital and take part in the lsd experiments. >> kesey had volunteered to do tests for lsd, a government-sponsored test. >> lsd was isolated in a
pharmaceutical company in switzerland. >> are you happy? >> yes. >> you have tears in your eyes. >> oh. >> is that a beautiful experience would you say? >> i would say yes. >> some people think it's when kesey discovers lsd that the counterculture in california is born, because more and more people then want to try to experience what kesey experienced, and he becomes a promoter of it. ♪ >> kesey created a drug commune at la honda, which is an hour from san francisco. great artists love smashing traditions, and at his best, kesey was doing that. everybody would have this communal lsd trip together. tom wolf would write "the electric kool-aid acid test" about it.
>> people were constantly slipping drugs into my food. the number of times i would get up and wonder what the hell happened. they thought they were doing me a favor. >> they were having the world's fair in new york, so a bunch of us were going to go. but the bunch of us were too big to fit in his station wagon, so he bought this converted school bus. ♪ >> kesey, he was going to put the bus in dayglow, bright colors and then go with what he called unsettling america, blowing people's minds. >> the whole idea of blowing people's minds was you have to present something that is so different, there's a crack comes open where something new can come in. and the reaction to all these people was wonderful, because what it was in 1964, there was no other thing like this happening. >> it's part of a kind of cultural revolution going on, making the squares pay notice to this underground of america. ♪ >> when we got to new york city, which is the home of the beats,
where kerouac lived, and picked him up, because we were in his presence, we were just acting as goofy as we could, playing music, putting on costumes, doing all kinds of acts and stuff like that. and then kerouac sat on the couch, drinking a big, tall budweiser. he was obviously not an enthusiastic guy. those beats, they had done their thing, you know? i really felt like the torch had been passed from those guys to the psychedelic generation. >> kesey was very messianic, and he started feeling that acid would start to let you see a larger truth and thought he wanted to get as many people to try lsd as they can. >> so we started renting halls. we called the thing the acid test. the band of course was known as the warlocks. as time went on, they changed their name to the grateful dead. ♪ st. stephen with a rose, in and out of the garden he goes ♪
♪ country garden in the wind and the rain ♪ ♪ wherever he goes,he peopl all complain♪ >> lsd was not an illegal drug. when kesey held these acid tests, as they were known, they'd have two vats. one was punch and one was punch with lsd. >> the acid tests were like a party. the scene is a lot of light shows and music and people dancing. when the dead were playing, it was a way to feel that acid in waves. and i looked down and i saw kids in front of me moving to the music. they looked up at me and i said, "yeah." ♪ >> the drug culture really took hold. and that's where artists, whether it was the grateful dead or jefferson airplane, were able to embrace it and put it in their music.
>> the counterculture in california is born because more and more people want to try to experience what kesey experienced, and he kind of became the grand poobah of the carnival in san francisco in the 1960s. >> there's nothing a grown-up or sophisticated in taking an lsd trip at all. they're just being complete fools. they're delicious side dishes with the protein of beans, whole grains... ...and veggies! mmm, good. my work here is dooooone! bird's eye ptein blends. so veggie good.
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cbs news, "without any flowers in its hair," is in san francisco because this city has gained the reputation of being the hippie capital of the world. ♪ >> i got accepted in san francisco state and i found an apartment at haight and clayton street, right in the center of what would become the haight-ashbury. >> the psychedelic shop on haight street started about a year ago. it spreads the gospel based on brotherhood, love and lsd. >> for all the people out there that are confused and hungry for some kind of meaningful spiritual life, that's why all these people are down here. that's why there's so much interest in the haight-ashbury. it offers hope. >> we lived right down the street from the psychedelic shop. people were growing their hair long, they were wearing beads, playing music on the street. it was just an incredible environment at that point, in the beginning.
that's when it was just like one big, giant family. >> before you knew it, it was a congregating place for artists, and the dividing line seemed to be the psychedelic experience. you couldn't understand the posters, you couldn't understand the fashions, you couldn't understand anything if you hadn't gotten high. >> the diggers group scrounges food and money to feed free those who arrive in panhandle park with a bowl and an appetite. diggers are people who share, aim is a society where nd their everything is shared, everything free. >> the diggers were one of the first groups that were into social consciousness about what was needed to take care of this huge group of people that were coming into the haight-ashbury. >> their free shop looks more like a playground at first sight. here they make sheets and clothes for other hippies, who can come and take what they want without paying anything for it.
>> everything in the store was free -- tools, clothing, televisions. and so we were inviting people to imagine a way of life that would please them, and then to make it real by doing it. >> what we're thinking about is a peaceful planet. we're not thinking about anything else. we're not thinking about any power, we're not thinking of any of those kinds of struggles. we're not thinking of revolution or war or any of that. that's not what we want. nobody wants to get hurt, nobody wants to hurt anybody. we would all like to be able to live an uncluttered life, a simple life, a good life, you know, and think about moving the whole human race ahead a step or a few steps. >> we wanted to learn more about the real meaning of life, why are we here? certainly not to kill each other but here to celebrate life, to make music, to do art and love each other. >> these people are hippies. they represent a new form of social rebellion. it is hard to figure out what positive things they are in favor of. >> the reason we can no longer
identify with the kinds of activities that the older generation are engaged in is because those activities are, for us, meaningless. they have led to a monstrous war in vietnam, for example. >> we did want change from war, from rigid ideas of what the sexes ought to be doing. a change from black people ought to be here and white people ought to be here. no. why can't we try and make that work? >> the haight-ashbury community has created a council for a summer of love in san francisco. >> the council is calling for creative love happenings for every weekend throughout the summer. we ask all who come here to come here in love and we ask all who live here to greet all men with love. >> they at their best are trying for a kind of group sainthood, and saints running in groups are likely to be ludicrous. they depend on hallucination for their philosophy.
this is not a new idea and it's never worked. >> it was sort of a divide of generations. a lot of mistrust. young people didn't trust old people. old people didn't understand young people. >> what's so offensive about long hair? >> it looks sloppy. [ laughter ] [ applause ] >> it doesn't differentiate the boys from the girls enough. >> we didn't call ourselves hippies. the hippies are a fabrication. they were an attempt to diminish young adults and infantalize us, and it certainly serves to exclude the people that were deeply thoughtful about the world, that were ready to dedicate their lives to making change and had questioned the paradigm of materialism. >> look around you. nothing works. the only thing a kid is presented with is when you grow up, you can join the army, go to war, get a gig as an engineer,
become a vegetable, drive to work in your own car, your own, big, metal box. and it just looks absurd, people in their metal boxes like this going all over from job to job, frustrated, uptight. what joy is there in life? life should be -- life is and should be ecstasy. >> the counterculture had the arrogance to tell everybody else what they were doing is wrong. >> it's estimateatd thnywhere from 10,000 to 200,000 youngsters may pour into haight-ashbury this summer. many people are apprehensive. they feel that black power or other political activist groups may use haight street as a stage setting for riots. >> haight-ashbury cannot handle 100,000. of course, there isn't room. >> the tension between the government and the people began to be evident. >> nobody should let their young children come into san francisco unsupervised to become a part of
a group such as that. >> they're fascists as far as i'm concerned, and they don't like hippies and they don't like the things we do and they try to harass us and bother us. >> in some ways, their revolutions are war between generations. the hippies' rallying cry is never trust anyone over 30. >> the war of the youth culture establishment is on full swing on about every front. >> about four policemen came in and said everybody get out, the store is closed. they wouldn't give a reason or identify under what premise they were doing this. when we asked them, they pushed people around. they pushed people physically out of the store. >> the mayor, this is very insidious, what he's up to. he wants to stop human growth. >> the hippie leaders say all will be well. flower power will prevail. they say it will be a summer of love, a great pilgrimage. hopefully, they'll be right. >> if it's necessary to bring in national guard, i'll bring in national guard. i'll use whatever force is necessary. ♪
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you may not like it, you may not accept it, but you cannot ignore it, a change in morality. ♪ eight miles high ♪ and when you touch down you'll find that it's ♪ >> turn on, tune in, drop out. >> i've spent some time in new york and i've spent some time in london, and i'm here to tell you, it's happening all over! >> in any large city, there were other haight-ashburys, which people could point to. see, we're on the map, we're big, and we're far more interesting than what you all have to offer. ♪ >> how do you answer the
questions of parents who are concerned about the use of lsd and marijuana for their children? >> these are young people who are hungering for older people, for their parents to listen to them. these youngsters want to share with their parents the grandeur and the glory that they are encountering. and perhaps, eventually, when you're spiritually ready, you'll turn on with your children, if you think that's the right thing to do. ♪ >> monterey pop, it was the absolute ultimate love-in. ♪ ♪ down by the window, just looking out at the rain ♪ ♪ mm-mmm, oh
>> the best festival that i've played pretty much ever is monterey pop festival. ♪ just looking out at the rain >> monterey hit like lightning. popular music was changing and had become something different, and it was a whole new generation of people that wanted to march with it. it said, get on board. we're leaving town. ♪ ♪ and i want to love you, i want to love you for so long ♪ ♪ oh, yeah >> you realize, this is janis joplin before she was known, before she had ever done her first album, before she had ever done her first single. ♪ looking out at the rain ♪ sun came along, honey >> it's just music at its freshest.
>> everything was love and peace >> everything was love and peace and music. and the policeman who was in charge brought flowers out to his men, and he said, "don't bust anybody." >> monterey was that hippie dream come true. >> culture was changing. the hippie movement, it was swaying the mainstream. >> this is where the youngsters come to buy their clothes. and not just the youngsters. it's the young adults and the men who are 40, 50 and even 60 years old. >> in the states, pot is growing with the middle class, pot is going middle class and spreading like prohibition liquor. as more and more citizens get zonked out of their minds, the drug cult enters the bloodstream into american life. like it or not, we're living in the stoned age. >> the counterculture came in with hard punches to the mainstream culture. >> people have already changed their minds about contraception, abortion, premarital sex.
>> the 1960s were absolutely a sexual revolution. because of the pill, women could take charge of their own bodies. they could be sexual. they didn't have to get pregnant. everything sort of coalesces. the perfect storm of societal forces come together. >> here, if you love somebody, and people here love everybody, if you want to make love to somebody then you should. there is no reason why you shouldn't. >> free love was all well and good, and there was a lot of accidental sex. [ laughter ] but we didn't look at it as hedonism. people were just so open to each other, and life was beautiful, you know, and people weren't judgmental. >> the mainstream young people were telling their parents, you've been prohibiting my sexual freedom, and the puritan work ethic is bunk. >> it was clear the rules were changing. and the rules were really that there were no rules. ♪
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we have with us mr. jack keurac over here, who is said to have started the whole beat generation business. >> jack kerouac never wanted to be a prophet. he wanted to be a great american writer, but fame destroys people in america. >> to what extent do you believe that the beat generation is related to the hippies? >> well, they're just -- >> what do they have in common? was this an evolution from one to the other? >> they're just the older ones. i'm 46 years old. these kids are 18. the beat generation was a generation of beatitude and pleasure in life and tenderness. i believe in order and piety. >> here's the progenator of the counterculture kind of disowning his own babies and trying to make sense of a decade he didn't feel pairy to. >> a movement which i did not intend. this was pure, in my heart.
>> all sorts of people have been writing various articles about the hippies, usually about the hippies as if they were animals, something to look at. thus, we've gotten hundreds and literally thousands of people coming up to haight-ashbury to watch people. it makes it an unpleasant place to be in. >> news got out about the haight-ashbury. it became overrun. >> we're now entering what is known as the largest hippie colony in the world. the fountainhead of the hippie subculture. the nickname is hashburies, and marijuana, of course, with lsd, is being used. >> literally people made the trip to san francisco to be a part of something. by the time they got there, that trip was over.
>> this is the latest stage in the evolution of the hippie movement. the hippies are trying to get away. so, they go out to a cabin in the countryside and start a commune. here they can get away from the tourists and reporters that badger them in san francisco. >> communes started. this is really what the hippie movement was all about. an idea of sharing everything, clothes and food and everything. people would just help themselves. >> we lived communally because it was the cheapest way to live. a lot of people began to clarify and simplify their lives. >> what will follow this dispersal of the hippie movement to the countryside is hard to predict. they may be, as they say, coming here to build the foundations for a new society in this nation. or they may be becoming like the woolly mammoth, to find their own extinction. ♪ down where the wood vines twine, that's where i meet my love ♪ ♪ down where the sun never shines, down in the woods ♪
♪ where the wood vine twine >> i was working for "the new york times" in the catskills. and there were just a couple of us going up there. as we went north of the city, we began to run into traffic jams. i finally said to a cop, what the hell is going on? he says, "i don't know, there are thousands of people here, and they're all going to some farm." and it was, of course, woodstock. ♪ >> i think woodstock was an opportunity for people to realize they weren't alone. a lot of people who in their hometown or in their family felt isolated realized they weren't. >> the townspeople, quite frankly, were terrified at the prospect of the hippie arrival. >> i was apprehensive. this little hamlet has a population of under 100 people. when i started hearing the figures of 200,000, 0,000, finally, 500,0. we had a sea of people there.
>> the word got out. everybody and their brother came from all over the country. >> first, the sudden rain. then the thirst and hunger from the shortage of water and food, just for the opportunity to spend a few days in the country getting stoned on their drugs and grooving on the music. >> we got together and had a little powwow about what are we going to do to feed these people? we went into new york to buy 1,500 pounds of wheat, rolled oats, 130,000 paper plates, 130,000 dixie cups, and i believe we served 200,000 people. >> by now there are tens of millions of people who feel themselves to be an irresistible river of change. and you get something incandescent.
♪ freedom, freedom, freedom ♪ freedom, freedom, freedom ♪ singing freedom, freedom, freedom, freedom, freedom ♪ ♪ freedom, freedom, freedom >> we had had love-ins in l.a. on the weekends where everybody gets dressed up and goes to the park and brings an instrument. but to see hundreds of thousands of people, like a meeting of all the tribes from all over the country. boy, we didn't know there were so many of us who felt the same. [ cheers and applause ] >> we must be in heaven, man! >> a rock music festival that
drew hundreds of thousands of young people to a dairy farm in white lake, new york, over the weekend came to an end today. admittedly, there was marijuana as well as music at the rock festival, but there was also no rioting. what did not happen at that dairy farm is possibly more significant than what did happen. >> these long-haired, mostly white kids in their blue jeans and an -- sandals were no wide eyed anarchihs looking for trouble. they were very polite. >> they emptied their shelves for kids. merchants were stunned by their politeness. >> while such a spectacle may never happen again, it has recorded the growing proportions of this youthful culture in the mind of adult america. >> whenever you see a phenomena, especially if you're living in it at the time, you tend to think, that's the arrival. this is the dawning and the start of something new. unfortunately, woodstock just
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>> we had had the hells angels be security at a number of free in the park concerts that we had done, and they were fine. they were funny. they were doing what they were supposed to do. so, we suggested using hells angels. ♪ >> what happened was a lot of speed and alcohol. that's a deadly combination for bikers. ♪ >> marty said the "f" word to one of the hells angels. while we were on stage, a hell's angel knocks him down. that was just the beginning. >> i would like to imagine that the hell's angels just smashed marty balin in the face and knocked hill out for a bit.
i'd like to thank you for that. >> you're talking to me, i'm going to talk to you. >> i'm not talking to you. i'm talking to the people who hit my lead singer in the head. >> you're talking to me. i'll tell you what's happening. you are what's happening. >> no! ♪ one pill makes you larger, one pill makes you small ♪ ♪ and the ones that mother gives you don't do anything at all ♪ >> oh, that's what the story is here? oh, bummer. >> really, man. it's scary. >> who's dng all the beating? >> hells angels. >> hells angels are doing beating on musicians? >> marty got beaten up. ♪ go ask alice, i think she'll know ♪ >> when we left, it was dark and the rolling stones were on, and we were on a helicopter. paul looked down, he said, "wow, it looks like somebody's getting
killed down there." he was right. they were. ♪ ♪ remember what the door mouse said, feed your head ♪ ♪ feed your head >> in california, five members of a so-called religious cult, including charles manson, the guru or high priest, have been indicted in the murder of sharon tate and six others. >> all of the elements are present for one of the most sensational murder trials in american history. seven people brutally murdered in a glare of hollywood history. -- publicity. the involvement of a mystical hippie clan, which despised straight, affluent society. young girls supposedly under the spell of a bearded svengali who allegedly masterminded the seven murders.
>> good morning. >> good morning. >> sun shining this morning. >> it is? >> yeah. >> charles manson cleverly masqueraded behind the common image of being a hippie goes up to the haight-ashbury district, surrounds himself with a bunch of young followers. their lifestyle was sex, orgies and lsd trips. allegedly, he gets them to mass murder for him. >> with blood, the killer had scrawled on a refrigerator door the words "death to pigs." >> you see, prior to these murders, no one associated hippies with violence and murder. people would pick up a hitch-hiking hippie. it was no big deal. but after the manson murders, you saw a hippie with long hair hitch-hiking and the image of manson would enter the driver's mind and they would drive right by. >> by the time of charles manson and watching altamont and what happened there, it symbolizes
the dreamed idealism of the spiritual quest of the beats and early hippies. >> today, the magic is gone. aimless and disorganized, the hippies have fallen prey to their own free spirit. free love, free drugs and too much free publicity have gradually corrupted them. >> something happened to haight-ashbury since last year. we hear it's not the same place. >> it's not. the love-ins brought more and more people. and then people who were really just bums were trying to get into a good thing, you know, free food and free everything. so they all just came in, you know. and a t of really rotten people. so now you've really got a bad thing. it used to be you could set your stuff down beside the road, nobody would touch it. and now it got so you couldn't even put your things inside a building. somebody would come along and take everything you had. >> one day i woke up very hungry, very dirty and tired and disgusted. so i decided to go the a job and settle down and get serious. >> joe's job is making jewelry. he's been taking a six-month course to learn how. >> it was hard in the beginning.
getting up at 8:00 every morning doing all those changes. >> joe bought the suit, uncomfortable though it looked. will he be equally uncomfortable in his new life? there have been generation gaps before, but today's is probably the widest yet. can the joes of america bridge the gap and conform without society making concessions in return? >> i would say there was a common element in the counterculture of people trying to invent a new world. but people mature. their point of view gets more nuanced. the costs start to come due. children come into the world. >> that idea of sex, drugs, and rock and roll, it's a youth dream, then youth dies. >> yet, our mainstream culture took what it needed from the hippies. >> the actual movement of the '60s was the movement towards something more authentic. >> in the '60s, we thought of other people as part of our own family. we were into caring for society as a whole. >> this is what the revolution
is all about. mercy is better than justice. the carrot is better than the stick, and the most important lesson is, be kind, be kind. >> to me, every day was a highwater mark. we played music all day long. we worked. we did not have jobs. it was the most care-free period of my life. dylan has this great line in the early song, he says, "i wish, i wish, i wish in vain that we could simply in that room again. $1,000 at the drop of a hat. i'd give it all gladly if our lives could be like that." ♪
. >> we'll be doing for tv what fm did for radio. >> there are some that have accused of you videos being sosts important. >> we like to call them favoritefully smutty. >> a group that's never had a problem saying how they feel. >> what are your dreams. >> thrill the world. >> michael jackson is the man of the '80s. >> music that is all beat and talk. it's rap music. >> i might as well as speak my mind. >> heavy metal glorifies sex and violence and hates authoritynd adolescent boys love it. >> this weird beastly presentation that was birthed in the