>> we'll get started now. my name is kevin merrida, the national editor of "the washington post," and we've been proud charter sponsors of this festival since l beginning, -- since the beginning, 11 years ago. i want to say on behalf of the library of congress, welcome to the festival, and we hope that everyone's having a wonderful day celebrating the joy of reading here on the national mall. before we begin, i want to say that the pavilion's presentations are filmed for the archives and by c-span to air on booktv, so be mindful of this as you enjoy the presentation. in addition, please do not sit on the camera risers located in the back of the pavilion. please silence your cell phones. thank you.
the author we have with us today is fabulous. name is justin martin. he's the author of the widely spread biography, the two iconic figures, alan greenspan, and ralph nader, both of whom would be interesting dinner guests at the same dinner. [laughter] i couldn't think of two different figures and i was asking justin about that, and he said after he had written the greenspan book, he didn't want to do anymore economists, and the agent said carve out a career economist. he went in a different direction, and with ralph nader, he did. it was a best seller and chosen by the "new york times" book review was chosen as a notable book in 2000.
published in 2002, it's the definitive biography of the consumer advocate and perennial presidential candidate who sometimes leaves voice messages on my voice mail asking the post to cover one thing or another, and he also plays certainly a controversial role in the dispute election of 2000. justin became one of the go-to experts to explain nader appearing 07b cnn and other -- appearing on cnn and other television shows, and also the 2006 documentary, an unreasonably man. the latest biography is of a less controversial figure, at least by the day's twitter standards. genius of place, the life of frederick law olmstead is the story of a brilliant landscape architect who designed central park and 50 other green spaces around the country.
olmstead was a sailor, scientific farmer, journalist, abolitionist, and civil war hero, a life worthy of the careful illuminating justin martin treatment. justin is a former staff water at "fortune" magazine, and wrote for "newsweek" and "money," a graduate of wright's university in houston, and was destined to write this book as he was married in central park, which is olmstead's greatest achievement. he also happens to live in the new york neighborhood designed by olmstead's son, frederick olmstead, jr., and with that, i say please welcome jussen martin @ -- justin martin to the stage. he'll sign books from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m. as well. justin? [applause]
>> well, thanks, kevin, for that really nice introduction. it is so nice to be here at the national book festival. i'm here as well as as an thousand, but also a fan. i had a great day going around seeing different speeches. it's been really fun. my book is called "genius of place: the life the frederick olmstead." he was a restless man. i broke it up into parts. first, i'm going to describe the path that he took to becoming a landscape architect, and then briefly describe some of his greatest achievements, some of the greatest designs in the context of how all the various eddies he's traveled now and career experience, how those actually informed his most masterful design, and then there's time for questions, of
course. olmstead was born in hartford, connecticut in 1822, born into a prosperous family. his father was a merchant, and as was habit in that era, he was sent away for schooling entering into a series of arrangements which poor country parsons, and they were besieged and beset. they had their parsonage duties, run small farms on the side to make extra income, and that left them very little time and focus for their third role as educators. olmstead was mischefs as a boy taking full advantage of the situation. he was in the habit of sneaking out the parsonages, wondering around setting trap for quail, wondering around in the woods. he got very little schooling, but he got an appreciation for landscape, particularly the landscape of his bay of connecticut. in olmstead was 14 years old, he got a terrible case of poisen
sumac that spread into his eyes. at this point, he contrived to get a letter from a doctor that indicated he no longer needed to go to school. he was delighted. this also meant that at a very young age, he needed to find a profession. now, the first thing that olmstead lived upon, it made sense, and it kind of was really, really illogical. he wanted to become a surveyor. now, surveying was a profession that was available in this era at least to someone with limited formal schooling, but it also requires eagle sharp vision, and he just had a bout with his eyes. nevermind, he pressed ahead, arranged to serve an apprenticeship under a surveyor. olmstead proceeded into completely abuse the situation. well pretending to learn the useful trade of surveying, olmstead wondered around hiking, fishing, paddling in the canoes,
learned little about surveying, but he deepened his appreciation for landscape, particularly for the landscape at the bay of connecticut. at this point, the father decided time for olmstead to buckle down and become serious. his father arranged for him to move to brooklyn, got him an apartment in brooklyn, and also got him a job in manhattan where he would be working for an importing firm. now, olmstead was deeply lonely in brooklyn. he was deeply lonely there. he also, he hated the job working for the importing firm, hated the fact it was a desk job, hated the long hours, hated the regimennation. there was just one thing he liked, and that was periodically he got on board ships and inventory their wares. he had a new idea of what to do with his life. he wanted to become a sailor rmt
once again, this made sense. sailing was one of thee professions available to those who didn't have formal schooling. a whole long line of olmstead, 23 you went back generation after generation, had gone to sea. in april of 1843, he set out on a ship called the ronaldson headed for china. on july 4th of 1843 as they rounded the cape of good hope on the southern tip of africa, they hit a ferocious snowstorm. they were traveling to the southern hemisphere, and there it's possible to have weather conditions reversed. you can have wicked weather. this is an incredible storm. he looked around at the fellow sailors, many who were seasoned. he saw panic in their eyes. they knew the ship might sink.
they had orders to go full sail. the ship was uncontrol l. the sails were acting as a detriment, so they rolled up the sails, and olmstead and the fellow crewman went below deck and for three days and three nights they were completely unmanned, uncontrolled, olmstead thought that at any moment the unledson would crack open, pitched into the ocean for certain death. fortunately, that did not happen. olmstead continued on to china. his -- the ronaldson delivered its american goods, picked up a load of chinese tea, and started heading back to the united states. along the way, olmstead experienced everything. he didn't get enough food, not enough water. he didn't get enough sleep. he watched as his fellow sailor sailors who had infractions. when the ship docked in new york
harbor in april of 1844, and when olmstead disembarked on the dry land, he swore to never, every go to sea again. this meant he needed a new profession. he hit on the idea of becoming a farmer. again, this made sense. farming was a profession available to someone with limited formal schooling. farming was thee profession in the united states praked by 70% of the population. he identified a man who was received the accommodation for running a model scientific farm, and olmstead arranged to work with this man as an apprenticeship. he was having the first pang of wanting to be a social reformer, and he very much liked the idea of being a scientific farmer. that would be a way to accomplish that. the reason why is while he didn't have much formal schooling, he was very, very well read, and so he thought he
could read the latest agriculture rail journals, learn the latest best practices in farming, and then he could disseminate the information to the fellow farmers, much of whom were ill lit rat and -- it literate and be a social reformer. he started off on his own for life as a farmer. true to his word, he really was very talented as a farmer, very good as growing crops. true to his word, he was a social reformer. he read the latest agricultural journals, gleamed the best practices, the latest cutting edge practices in farming, december seminated the information to the fellow farmers, but then he learned his younger brother, john, was planning to take a walking tour in england. olmstead was jealous and couldn't believe his brother was going to take a great adventure while he was stuck on the farm.
olmstead wrote a series of letters to the father which he pleaded to be allowed to leave the farm and join his brother on this trip. we only wonder why would a man now in his mid-20s need to beg his father position? his father held the mortgage to the farm. his father was also very kind, generous man, especially by 19th century standards, and he agreed to let olmstead go, and staked out money for the tour they took across england. when olmstead rumped, he was the beneficiary of a fortunate coincidence. one of olmstead's neighbors on stan ten io lend was a -- island was a man named george putnam who was a weakened hobby farmer. stan ten island was not part ever new york city, just an island off the tip of manhattan. george is a name that might have
resonance for the people here in the audience today because he was a publishing magnet, and the publishing company he founded is still in existence today, putnams. he was an innovator and he was working on paperbacks, brand new to the world in this era, and publishing all different kinds of paperbacks. he was publishing philosophy, collections on poetry, short fiction, and selling them for 25 cents a pop. putnam approached olmstead and asked him if he would be interested in producing an account to be published in paperback of his recent walking tour across england. olmstead readily agreed, and he produced a book called "walks and talks of an american farmer in england." sales were very, very slow. reviews were incredibly tepid,
but olmstead made an incredible transition. he had gone from being a surveyor, to a clerk, to a sailor, to a farmer, to a writer, and now comes an extraordinary coincidence. there was a brand new newspaper, the early 1850s, the new paper called "the new york daily times". they dropped the daily and then became the "new york times". it was in a fight for its life, the era when most big cities had a dozen dailies, and so henry rayman, the editor of the newspaper who is trying to figure out how to separate it from the large field of competition, came to the conclusion that the best way to do this was by focusing on veer rasety. now, this was the era of yellow journalism so a dozen competitors were in the habit of just stretching the truth mightily or making things up, so
rayman perceived if he devoted 2 to objective reporting, that he could distinguish it from the competitors. he was also interested in really covering some of the big topics of the day, and one of the biggest was, again, at this point, in the early 1850s, once again, there were rising tensions between the northern and southern regions of the united states on the issue of slavery. these were tensions that existed from the very inception of the nation, but now they appear to be reaching one of their periodic flash points. people thought there would be violence soon or civil war. so olmstead applied for this job. he had a five minute interview, and he was handed this absolutely plum assignment. you might think how did he get this? he was underqualified, but he had a book to his credit.
maybe more importantly, he was a farmer. it was nothing but a society in this era. in the autumn of 1852 after the harvest was over because he was a farmer by trade, he set out for the south, and the only way to describe it is nothing could have prepared henry raymond, the editor of the times, nothing could have prepared anyone for what an able reporter olmstead proved to be. he went everywhere talking to everyone, talked to plantation owner, talked to slaves, talked to poor white farmers, and he produced a series of spectacular dispatchers that put the brand new "new york times" on the map. in 1861, they were compiled into a book called "the cotton kingdom," and all i can say is 150 years later, 1861, and the book is still in print, and if
you want a window into the south on the eve of the civil war, you can watch the movie "gone with the wind" which is fictional, but has great observations about the south and the antebellum period, or read olmstead's collections in the cotton kingdom. he's a member of what he calls the literary republic. next, he got another plum assignment becoming editor for a magazine called putnams, which was an editor of a brand new magazine called "harpers". they published emerson, thereau, and eddison. while working at putnams, he decided he wanted to become much more deeply involved in abolitionism. given the fact he traveled through a south on assignment
for the new york new -- new"new york times," a cause he wanted to be involved in, so in 1955, -- 1855 a man traveled east from kansas who was the head of a militia and they were devoted to be sure if kansas entered as a state, they would be a free state rather than a slave state. he was headed east to raise money to purchase weapons for the militia. he went to connecticut and riled and raised enough money to purchase sharp rifles, then he went to new york city, and the person he wanted to connect was with olmstead. he had a deep well of contacts, and olmstead readily agreed, and so olmstead started reaching out to the various people he knew around new york city. one of the people he reached # out to was greely, the editor of
the new york tribune. he managed to raise $300 through the various contacts in the literary community and elsewhere, and abbot was a energetic friend. olmstead kept abbot apprised of his activities and olmstead used the $300 to purchase and they wrote letters that employed a rekick cue lousily -- ridiculously easily cracked code. at the same time, the code reflects that olmstead was aware that he and abbot were involved in a dangerous mission here. olmstead arranged to break this up into several pieces and send it to kansas broken up into component parts.
when the cannon arrived in kansas, it was once again assembled, reassembled, placed in front of the free state hotel in lawrence, and it comported itself very admirably, the cannon did, throughout the ensuing bloody kansas struggles. there's the panic of 1857, an incredibly rapid downward spiral in economic conditions. the magazine we want belly up, olmstead lost his job. olmstead was short on coal. he owed money to everybody he knew. he had a hole in his shoe. he didn't have a proper hat. he decided to take a job that was an up credible come down for someone who was traveling in such lofty circles rubbing shoulder with the licks of emerson.
he took a job in which he cleared an unattractive piece of land, knocked down shanties, and cleared swamps in an ugly piece of land that was named for its position in the middle of new york city. it's called central park. he was clearing the piece of land for someone else's design. enter vox. he's an english trained architect, took a look at the plans, and he was disgusted and couldn't believe the design. what's more, vox had friends. in high places. he had recently designed a 5th avenue mansion of the board member of the future central park. he approached the board and said, first of all, 24 is a terrible -- this is a teacial design, get -- terrible design. in england, where i'm from, if you want the best design, hold a public competition. the board listened to vox,
tabled the existing design, and announced there would be a public competition for a new design. at this point, vox sought out olmstead to see if he wanted to be partners. for these purposes, vox could not have cared a wit about the high profile, not the fact he was part of the literary republic, but an abolitionist, rubs shoulders with luminaries. that meant nothing to vox. the reason he wanted to partner with olmstead because olmstead was out on the this scruff my -- scruffy piece of land clearing swamps, and they said if they partnered up, they'd have a leg up in the competition because olmstead knew the lay of the land. they partnered up for the competition, and the only way to describe it is parallel to the earlier southern reporting. in this case, nothing could have prepared vox, nothing could have prepared anyone for what incredible ideas olmstead
brought to this design. when they turned it into the design, it was the clear winner. there were 3 # different -- 33 different people who entered the competition. 32 of them produced something -- produced designs that would rate somewhere a b-minus, and a flat f. olmstead and vox got an a-plus. it was thee design for central park and got permission to proceed with it. one of the design elements that set their plans so very far apart from the other designs that were turned in by the others. the board of central park spelled out that all the contestants had to follow certain mandatory elements, and one of the elements was there had to be four roads crossing central park. central park is an unattractive shape for a park that's very narrow. the others complied with that mandatory requirement producing park plans that had crossed in
four different places with roads that resulted in really cribbed and cramped plans. it was not possible to have an expassive meadow or long views or vista. olmstead and vox had a brilliant innovation and agreed to do the mandatory elements, to do the four roads crossing central park, but they come up with this idea called sunken transverses. in certain places, they designed land bridges that would cross the channels, and this opened up the park plan. it made it possible to have an expassive meadow and a long view or vista. what's more, is traffic was not traveling at eye level as you go through the park. as olmstead put it, your view would not be interrupted by clattering dung carts. well, their design innovation continues to pay to this day.
many of you had the experience of walking through central park, and there's traffic nearby, cars, taxiing, traveling through the channels, and you don't see it or hear it that badly because the sound is muffled because of the traffic is traveling beneath ground. olmstead and vox proceeded with the plan for central parks and they had done most of what they wanted to do, and what they had not done, they had in preparation, ready to go when in 1861 the civil war broke out. olmstead most certainly wanted to be involved in the union cause, and so what he did at this point was came down here to washington, and he headed up an outfit called the united states commission. this was a battlefield relief outfit providing immeasurable relief to battlefield wounded during the civil war. after the civil war through a whole series of con -- the
american red cross morphed, but come the battle of gettysberg, olmstead was restless again. this is a turning point in the war. it was clear after that battle that the north would be victorious, the south was going to be defeated, and it was really only a matter of time and terms. from olmstead's stand point, it was clear that it was only a matter of time before his assignment with the united states sanitary commission ended, and he would need a new job. the funny thing is olmstead looked around, and he really didn't consider landscape architecture, the very profession that he and have pioneered. olmstead has a masterpiece to his credit of central park, but he didn't think there were any other cities that wanted parks designed. he then moved to california and became the supervisor of a gold mine.
while he was there, he visited a place 30 miles away from the gold mine, and he it was the yosemite valley. by some accounts, olmstead was one of the first 500 non-native american to even enter yosemite. that gives you the idea how remote that valley was in this era and how far away it was from civilization. he loved walking around in yosemite, and pretty soon, he started to make a kind of huing cry to preserve the place. he recognized that america's population was going to expand, and at some point, yosemite would be in danger of being diminished by having so many people visit it. olmstead started suggesting that certain no kind of private interest should be looked to to preserve the natural wonder, but suggested that a farseeing government should step in and take care of this beautiful
place. this was pressing. this was decades before the national park as much. the civil war ended, and all the sudden in the north, at least, there started to be an economic boom. all the sudden, all the cities wanted parks designed, and so olmstead and vox teamed up again, did a bunch of different designs, and then olmstead and vox never got along well, always at each other's throats, so they broke apart. olmstead continued on solo, and he did a whole series of designs, and these designs, part of the reason people respond to them the way they do today, part of what makes them so singular, so magnificent, so set apart is very much because of how he drew on all the various dead ends that he traveled down and career eddies that he traveled over before finding his way to
landscape architecture. he brought many of the varied experiences into play. what i'm going to do now is describe just three of olmstead's greatest works in the context of how his earlier experiences came into play. first of these designs is right up that way, the grounds of the u.s. capitol. olmstead was called upon to design the capitol grounds in 1874, and the very first thing he did was he became extremely fixated on finding a circulation system, a logical way for people to travel over the capitol grounds. in this era, there were 41 different points where a person could enter the capitol grounds, and people were in the habit of entering the grounds at any one of the 41 points and making a bee-line for the interest of the capitol producing a harry grid work with people walking in straight lines criss crossing one another. olmstead sat down and came up with the idea of having the best
way to describe it is like tributaries feeding into larger tributaries feeding into a river. olmstead decided that what made sense was to have -- didn't matter what one of the 41 points someone entered into, they were fed into a tributary fed into a larger path feeding them into just one of a couple of very broad curving paths that would deliver the person right to the interest of the capitol. now, congress, which is the client on this project, was completely puzzled. they hired olmstead to create a striking design for the capitol grounds, and here he was fixated over a circulation system, but this had everything to do, complete rooted in olmstead's earlier career as a farmer. when working as a farmer, olmstead experienced conducts goods to market and having a wagon get stuck in a road.
that spelled disaster. that meant the produce he was taking to market would be bad, and he wouldn't get money. when he became a landscape architect, he kept that lesson with him, and clients would be incredibly puzzled as congress, the client in this case, was. he wired you to do the project, and here you are with a road fixation. he explained it doesn't matter how beautiful a disieb i create -- design i create, but if there's not a rational way for people to be conducted over the grounds, it will be con finded to failure. that was from his time as a farmer. the second project they wanted to describe in the context of the earlier experiences in how they came to bear was his absolutely visionary design for the world fair in chicago, which was called the columbian exposition. olmstead cited the fair, picked where the grounds would be, and he decided that it would make
sense to put the fairgrounds on the shore of lake michigan. that was a really striking backdrop. olmstead came up with this really kind of out there idea and decided he wanted to cut channels that traveled from lake wishes through the -- michigan through the fairgrounds so there was water ways traveling over the fairgrounds, and it was possible for people to go from attraction to attraction at the fair by boat. he had a vivid vision of what he wanted these boats that people would travel on the fairgrounds to be. he wanted them to be small, seating a maximum of four people be brightly colored awnings, and he modeled this in his mind on what he'd seen in china 50 years before.
the administrator of the fair thought this was a ridiculous idea. why would you, if you're trying -- having people travel to the fair by boat, stroke a genius, but traveling in little boats four at a time made no sense. he went behind olmstead's back and forged a relationship and signed a contract with a steamship company. olmstead learned about this, he was appellatetic writing a series of memos that are demented, but logical. he made the argument in the memos that first of all that ultimately the world fair would be confined to memory, opening in the spring of 1893, spring in the autumn of 18893, and that would be it. the point olmstead made was what would people rather remember, a big steamship going along, people leaning over the
railings, a whys m going -- whistle going off, or remember little boats on the waterways? he provided the argument this provide the greatest amount of good to the greatest amount of people. if you had a handful of boats carrying four people at the time, not everybody got to take the boat trip, but he made the point that everybody would enjoy the am ambience of having quiet boats traveling over the waterways. now, burnem was a man of indomeble will, but he met his match with olmstead. in the spring of 1893, there was a small amount of boats sitting four people just as olmstead saw in his trip to china 50 years before. the white city, as that world fair has become to be known, it has a place in american memory, and one of the things people
remember is the ambience, and one of the things that contributed to that am ambience with the waterways and small boats traveling over them. the final landscape i wanted to describe or landscapes plural, are park systems. this is a great idea. olmstead and vox were the pioneers of the park system building the very first one in the world in buffalo in 1868, and then once olmstead and vox's partnership broke up, olmstead continued on, and he kind of perfected the concept designing a park system in milwaukee, wisconsin, designed one in louisville, kentucky, one in rochester new york, and then the park system in boston. now, one of the things that made the park system a really great idea is it was a series. you can have two or three or more parks that were attached or connected by parkways, but you
were no longer tied 20 a single piece of land by a park. you didn't have to have something like central park, which until designed, an unatrackive piece of land. there were attributes. one could be hilly, another might have a nice natural lake, but far more important to olmstead than this variety of land scapes, was the fact it was in the center of the city, a variety of different parks, all of them serving different neighborhoods, and in the different neighborhoods were from all different backgrounds, and you could mix and mingle in the parks. this was completely drawn from the earlier travels in the south on the eve of the sile war. one of olmstead's most enduring
observations was the south in this time was in the grip of a cultural poverty, and olmstead described it to the fact that people lived at such great remove one from another, that no kind of cultural commerce was possible. plantation owners lived far apart, and olmstead noticed they just didn't get together and share ideas and information, and the park system, what it was meant to do was to allow people to come together from all different backgrounds and neighborhoods within a city and mix in a democratic experiment. i wanted to close by saying it is -- it's wonderful to be hear -- here in washington where an example of olmstead's landscape is to very true to how he originally designed it, and the wonderful thing is here in the 21st century, there's so many places you can go in america where you can find olmstead's work very much in tact and find
his vivid democratic spirit so very alive. thank you very much. [applause] [applause] [inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations] >> peaceful abolition of slavery affecting olmstead in his persuasion of england from joining the south in the civil war. >> let's see, the basis for olmstead's abolitionism is interesting. he was called a gradualist, another qualification for getting the times job that i did not mention was that he was a gradualist. they wanted someone sort of objective to go down there, and gran wallists believed it was wrong, but thought you couldn't impose one region of the country
couldn't impose views on another region, and this is a complicated institution that needed time. for that region, they thought because he was not a rabid abolitionist, he was a good person to send to the south. as he traveled through the south, and as you read the 48 dispatches, you see olmstead make an amazing transformation from being a gradualist to being someone who really becomes an abolitionist because of what he witnessed, and one of the most annealing things he witnessed was seeing a slave -- one thing that happened is while he was traveling, people really jealously guarded from him was the actual punishment of slaves. that was a guilty thing for the south, so he travels around plantations and no one punished slaves in front of him, but an overseer was comfortable with him, proceeded to whip a slave, and it was a horrifying experience for him. he felt come police sit because
he didn't stop the overseer, but also he was -- olmstead was on horse back in a gully, and his horse flaired its nose and rushed up at the gully, and he took that as a natural symbol, the horse's reaction, that that was a deeply morally wrong thing, slavery, one of the real events that caused him to deepen his abolitionist sentiment. >> [inaudible] >> i'm sorry. thank you so much. [applause] >> that event, part of the 2011 national book festival here in washington, d.c.. to find out more, visit loc.gov/bookfest. >> getting back at the last ten years and draw three lessons. one, the most important lesson is that the most important thing to happen in the united states in the last ten years was nothing. the last ten years never saw
another successful terrorist attack in the united states, and one -- and i think the most important question to ask is why and whether it was worth it. to me, the most important decision was one that president bush made as commander in chief and chief executive on the night of 9/11 which was to treat the 9/11 attacks as an across act of war. the way we thought about it at that time is if any country attacked us in the same way as al-qaeda did, there would have been no doubt we were at war. the only difference was al-qaeda was not a nation state, and the legal issue was could we be at war with a non-nation state? president bush made that decision for the country that night. that was an important decision because once you make that call, then the united states can turn
to the laws and rules of warfare to deal with al-qaeda and the threat of terrorism. all of those, i think, were displayed not just in our invasion of afghanistan, the use of troops and drones to wipe out much of al-qaeda's existing leadership at the time of 9/11, but put on full display in the successful operation to kill bin laden over the summer which i think of as president obama's greatest foreign policy national security achievement in the last two and a half years. there was intelligence provided by people who were detained under the laws of war, electronic surveillance producing were intelligence put together to locate where bin laden had been hiding, and then the use of military force to go out and kill him, all right? under the rules of the criminal justice system, which administrations in both political parties used in their approach to terrorism before
9/11, we were to have instead indicted bin laden and sent out and try to arrest him after he committed a crime. they switched to the approach of war made our policy for looking to try to stop people like bin laden and terrorist groups from attacking the united states before they could attack. the second lesson i would draw from the last ten years and also looking forwards is that after 9/11, we treated intelligence and information differently. we tried to broaden the scope of intelligence available and to deepen it. one example, before 9/11 because of civil liberty concerns, valid at the time they were put into place, we intelligencally prohibit the intelligence agencies and our law enforcement agencies from sharing and communicating information. if you read the 9/11 commission report carefully, some of the commissioners believed that wall
was actually instrumental in preventing us from identifying two known terrorists for being in the country before 9/11. things like the patriot act, interrogation of al-qaeda leaders, enhanced surveillance, allowed us to gather more information, but pulling down the law between law enforcement and intelligence allowed us to amize information effectively, and that was tied to the ability to use force, to wage war more quickly and surgeically than ever before. again, i'll use the bin lad p operation -- bin laden operation as an example. it was a brilliant operation in which millions are proud, but what people don't realize is the military carries out operations like that now every day. >> watch this and other programs online at booktv.org. ..