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tv   U.S. Senate  CSPAN  May 31, 2012 5:00pm-6:26pm EDT

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reason why we believe the itu is quite undemocratic is there's no role at all for civil society unless you want to pony up $34,000. and and my organization and most of the civil society groups that we work with certainly don't have that kind of resources to go participate. you still have a vote but, ultimately, you don't have a vote. but but given there's really violent between that the itu should not expand. i just want to sound two notes of caution. the first is i think we have to be really, really careful not to simply dismiss the efforts to give the itu a greater role in internet governance and regulation as some plot by china and russia and ore repressive regimes to control the internet. p.m. ..
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the sac and note of caution i want to put out there is that we have to be a little careful not to hold a multi-stakeholder is an assorted magic coin that falls on matters of internet policy. i will take an extra 30 seconds to ask remote multi-stakeholder
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to do. they're basically, you know, groups that include industry, civil society, public sector government, that come around the table where many tables to discuss sometimes to go issues, sometimes government issues, sometimes policy issues. okay, so they are just very, very big round tables, where sometimes decisions, many times decision that the technical decisions are made with really good having government as a table as other rules. >> gigi, you can take another 30 seconds, but just a few minutes ago you refer to i can and for the benefit of the television audience, just explain briefly what i can as to what it does deliver what is on same page. >> okay, so you may be a better
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one. i can do it, but go ahead. >> so, icann is a multi-stakeholder group that has a limited functionality. it's usually a misnomer that icann as elements in terms of identifying and using certain sites or resources to ensure the traffic flows, data flows to read places in the internet roughly speaking to the tv audience. and icann can make sure that happens from interceptors around the world. it's been in operation for many years from the contract with the u.s. department of commerce and there've been periodic attempts by folks who say this not the right model that should i send them represented as another body. >> said getting back to my core points about how while multi-stakeholder groups are very important in fact i'm the cochair of the broad advisory
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group, a multi-stakeholder group which is a technical working group which looks at issues that management and weather network providers came out of the whole nut shell at a debate. i obviously have a belief that there are places where multi-stakeholder groups are really, really important. it is not the be-all end-all for everything internet and everything internet policy related. multi-stakeholder groups were best for both groups are singing from the same songbook, were they really are no or few winners and losers and repressions are more technical than policy driven. i think they be tag is more important and people pay attention to what is going on there because they're doing really important stuff. the other concern i have with throwing all internet policy questions to multi-stakeholder groups again is the imbalance and resources. civil society just can't be at every table in full force.
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sign the cochair of the tag on another stakeholder group come the advisory board for copyright information, dealing with agreement between internet service providers in hollywood and recording industry over how they warn people when they're violating copyright law. a people can't say why don't you join this group? a second one human being. unless i nme back and could cut me up, i just can't do it. so civil society is really at a disadvantage for every internet policy is going to be decided by a multi-stakeholder group. that being said, on foreign policy questions, it is good to see where organizations and companies agree to disagree, the government still has to in some cases serve as a boxed. you know, questions of net neutrality, questions of copyright and property enforcement are places where you can have multi-stakeholder
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convenience and discussions, but at some point somebody has to make the ultimate decision on what is the policy and also more importantly i'd love to hear dr. beaird talk about who is going to enforce those norms are principles or if it turns out, regulations. so i think we should think harder about what multi-stakeholder groups really do, what they are best at doing and what the role of government is one of our multi-stakeholder organizations. >> okay. thank you, gigi. so rick, you will wrap up the initial segment and you can expand upon multi-stakeholder groups, icann or whatever you please. >> so after my 23 seconds of talking about icann? >> you do.
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stick afternoon, a pleasure to be here. thanks to our distinguished government speakers today really have been leaders on this issue in ways that probably can't even imagine. in terms of the long hours they spent talking to people at cocktail parties around town and around the world, were oftentimes a lot of these conversations lead to outcomes. i will be very brief. one thing i wanted to focus on his guiding principles coming up this in the google is because we are an internet company, over-the-top as opposed is supposed to and at the bottom, salary, it is a joke, we look at the internet and they look at it as the thing that is developed over the course of 40 years now through the very good work of lots of experienced engineers do what is called press conferences, lots and lots of other places by tripoli, ats. there's a constellation of acronyms out there they represent but these folks have
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done. and so, the one phrase we will leave you with this as policymakers look at the internet, they should respect the integrity of the internet. with the internet has been put together over time. they were designed masterpiece of the night and i'll touch on a couple of very briefly to make it what it is today, and power all the innovation, expression, user empowerment and fulfillments as a platform. one is the so-called end-to-end principle that allows data packets to flow freely between networks. fair concept can be built on top of existing arrangements. there it is the voluntary interconnection of networks. millions of networks that together comprise the internet and these are all done voluntarily. these are large and small entities to agree to sign up to the basic core principles of the net, basically passing traffic
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and by doing so join the larger community. the fourth aspect is as nonstick protocol. my colleague -- >> will take a break to go live to greensboro, north carolina. this trial has been declared in the campaign-finance chickens from a presidential candidate, john edwards. is to add words to make a statement outside the courthouse. >> well, i wanted to say first, thank you for the jurors and their incredibly hard work and their diligence. they took their job very, very seriously as we saw both during the trial, the attention they pay to the evidence during the trial come the presentations of the lawyers and the fact that they have now spent almost nine full days deliberating, trying to reach a fair and just result under the evidence of the law.
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and all i can say is thank goodness we live in a country that has the kind of system that we have. and i think those jurors were an exemplar for what juries are supposed to do in this country. the second thing i want to say just a word about is responsibility. and this is about me. i want to make sure that everyone hears from me and from my voice that while i do not believe that i did anything illegal or ever thought i was doing anything illegal, i did an awful, awful lot that was wrong. and there is no one else responsible for my sins. none of the people who came to court and testified a responsible. nobody working for the government is responsible. i am responsible. and if i want to find the person who should be held accountable
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for my friends, honestly i don't have to go any further than the mirror. it is me. it is me and me alone. next thing i want to say a word about is for the people that i love because it has been an incredible experience for me to watch my parents. my dad just turned 80. my mom is 78. they tromped appear from north carolina every day to be with me and to support me and i love them so much and it is such a wonderful job raising team and my brother, blake and my sister, kathy who i also love dearly. i also want to say that about my own children. kate, who all of you have seen has been here every single day. she has been here no matter what, no matter how awful and painful a lot of the evidence
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was for her. evidence about her dad, evidence about her mom who she is loved so, so dearly, that she never once flinched. she said dad, i love you. i will be here for you no matter what. and i'm so proud to have had her with me throughout this process. and then finally, and matt, who turned 14 recently, emma claire and jack who just turned 12 who i take care of every day and i have not been able to seem quite as much, but i seem in the morning. i get the breakfast ready, get them off to school and then we get home at night and knowledge supper together. and i love them both so dearly and they are such an important part of everyday of my life. and then finally, my precious quinn.
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i'm sure in, who i loved what he meant you ever imagine. and i am so close to and so, so grateful for her. so grateful for quinn. i'm grateful for all of my children. including my son wade, who we lost a few years ago. but you know, this is the last thing i'm going to say. i don't think god is through with me. i really believe he thinks there are still some good things i can do. and whatever happens with this legal stuff going forward, what i am hopeful about his father's kids that i have seen, you know, in the poorest parts of this country is of the poorest parts in this world that i can help them. in whatever way i am still capable of helping them. and i want to dedicate my life to be the best dad i can be and to helping those kids who i think deserve help and do i hope
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i can help. thank you all very much. >> former presidential candidate, john edwards, speaking to reporters in greensboro, north carolina, after a mistrial declared in his campaign-finance trial. jurors acquitted him of one of six accounts on a charge involving taking more money than was a lot from the donor, rachel money melon. they were deadlocked sunday charges in the judge declared a mistrial. now, we are going to go back to that discussion but an international proposal to transfer control of the internet to the telecommunications union. >> else with a look at the arab state proposal from february the first within the context of the wicca, so there's different angles you can attack us. a general u.n. resolution in the
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process. if you look at the arab state proposal that came there, which is to change just a very slight definition, change the definition of the i.t.'s jurisdiction to subsume process team, that would be computing that is pretty much everything within the internet itself. so, while the main non-overtly internet governance, it does plant that seed of expanded i.t.'s jurisdiction and is this sort of small, and maybe even seemingly innocuous change that we have to be wary of. is going to be hideous. this will be a full frontal assault before the house energy and commerce committee. you'll hear me say that a couple times tomorrow. it's going to be in the long run whether it's now and december are years from now, sent small and seemingly innocuous and we have to be vigilant. rick is absolutely right to underscore the fact that this came to the u.s. versus the rest of the world for industrialized
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nations versus the developing world. in a sick, twisted irony here is that such proposals actually hurt the developing world the most. so we need to venture out beyond washington d.c., especially into the southern hemisphere to find allies within developing nations to let them know and give them platforms for disseminating the notion that an unfettered internet is really the best thing for their countries and living standards. >> i want to ask this question as a practical matter. are their proposals that commissioner mcdowell just referred to, are they on the itu website if people want to follow this and see what is developing, where do they find the proposals? then i have a question for you as well.
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>> that is a question, randy that was posed. as in geneva a couple weeks ago and colleagues in a civil society that point raised questions about access to information regarding proposals coming into the i.t. and wicket. the situation today is the following for the council working group operates within council rules, which is that you have to have, first of all be a member of the itu, defectively have access to their particular messaging is done and that is password day. that is the situation. now, the access to the proposals of coors, as i have done and others have done, is if you ask
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me out to be those proposals. i don't want should have a flood of requests coming in from the room or from those in the television not dance. >> at value is going to say you're going to give us the password. fastmac >> i can't do that. but let me tell you exactly what was followed up because it was an important discussion that took place in geneva on this point. and civil society has through the oscar season of the, affiliated in that particular context. they have written the secretary-general of the i.t. that are, essentially essentially in large part owing to the issue of transparent tape. and what i told them was representatives from civil society that i would through the auspices of the united states in an account other, that i would make a proposal at council to try to make available those proposals in a public way. i expressed that to the itu
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officials as well as giving an indication that we will be making a proposal. we haven't yet worked out -- it hasn't been agreed to by counsel and we haven't worked out modalities for doing that, but we are very aware of this issue and i think this is a process benefit by making available those proposals that people can see them. >> thank you. now, my other question is this, you can tell by virtue of the interest we have here today and in other places than in the u.s., there is beginning to be a knowledge about and concerned about potentially the proposals that could be raised. we've mentioned some of the countries from which there might need concern or proponents said the concerns that we have. but they just really briefly,
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around the world, either countries in which they are as united and are working the same way that the u.s. government has 13 to be prepared to address these? maybe you could just name the countries that there are some briefly or comment on that. >> well, the answer is yes. the united states is not alone. it is the first part of the answer to your question. it is always the old problem of naming names you will never be able to get all of them and i don't want to offend anyone. i will say this, by region, we have considerable support out of asia pacific, particularly countries that are leaders in internet deployment and broadband deployment who have seen the benefit. we have obviously considerable number of allies in europe and
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in our own hemisphere. there are weekends of reflected positions that we take. and let me focus -- and i think this is important. let me focus a bit on africa. for those who spent their lives internationally and public policy of her many years, one of the things that is most notable like tank is the response that offer code to the internet if i can put it that way. and principally, as commissioner doll has indicated that the global matter, through mobile access to the internet. and with that, it seems to me there is a practicality coming from the continent as to how to do with these issues. we may not always agree on how to do with them, but that is a
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function obviously differences up where we fit in many cases. but there is a practicality coming from africa and we have found come as we found that the world radio communication conference and am certain we will find that we have many in africa that are very much on the positions, very similar positions be taken with whom we will obviously be conversing between now and the conference to solidify that alliance. >> dick, i want to thank you for the service you do. just by listening to you, people can understand better really how much work is involved in what you do. you know, there is a time. maybe even remember when i was in private part is a long time ago now used to under attend the oecd on behalf of some of the interest.
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the thing are never most is going to cocktail parties that i think rick whitt talked about. while i was there sipping a drink as people like dick and the ambassadors that were doing the work and i recognize that even then at the time. for now we are going to open it up for questions if we had fun. if not, i probably have some more appear. >> can i read one sentence or sub thing for you quick >> if it's not about a cocktail party. >> actually i stole dick's password. just one example is something the pressure proposed. it is one sentence, but hopefully gives you a flavor of a were talking about, very concrete. member states shall ensure telecom services and the unrestricted use of international telecom. that sounds great, right clicks
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on for shelley, and except afterwards. except in cases when international telecom services are used for the purpose of interfering in the internal affairs are undermining the sovereignty national security, territorial integrity and public safety of other states were to bullish information of a sensitive nature. >> i'm glad you brought that up because one of the questions that i have and i think you probably answered it, but i want to be clear whether, you know coming at the same interpretation as dick or whatever. initially he spoke about how i potentially might change certain things and ways that affect the free flow of information and priest each. as well as the fact commercial enterprises. i know jackie spoke eloquently about that as well. you know, when i listen to the language he just had come it seems to me that is the type of language i had in mind as
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potentially governments using that in order to have a justification for a color for restricting speech is. am i on the right track they are quick >> yeah, that's their interpretation as well. he can be quite damaging. >> okay, now we'll ask questions. i want you to raise your hand. i will call in people and ask that a microphone be presented. kathy baker, who is our events coordinator and who of course play such a large role in arranging this event come in making sure that we had almost enough food for all of you here and did a number of other things. would you join me and giving her a round of applause? [applause] >> okay, if you have a question, then raise your hand at which to be recognized in the michael come to you. i am going to call and dan
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brenner first. when you ask your question, just take your name and affiliation. >> and dan brenner with the hogan novels. dr. beaird, i was wondering if you could give us a little understanding of what happened when the 1988 ip artists came out. i am one of those americans who has read the pages. they were very controversial. their guidelines, so i imagine they didn't engender a lot of controversy when they were presented at rebate presented as a treaty and approve? what happened to them in terms of u.s. government adoption? what would happen -- let's say something comes out of dubai, something they like or don't like her but as the next step in the u.s. government's review of the outcome of this prevision? >> thank you very much, dan. dairy treaty brought before the senate for advice and consent
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and presidents ratification of a document. dairy treaty. the process follows this route. the head of delegation for the end of the dubai conference, all things being except above will find what is referred to as the final acts. though they could document it comes out at the end of december 14 at the signing ceremony, that document which is then translated at that point by six languages. and gone through a number of iterations at the conference. it becomes the final acts, the head of delegation signs those final acts. those final acts then are embedded in them as they did it data coming into force.
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you will see it coming into the 1988 version as a date coming into force. from the united states point of view, that document does not come into force until it has been fully processed or ratification. through ratification. regardless, there is a coming into force day. we will bring the document back. we will then go through the process by which the department reviews that i'm the white house has reviewed it and then it will go forward to the senate for advice and consent to follow the usual pattern of a treaty. and that has been done as they say for the 88 version. >> okay. another question. i am going to call on this gentleman here. just wait for the microphone. now, while you are given a microphone, want to have other questions i'm going to ask a
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question, you know, are just as the question, not one with four or five different set parts. >> thank you good and given the cali, europe national affairs. mr. beaird, following up with making proposals available, i would like to have ongoing access and i think a lot of people would. is there any doubt been given to postg proposals coming in after august 3rd? >> i can't. i am not in a position to give you the impression that with a statement on my part something will happen immediately in terms of giving you access. what i can say is that we intend to raise this as an issue of the council meeting in july, from july sac and two july 14 in geneva as to public access to the proposals. and i am taken on board your comments. i have taken on board colleague
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civil society in geneva a couple weeks ago and the united states will prepare a physician for counsel to try to find some way to make those documents public. now, let me leave it at that because i think it is best to leave you with the impression that we will be raising that point, but it is not something we can do individually or as a unique country. we have to do within the context for the decision of 47 other countries, but we will raise that point. >> i do think the issue of transparency and international policymaking is becoming a huge issue and not just here. it's also a huge issue or my organization in trade negotiations, where we are trying to get access to proposals around the partnership agreement and we are told that it's not the way we do things
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and, you know, we are negotiating so we can't do x, y and z. and i think the mindset of international negotiators has to change in that regard because these issues have become so important to the way we live our lives for doing it under the cover of night is no longer acceptable. so i'd really appreciate the effort of dick and others in the government to make a process for hoping. i hope you put the same effort into getting their u.s. trade representative to be as transparent as you guys want to be. >> anyone else on that particular question? if not, i will go to this person here. just wait for the mic. >> minus andrea. i am a senate staffer. i was hoping mr. beaird and ms. make towel can tagteam on this question. i read the piece in "the wall
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street journal." you alluded to the fact there was a lack of leadership from the u.s. and it sounded as this mr. beaird but he was speaking at the obama administration would look at over to the start and really gaining traction and i was wondering if you could clarify that. and second, mr. beaird, u.s. said that with countries in the member states that everyone was fearful of losing their sovereignty and do something they wanted to protect. however, when i read "the wall street journal" piece, u.s. said that -- and losing my train of thought now, that it seemed like there is almost a majority of member countries that were lacking in today's itr regulation and based on other treaties that have been the u.n. does not exceed a been seven or eight countries short are looking to make these changes to
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itr is. so was wondering if you could expand on those. >> first of all, thank you for the question. % off is for? [inaudible] >> okay, great. i had an 800 op-ed in the journal, which is a statement of fact staying ahead of delegation had been appointed. there is as much if not more could turn that also premise that tour or nongovernmental entities had not really organize themselves. i was in europe, london and brussels back in november with a great deal of panic among the private sector and nongovernmental groups, but not a lot of organization. and so, i immediately encourage them to organize themselves, just as they did other governments. so it is what it is regarding whether or not we had a dell. by the way, for the folks watching on c-span, when you hear about career federal government employees, i want you
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to think of dick and beaird. this guy is a big deal on the international stage. you walk into meetings that thousands of international diplomats and he is known by all of them and i think his body is coded in graphite because he is able to walk through these crowds. he is incredibly talented and as a team at the state department's ambassador filbert whether or not he's head of delegation. i do not want that to be a distraction for there is no sunlight between republicans, democrats, ngos or privacy or a government on this issue. it's important to stick to the subject. we only have six months ago before dubai, but more importantly, we have years to go. we need to make this a coalition, a sustained organized effort to make sure the internet is governed purely by multi-stakeholder model and not a top-down intergovernmental
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regime. and i will let dr. beaird speak about the majority of the ikea. but it has been covered by consensus. there is a concern when you see the thrust of some ideas, general sense being about it by large voting blocs, some who are in this room, shall remain nameless for telling me leave feistier, that there were maybe up to 90 countries out of 193 who were in order as granting the itu or authority in this area. again, but i'll ratify the treaty sign-on and don't abide by it, but i wanted to give that sounds of how much support there was so some are perhaps in the 90s, and maybe that's receded, maybe that's grown since then. i do now, hosted there is a
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workout somewhere in state government or elsewhere knowing what each country stands. >> dick, do you want to add anything to what commissioner mcdowell said? >> commissioner mcdowell has commented nicely and i believe that they are. we're looking forward to the head of delegation arriving shortly and ambassador has been offering considerable leadership in this area. we are always looking for ahead of delegation and we welcome that delegation when the white house will make the announcement. on a sovereignty issue, itu, as an historical matter, then remarkable enough that there are very few votes at events such as this treaty conference. there have been and of course i've witnessed a number of these votes, but it is not a vote and it's not an institution that relies upon those poor decisions.
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it relies upon consensus. and i think in part its success has been owed to the fact that we are talking about communications and communications relies upon the consent of those who are communicating and there is such a considerable interest globally and sustaining and mean taming and growing a robust communications not work that consensus seems to flow. sometimes it is not easy and it takes late hours and sometimes there is the last four days of the conference will no doubt be round-the-clock, but a consensus will emerge. i think -- let's hope that is going to be the case in dubai, which also will follow that in order for that to happen, the results will have to be at a high level principle and as a matter of scale, they probably will not exceed much more than
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what is currently the nine pages in order for it to succeed. i will leave it at that. >> next, i know scott had a question. but in the meantime, while the mic is coming over, i know jacquelynn ruff, when she spoke initially, talk about the fact that regulations could possibly affect, if certain things were adopted with commercial success of the internet, all the enterprise that takes place and obviously that is an important part of the internet as well. i've talked about some of the social and free speech aspects. but jackie, if you could just coming out, briefly elaborate if you have in mind, you know, a particular concern and how they might dampen or in the, you
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know, the internet has issues to promote economic prosperity i guess is the best way to put it. >> a number of those points were mentioned by different speakers, so it is everything from at the beginning i sometimes talk about it is a dance. so at one end you have what is the definition of what is the speculation cover. it's a cover processing of data, that automatically means they cover the internet. at the other end you have what enforcement mechanisms for rules and there are proposals for there to be intergovernmental dispute resolution mechanisms. and of course then, you have the meat of the proposals in the middle of which become treaty and therefore binding as treaty. and in the middle, you have things from the cybersecurity
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proposal. you may think of it as freedom of expression, but also just a barrier to the internet functioning throughout the economic benefits and social benefits, cybersecurity, ways of looking at spam, fraud, et cetera. the topics are all understandable. i want to make that clear. there's a reason to be understand. it's just that the mechanisms tend to be very intrusive by government. so i think one of the hopes is to figure out how to meet the concerns come and meet where they are and figure out other ways to get at them. the final 11 i will say has been mentioned by several speakers come including rick at the end coming of the internet is a network of networks. it is handing off traffics between those networks, primarily through handshake informal agreements or commercial agreements and to turn that into the great debate it kind of exchange will create all sorts of distortions of the systems and complexity.
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i hope it's a good summary. >> yes, thank you, jackie. dick commode matching her boss, ambassador philip several times. i just called to mind the privilege of actually serving with phil rivera three decades ago at the icc had most of you wouldn't know this. fortunately for you, you are too young to possibly know it. but within a short time span i was at the icc, so revere served as chief of the cable bureau and as chief of the broadcast bureau, since renamed. and that is the common carrier bureau and are just trying to figure out still love the a4 was. and he's a terrific example i saw that public servant appeared scott. >> yes, scott cleveland. a quick question for dr. beaird.
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as such in such an amorphous nontransparent process. are there a couple of crunch time our process points, maybe two or three we should be tuning into to get a sense of whether this is going in a good direction about direction as we watch from the outside? >> the council meeting in july, july 3 to approximately 14, where the chairman of the council working group's report to the conference will be reviewed. it will not be changed, but it will be reviewed so you can see the entirety of the result of the two-year effort go into the conference, which as i said will contain a compilation of options in dealing with each part of the current atr's. that is the date. i would look right after august 3rd and see what proposals have come in pursuant to that deadline, which was for
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the first tranche of proposals that need to be in by august august 3rd. we'll be watching them obviously very carefully as well. i think then periodically and we can of course help you understand what that is, but periodically to see when the regional proposals start coming in because regions will continue to meet a three set tender, perhaps into early october. our region has last meeting in september prior to the conference where we will finalize american proposals going into the conference. and then on the way up to the two weeks prior to the conference, which is the absolute dropdead date for contributions coming in prior to the conference. so all along that period, we will see contributions coming in. and just to underscore her, one should never forget the regional groups. for six regional groups. all the groups will make her
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postals to the conference as well. >> okay, what we have time to think only for one more question if we have wide. so while i am looking around or why you may be thinking if there is another one, i just want to acknowledge again that we are very privilege today to have two ambassadors with ice. ambassador mickey gardner who is here and the other ambassador is ambassador david gross. he's served in silver theaters station in the previous administration. i think ambassador rose perhaps holds the record, but they may stand corrected as the longest serving ambassador in that position. and i keep emphasizing ambassador because david and i were actually former colleagues in a law firm. so i was excited when he became ambassador.
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shortly after he left, i thought maybe he would just be coming you know, plain old david again. but he quickly informed me that once you had been in ambassador, and if this is a writer once you tell me, but once you hold that title, that you are ambassador for life. so every year when i do my holiday cards, i has to remember it is just ambassador gross because he told me about that as he was walking out the state department door that last time. [laughter] [inaudible] okay, david said it was his wife. but we are privileged to have both of these ambassadors with us here today. okay, is there one last question? it is over here. this'll be the last one. if you identify yourself, please.
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>> hi, iowa first of all to thank everyone for such a wonderful panel. i think was this is one of the first times and it was fun to learn a lot of new facts and hopefully one here as well. my question is a little bit -- [inaudible] >> him as emerging markets communications. my question is a little bit different. so the head of the itu, dr. torre went to st. petersburg. he said he there and speaks russian fluently. and during last year's meeting. and he told them under the transcript available online that he represents the russian federation and the itu. now, is that a plaintiff can turn? is the fact that the head of the itu seems to be fluent in russian and speaks to put in and tells them he has his comrade a concern?
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or is this -- i am not sure exactly how dig function in that regard. >> okay, i guess maybe that is forward dick or the commissioner. anyone want to respond? >> secretary-general from mali was head of a development bureau in 1998 and subsequent eight years was elected to secretary-general and his reelect date and 2010 and guadalajara. he is of a generation of african leaders, many of whom did study in the soviet union. he does speak russian. he does not speak as fluid, that was sufficient for him to earn a phd at moscow university. he went his wife and russia, who
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is also from mali. but as he points out and i think it is important in this case, all the people's biographies are complicated. he spent 12 years of his life in the united states in two of his children are americans. he spent 12 years as an engineer and beyond that, i think i will let him speak to his own biography. >> okay, well that sounds like good advice from a diplomat. okay, well, look, you know, i have to say it is pretty amazing that not one single person has left. i know cynthia must have work to do this afternoon i assume. so we are going to wrap it up, but not before it thinking me and please join me for this extraordinary panel we have here today.
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[applause] and we look forward to seeing you at the next foundation i meant. thank you again. [inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations] >> jury in the john edwards trial on the presidential candidate not guilty on one of six counts in his campaign finance trial and announced it could not agree in the five remaining counts. the judge in the case declared a mistrial and dismissed the jurors. it is not known if the government will seek another
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trial. earlier this year, federal reserve chairman ben bernanke caught a series of george washington school of business. each day this week at 6:45 eastern on c-span 2, we've been showing you one of his four lectures. coming up later today, in about an hour from now, chairman for nike's third in the series in which attacks about the role of the federal reserve in the 2008 financial crisis. and with the senate on break this week, we are featuring booktv in prime time on c-span 2. tonight, you look at politics and corporations beginning at 8:00 p.m. eastern comes a prize-winning author goes inside one of the largest corporations in the u.s., exxonmobil. at 9:00, bryce hoffman examines alan mullally to say the auto manufacturer.1xhhhhhhh
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>> i think the problem is that walter cronkite, people seem as though seen as only the avuncular friendly man, which he was to everybody, but there is another side of him that wanted to be the best. he was obsessed with beating their report every night and he is probably the fiercest competitor ever put about. i have thing about presidents and generals and cronkite's desire to be the best was very pronounced. >> douglas brinkley on his new biography of longtime cbs news anchor, walter cronkite sunday at 8:00 eastern and pacific on c-span. >> the first circuit court of appeals in boston will today that part of the defense marriage act which unites benefits to same-sex marriage couples is unconstitutional and cannot be enforced. white house spokesman, jay carney, dressed at today's
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briefly and that it is in concert with the president's views on same-sex marriage. other topics include the violence in syria and the bill rejected in the house today that would've banned abortions based on the gender of defeatists. >> wow, good afternoon. or good morning. thank you for being here, ladies and gentlemen. welcome is better to the white house, to the brady briefing room. before i take your questions, i just wanted to note an article that caught my eye not that long ago. [laughter] and first of all, i would say it is based on an anonymous source, so i am not sure that it's true and hopefully this not because there supports this be for the host sean boehner in a closed meeting with house republicans called the discussion over whether or not to allow student interest rate alone to double a
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phony debate. he said essentially its income on chill and that it's not going to pass it time to prevent those rates from doubling. you know our position on this, the president's position thata, it is unconscionable to allow these rates to double for 7 million students around the country who depend on no interest rates to allow them to attend college, support for taking action to prevent that from happening has generally been bipartisan and we hope that its report come again based on reporting on the coast conference meeting turned out not to be true. the other points it makes it that makes the situation we have heard before from speaker's office that somehow education is
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not an economic issue. it says they want to focus on jobs and suggest that they believe education doesn't have anything to do with jobs. the american people don't believe that. the president doesn't believe that. education has everything to do with employment, economic growth and that the future of this country, which is why the president has stressed education so much in his presidency and why he has made an issue out of the need to take action to prevent the fundraiser in dublin. and without take your questions. >> can you comment on the ruling that it is constitutional? would you like to see them take this case and if so would it be actively arguing for the overturning a previous democratic presidents? >> well, as you know, the president has concluded his
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section three of delma as unconstitutional, so i says attorney general and for that reason, the administration will no longer defend equal protection challenges against them in for a spirit position of president has called for sometime time now and have them enforced by the department of justice. with regards to this ruling, which the doj has been an active participant in, i would prefer you to the justice department. but there is no question that this is in concert with the president's view. >> the question though is whether you would take your current somewhat passive position if you will not defend it and turn it around actively argue for it to overturn. >> department of justice participate in this very litigation in the first consist of what the position of the attorney general have articulated, which is they now believe secretary of delma is
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constitutional. i cannot predict what the next steps will be in handling cases of this nature. i would refer to the department of justice, but it would necessarily call that passes. yes. >> on syria, ambassador reiss at the u.n. had a worst-case scenario and in fact said it was most probable scenario in the searing crisis, in which it becomes a regional site. crisis conflict, kind of a proxy war and in the community basically world powers start taking action outside of the u.n. security council. so you seem to be suggesting that this is a hardening of the position of the u.s. take over this is going, whether the plan is going to completely collapse or not. can you comment on that is too overseen? >> well, i would simply say that, you know, we have been
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focused on the need to bring about a political transition in serious sooner rather than later, precisely because the longer this goes on, the longer that aside and his dogs are about to brutally murder the syrian people, the more likely it becomes a sick. civil war, the more likely that it spills over syrian borders, the more likely that it transforms into a proxy war with different players, including of course iran, which is already engaging and malignant behavior with regards to the searing situation, stepping up that kind of the two d. and not being allowed to doing that. so what we are seeing happen in syria only underscores the urgent need to take action to prevent further devolution of the situation there, take action
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to support the process of political transition, to isolate and pressure aside into taking themselves out of power so that that transition can proceed. and that is why we have been working to overcome our differences with the russians and others on this matter. it is why we need to have even greater unity and the international community at the u.n. security council, united nations broadly. because this situation is, as ambassador reiss described it. >> what action will be taken beyond the scope of the security council. obviously signaling the u.s. could take serious action. >> well, i'm not going to preview next steps, but we have been working consistently, both
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within international organizations come within the context of the friends of syria, collectively and independently assess other nations to impose further sanctions to take other actions to isolate and pressure has sought to support the opposition as it constitutes itself, to provide humanitarian relief to the syrian people, to provide not be fully to the opposition. ..
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and the broad groups about potential next steps because i don't have anything specific for you and nothing on that specific possibility. >> i know that there's a deputies' meeting roughly every week or so on the subject of syria. when is the last time there was one of these meetings? >> i would have to check. this is obviously on the international bohon of stage a matter of great and intense focus right now because of the
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horrific brutalization of the people and indeed for the international community to take actions. >> i understand the position of the administration would only cause more harm than good. what is it like for the president to see these reports about the children and syria and the difficulties for him to go through this knowing that there's nothing to do about it. and does that change his desire to take action further is to do something? >> it bolsters his resolve when it comes to the need to do everything the united states can do everything both independently and in working with and our
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partners to try to bring about a change in that dynamic. it horrifies him as it does anybody who witnesses or watches the report on what's happening and syria. the brutality exhibited by assad will surely do to him in history as a tyrant and human-rights violator in the worst kind of leader imaginable for any people the president is very aware of that. and when he makes judgments, he obviously takes into account that kind of suffering. he has to make decisions with
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all considerations in mind beginning with the national security interest in the united states of america and he has to make practical judgments about what steps we can take both acting alone and in concert with partners to bring about the result the we want and it's best for the united states as well as the syrian people and that's what he's doing there is no question as mighty as the united states is the we cannot and all atrocities around the globe. it is a fact that we need to work with our partners and allies to take the kind of actions that can reduce that kind of appalling behavior in different parts of the globe. you have to be very focused on the decision making process and what you are doing as the united
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states of america to bring about the results and make sure you're not taking actions that create unintended consequences that for the united states and for the very people you are trying to help. that is the way the president looks at these problems as the day that he looked at the situations in egypt and yemen, libya as well as syria. to speed is there any more you can tell us about the video conference and also what is the consensus? >> the president did participate in a video conference with the leaders of germany, italy and
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france, and the discussions were a follow-up to the discussions around the crisis that were held at the summit at camp david. they also did go back to what we've been talking about thus far in the briefing but the situation was a primary focus of those conversations and they were follow-up conversations on what was discussed at the g8, and they were also discussions held in anticipation that the g20 meeting leader next month in a few weeks in mexico. one of things to remember about the importance of the g8 is all agree their needs to be a focus on job creation and that is certainly true today and coming
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out of that video conference the president has made clear his views that we need to -- that europe should take an approach that balances the need to help the economy grow in europe and how to create jobs with. the kind of balanced approach to the president has pursued here in the united states there's an agreement about the need to focus on the jobs and economic growth in the near term. >> in new york is being banned given that the first lady has been fighting childhood obesity
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what is the white house reaction? >> i saw those reports. i don't have a specific reaction that the issue of the city is extremely important. the fact of obesity on the nation's health and the health of our children and on the cost of health care are enormous, reply don't have a specific reaction to the announcement in new york city. >> you have expressed the plan everything we've seen in recent days why not denounce the plan did and try to come up with another solution? >> we are trying to come up and work with our partners on additional steps. the reason why we are both skeptical about the willingness to comply with his commitment on
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the plan is because he has failed to comply with any of the points contained within that and he has continued to brutally attacked its own people most recently with, not most recently unfortunately that very recently with the perfect massacre. however, there are some positives out of the plan in spite of the failure to abide by it and that is where the united nations observers simply have been a reduction in violence that would be a good thing where there are observers in place that allow for more information about what is happening in syria to get out of that country and become more broadly known it allows for the international community to counter against the propaganda and lies put forward by the regime.
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so i think secretary clinton has made this point as well as others. we support the plan because if it were adhered to by assad, it would be very much in the interest of the people and would bring about a reduction cease-fire and withdrawal of forces. we are skeptical that it will be complied with in the end, and that is why we are talking with our partners about other options and other steps. >> most people, most outside observers would see things are getting worse and not better. does the president have a deadline if? >> we have made clear the president and others have made clear the window of opportunity to allow a peaceful political transition in syria will not remain open for long. there is an urgent need for the
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international community to come together and further unify against the regime in an effort to persuade the regime were that transition is allowed to fully take place. if that does not happen, the consequences are very serious and that is what ambassador rice was talking about and secretary clinton and i, because the consequences of not taking that firm action or more violence, violence that spills over the borders, violence that results in even greater participation in iran for example and others to the point where it becomes a proxy war of sorts, and this is bad for the region and that for the syrian people and bad for the world. so that's why we are working with the russians and others to
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try to explain to them our views on this and persuade them like a loving this to continue will have such horrific consequences. >> i guess i'm asking at what point -- >> i don't have a date for you and i think the president -- >> is their something in the red line for the president -- >> i'm not going to preview next steps or options. i can tell you there is very much an urgent need for action to be taken, therefore the international community to further unify and make it clear that a transition has to take place in syria. >> can i follow up on the question about russia? i mean, you -- when secretary clinton proposed the u.n. security council arms embargo last month it was quickly shot down and putting by russia. could a -- is there any way to impose a as jake referred to
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earlier, some kind of a unilateral or separate arms embargo apart from the security council? what did that have any -- are you getting any sense from the russians that they would be willing to even entertain the thought, especially considering that they currently supply the assad regime with weapons? >> i don't have any detailed readout to give to you of our discussions with the russians or with others on this issue and on possible next steps. i can tell you that we are working to overcome our differences with the russians on syria. our plans are very cleary and we've made them transparently both in public and in our conversations with them. we simply do not believe it is in russia's interest, let alone syria's interest, for the assad regime to continue to be propped up, and therefore to allow it to continue to brutalize its own people. beyond that, i don't have
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anything i can divulge to you today. yes. >> you today question yesterday on gender based abortion. the house is voting on this man. i understand the administration opposes the ban. my question is, since the president has been outspoken about being against gender based discrimination, how can you allow gender based abortion? >> welcome the administration opposed gender discrimination in all forms. but the end result is of the legislation would be to subject doctors to criminal prosecution if they fail to determine the motivations behind a very personal and private decision. i think, again, we oppose gender discrimination in all cases. i think our record on that is very clear. the president's record on that is very clear but the purpose on this with decision -- the result, the decision would be to subject doctors to criminal prosecution for failing to define the motivations of their patience when it comes to a very personal and medical decision.
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>> a law than to deal with that issue? because the real situation the one child that allows doctors to treat the patient splined? >> -- to figure out a way to get to the bottom of this because when the one child policy in communist china comes up, people of all political stripes in this country are outraged that girls are killed essentially. how can that happen? >> we oppose gender discrimination in all its forms, and all its forms and we don't selectively pursue legislation in order to achieve ever reveal logical goals. it would have a plan unintended consequences of criminalizing a failure by a doctor prosecuting a doctor for criminal behavior if he or she were somehow to fail the motivations of a patient making it very private medical decisions.
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>> do you think the president is trying to soak in a little insight to take on some one from massachusetts -- [laughter] >> because i noticed david axelrod is in that state today. >> i think, as i said yesterday, the discussion will take place or is almost taking place at this moment between president obama and both former presidents bush as well as other members of their families will be about what it is like to live to have the privilege, the rare privilege to live in the white house for not just presidents of their families to serve the country by living here. i think that as i said my jester de qaeda and we will have three presidents in this launch, there
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is a commonality of experience that transcends political differences and my guess is that that is what the president wil discuss. there's also a commonality of experience as i think for the first lady with president george w. bush also raised i know president july and the first lady. the council on advice of president and mrs. bush provided them provided about the officials aspects of their duties but for the very personal ones, the family once, and i know that president obama and the first lady have been looking forward to and are enjoying this encounter. estimate the european debt crisis, how worried is this white house that the former president george h. w. bush as
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well a sour economy may wind up -- this president having one term as well. >> you want to turn this launch into a political prism. they have some success on the national security front but it's facing a very difficult economy here at home. george h. w. bush faced that as well. >> i would simply say that president obama will probably not spend a lot of time talking about the election year politics with either president bush. he has come as i think you know, she has met with former president george h. w. bush on several occasions. he has very high regard for that president bush's foreign policy record in particular, and in general appreciates the service
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provided by all members of the bush family, and again, that transcends political differences. and of course there are political differences. i think every race is different. we have with the president says repeatedly and i try to echo is that it is precisely because there are headwinds like the crisis in the year autozone that can affect the global economy and therefore the american economy we need to buckle down and do the things we can control to influence the american economy from those headwind to help the economy grow to help create jobs for the congress to take action on before it the specific items they can do with
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it for full can contribute to economic growth and job creation. these are things that americans support. >> i think i made clear that we are working to consult with and overcome our differences with russia on syria, and i think that reflects what was clear that the united nations a council and they were vetoed by russia on this matter, so we have in spite of those obstacles worked broadly with a number of international partners to isolate and pressure assad to support the opposition and held it constitute itself we are
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working with russia and other nations supported the plan so there have been things we can and have done and to bring about the political transition of certain people there's no question the greater international unity but assessed would bring about sooner rather than later. as the mekouar you working to overcome those differences. >> as i said now several times we are in consultations with a number of international partners with the russians as well as others for obvious reasons to get the attention here at the state department and elsewhere and continue to have those discussions.
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the assad regime is making the case for us. for its brutal behavior. this is unfortunate, but it is apparent. no one in the world needs the united states to point out that the heater because it is apparent to the entire world we are working with our allies and our partners in light of the obvious the responsibility that they dared to the thousands of deaths with his own people to take further action. >> president obama blames the president george w. bush for the current state of the economy. >> i will say what i said
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yesterday when i said earlier there certainly political differences as there were between president george w. bush and president clinton when president clinton and his family came for the unveiling of this and the portraits there are differences in the past when incoming presidents have presided over the ceremonies for the men thus far who has occupied as office and for the families who have lived in the white house and there's a great deal of respect and appreciation held by everyone who is participating for one another as much to discuss. as i noted yesterday it's a
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small collection of people who know what it's like to sit at the desk in the oval office to make the decisions a president makes and the commonality transcends politics. >> in addition to the schedule are there any other things specifically president obama or any other sorts of -- >> i don't have any more details on the president's schedule to give to you on what has been made public. >> you talk in the past about the united states role in uniting and getting the syrian opposition. and i'm wondering if the purpose to get serious and some on - his
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to make sure the aid gets in the right hand is whether it is the mother of three or the united states. what is the purpose of this? >> you describe to of the purposes behind it in order to bring about an effective political transition in syria that serves the interest of the syrian people that makes them help the opposition constitute itself and to identify that there are various components on the question whether or not one of the reasons to prevent humanitarian nonlethal aid as providing some falling we recognize and have said that there are elements to the syrian opposition that do not share the space ideals as the broad assyrian people who are not
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necessarily friends of the united states. the

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