news is next on book tv. for the next half-hour talks about the history of presidential inaugurations going back to 79. [applause] >> thank you so much, for that introduction. it is wonderful to be here at such a great american institution as the rotary club in speaking about a great american tradition, presidential inauguration day, and doing so here at a great american venue. the queen mary, of course. [laughter] let's begin. it's dawn on inauguration day in washington d.c. a huge amount of people gathered on the washington mall.
2009 it was all away from the capital of a way to the lincoln memorial. we just lost our picture. there we go. and they are there, of course, for the inauguration. people gathered to watch in other places as well. in times square in new york city, classrooms around the country, paris, barack, afghanistan, people are watching the u.s. presidential inauguration. they have all come there. there is a big crowd of a mall. of going to speak to you today about this great historic subject to my great american institution the end of not -- i'm going to do it in the same way in which i organize the book
rather, the book is not chronological, it's not divided up. this touch of a george washington in mid john adams and went to the president in order. instead is divided up by the various parts of the day. within each part of the day i sprinkle in vignettes. some of them very serious, some of them, of course, very traditional command a lot of them on all events because i'm always looking for those, too. i'm also going to cover some things that were not going tessie in the upcoming in a garish in january because this time we don't have a change of power. we're not going to have the transition as we see some times. nevertheless, in the morning at inaugurations when a president does leave office, 1961, here is toyed d. eisenhower thinking the staff at the white house. at the same time the income then-president, that year john
f. kennedy and his wife, there are leaving the blair house getting ready for the big day. another thing -- another thing that takes place on inauguration morning, and this will happen again coming is a religious service. when i was in washington with my wife a few years ago just half a block from where were saying there was this church, the 1:00 a.m. each church, traditional african-american church. that is where the inauguration church services took place for america's first black president, bill clinton. [laughter] now, all little nap here for you. things start off at the white house and move along pennsylvania avenue toward the capitol which is on the right. there is a traditional copy of the white house the takes place. it's a big deal on the days when there's a transition from one president to another.
it began in 1961, net was a year or allow these pictures were made available. you don't normally see these pictures. here's eisenhower and kennedy command at the same time you have four women together, and these four women actually were the first ladies of our country between 1953 and 1974. on the left that's eisenhower who was the of calling firstly with her back to us, ladybird johnson, jacqueline kennedy who became the new first lady in 1961, and pat nixon, the outgoing wife of the vice-president at that time. another thing that takes place on inauguration day one is a change of power is that by tradition yet going president leaves and of for his successor. this is the note. this would be the larger envelope that was left in the oval office by george to we bush
or barack obama. you just put a posted on it. inside of it, another envelope and says to 44 from 43. and the next morning is a picture of barack obama reading that actual no. the procession for the capitol is always a big deal. the move along pennsylvania avenue. here's a picture from exactly 100 years ago, an open carriage, and that's william howard taft on the right and then the president, woodrow wilson, on the left. 1933 we have a situation with franklin d. roosevelt and her hoover. the two of them did not along so well. there was not a lot of conversation during their right to the capital. in many pictures that were taken at stake, roosevelt can be seen
waving to the crowd or smiling to the crowd or turning toward hoover and trying to have a conversation, but in every picture you'll ever see hoover is looking straight ahead ignoring him. there have been other times for the president bill did not get along so well. that chapter is called can't we all belong. sometimes it whether it -- weather is a big issue. there in the carriage. and here is the route that they take, pennsylvania avenue heading toward the capital. now, from 1829 all the way through 1967, which covers the great majority of american inauguration's, they took place on the east side of the capitol, that east side. if you have been to washington you know that is where the side with the library of congress's
and the united states supreme court. so here is what that looks like today on any given day. that is the east side of the capital. that is what it looks like when they used to spruce it up for the inauguration. it would have a platform in front of it. here's another view where you can see the platform to left. the crowd gathers. in 1981 everything switched and then decided to move it to the west side of the capitol which is much larger and allows for far more people to actually see the ceremony. here is what the west side this like . and when they jazz it up for the inauguration the put the bunting of the flags, and that is what it looks like, what we see for every inauguration since 1981. another view where you can look all the way back. the washington monument can sort
of be seen near in the background, and the lincoln memorial, even further than that . the inaugural ceremony itself. we had an indication here today. normally an indication at a presidential inauguration, and the court that i found, it took place in 1961 when cardinal cushing deliver the invitation of kennedy's inauguration and the platform actually started to catch fire. you can see the smoke right there, and you can see a martial just to the right of the cardinal working to put it out, and you can also select of concern on eisenhower and kennedy space. no question about that. the marshall put it out. was a short in the electoral system. now, another thing that has taken place four times my history has been a poet delivering a poem at a presidential inauguration. the first time that ever took place was in 1961.
a lot happening that year. everything that happened that year, vice-president johnson botched the vice president's inaugural of. here dealing with the palm here, that is robert frost, fame ballot, the first pilot to ever speak at a presidential inauguration. think this was a good time for me to read an excerpt from the book. you'll probably remember the famous poem called the road not taken written by frost. here is my chapter called the poll not spoken. in 196186-year-old robert frost became the first pilot to ever be invited to speak in a presidential inauguration. in the days leading up to john f. kennedy's inauguration frost wrote a special poll for the occasion called dedication. there was a major snowstorm on the night before the ceremony on the day of the inauguration the sun was shining brightly in the sky was blue.
frost was about to begin to read his poem, but the very bright glare of the snow prevented him from the will to see his minister clearly. here was one of the world's most famous poets, but he could not read his own words. new vice president lyndon johnson stood up and made an effort to create some schaefer frost with the top at, but it did not help. you can actually see that in the picture -- picture, johnson is standing next to frostily top that. frost can be heard to say to my not having a good light, and i can't see in the sun. so instead, frost and delivered an older palm, the gift outright, one which he had memorized. even then his problems did not end. he concluded his presentation by informing the assembled throng at his poetry have been dedicated to the president elect, mr. john finley.
frost and restated the name of a scholar from harvard. the only new frost. friendly may have been a friend to frost, but finley was no jack kennedy. [laughter] here is a depiction of george washington inauguration, the first one, 1789 which took place in new york city which was our capital of the time. the next two and i eurasia's to press in philadelphia. the first one in washington was in 1801. there is a myth, legend that george washington added the words so help me god at the end of the health. there is no real proof that he said that. nobody ever wrote that he stepped out of those four words of the time, but it has come to be a tradition, at least from 1933 until present, those words have been added at the end of
the health. this is 1929, and on the left is chief justice william howard taft. he is investing yield of office to the new president, herbert hoover. taft is the only person ever to be both president and chief justice. and he actually made a little mistake in the of that year. you're supposed to say preserve, protect and defend the constitution. he said, preserve, maintain, and fanned. this was a mistake that was actually discovered by a little 13 year-old girl listening to the inauguration on radio in her classroom in the state of new york. she is the one who brought it to everybody's attention, and they checked it out and she was right that was a mistake in the of, which leads us to death four years ago. you may recall that when chief
justice john roberts administered the oath to barack obama i'm january 20th of 2009, there was a major problem. the major problem consisting of the words that he said. roberts is supposed to save -- roberts was supposed to say that i will faithfully execute the office of president of the united states and then on, repeats, but instead of saying those words he said, but i will execute the office of president to the united states faithfully. so then barack obama stopped, paused, smiled, as if to say come on. this is my big day. you have to get this right. unfortunately he did not get it
right and then obama even later repeated some of robbers mistake. so the very next night in the white house they did again, but it was a second of, this time roads used notes, which she had not use the first time, and they got it right. so that chapter in my book is called a state it again. in 1965, lady bird johnson became the first lady to hold the bible as the oath was administered. that was up president and has been the case ever since. you can see here from kennedy's inauguration four years earlier, jackie kennedy is off to the left not holding the bible. the bible was, instead, held by james r. browning, a clerk of the supreme court. a few more pictures to show you. or reagan's swearing-in, jimmy
carter, bill clinton and. here's 1985. this is reagan's second inauguration. a different locale, and the reason is because the weather was so bad in washington d.c. in 1985, it was a wind chill factor below zero, and so everything got canceled. the parade get canceled. then moved the of taking indoors and to the capitol rotunda, so there were only about 1,000 people squeezed in. weather has been a problem a few times, as i mentioned. an old picture from 89 in a lot of rain for the inauguration of benjamin harrison. 1945 this was franklin d. roosevelt's fourth inauguration. the war was going on. he was ill. everything was moved to the white house and he took the of have one of the balcony is there at the white house.
so you know that fdr had for inauguration's. here's my trivia. you can impress your friends. barack obama is about to tiny franklin d. roosevelt record. how could that be? roosevelt was inaugurated four times. well, we already know obama was inaugurated twice. the inauguration in january this year falls on sunday, so there will be a private ceremony on sunday, there will take the oath then. public on the next day january january 201st, his fourth. that is what happens when inauguration day falls on sunday here is eisenhower on january january 20th 1957 which was sunday, private ceremony. inaugural address, very old picture. this is from 1865. this is abraham lincoln's second inauguration. a very famous speech they're in which he said with malice toward none and charity for all.
1933 franklin d. roosevelt, the only thing we have to fear is fear itself. john f. kennedy in 1961, ask not what your country can do for you, as good you can do for your country. then the departure of the old presidents. here is george w. bush departing the scene on the back of the capitol four years ago flying off a helicopter looking back at the capitol. and as a luncheon. obama's luncheon for years ago. then the return to the white house after that. this is the first time that i first lady ever drove back to the white house with the president's. 1909. taft. we will see that again. the kennedys. the obama's what part of the distance. jimmy carter and rosalynn carter walked the entire distance of a
mile and half in 1977 from the capitol back to the white house. the inaugural parade that will take place, reviewing stand is always set up in the white house. that is grover cleveland back in '85. there is the white house in the background. a classic inaugural parade picture. the capital in the background with bands marching. 1953, a famous old cowboy named monte mantegna lassoed dwight eisenhower with his permission. in the afternoon of inauguration day backing 1829 there was a stampede in the white house. they have a big party, and the people sampled the place, triple the white house with their money boots ripping the curtains and wrecking the carpeting. finally the fiasco ended when somebody get a brilliant idea of putting a large tub of whiskey out on to the white house lawn. slowly but surely everybody laughed.
inaugural ball at night. 1953. the kennedys in 61. storage and laura bush, barack and michele
obama. unplanned inauguration's are also a big part of inauguration day. not really the inauguration day, but as part of inauguration history. you cannot deny, and many of us remember 49 years ago next year will be the 50th anniversary of the assassination of john f. kennedy followed by lyndon johnson being sworn in a border force one in dallas. he was sworn in by federal district judge sarah hughes, the only woman to ever square and a president. gerald r. ford being sworn in in the white house in 1974 after richard nixon resigned in disgrace. here's a picture of -- and it's my final story for the day. this story actually inspired me more than any other to write this book.
this is calvin coolidge's 1923, president after the death of warren harding. at the time of harding's
death coolidge was staying with his father in a very, very small cottage in vermont, a place that had no running water, no electricity, no telephone, no and in that, that did not have any of those things. and so a courier came my to present the news that harding had died and then everybody wanted coolidge to be sworn in as soon as possible the question was who would do it, swear in the president. the answer turned out to be his own father. his own father, john coolidge was a local justice of the piece and another republic. and so by the light of an old kerosene lamp to 47 in the morning of august 3rd 1923 john coolidge swore in his son calvin as the new president.
so that is pretty much it. hopefully this all aids and helps in your view of the inauguration coming up. thank you. [applause] >> we have some time for some questions. >> if there are any questions, i'm happy to try and answer them. >> it was the first president to walk between the capitol and the white house? >> can you repeat that? >> it was the first president to walk, get out of the vehicle and walked? >> that was jimmy and rosalynn carter, a total shock. i mean, the secret service knew, but the public did not know. the press did not know. they just never got into the car. they walked the entire distance. since then other presidents and first ladies have walked part of the distance. george and laura bush, the clintons. of course barack and michele
obama debt as well. >> how many presidents died after the inaugural and why? >> how many presidents died after the inaugural? in office? there have been eight times -- i believe it is eight. one was resignation. for assassinations, four times presidents were assassinated. a few other deaths in office. [inaudible question] >> william henry harrison in 1841. at that time he gave his inaugural address that lasted for two hours in cold weather. he caught pneumonia, that
exactly one month later. >> the first president of the inauguration on the west side of the capital in any background on that? >> ronald reagan was the first 1981. it my understanding is that it was senator mark hatfield of oregon is idea. getting to face california the way. the biggest factor was the fact that now so many more people can view it. now you just, just of a 2 million people there for obama's inauguration four years ago, by far the biggest. its skin -- they can give out all the like. one letter and 40-150000 tickets and the rest of the people to show up and stand there. when they used to be on the side there weren't more than about 20,000 people who could you the actual ceremony. more could be present for the parade and oftentimes there were
more than a million people for the parade, but not the ceremony itself. >> are all the pictures you showed on the slides in your book? >> not quite, but many of them yes. i have many pictures in my book that are not part of the slide show. there were some here that are not in the book. if you take a look at the book you will see. there are more than 50 pictures about. >> they say it costs a lot. i don't have an exact figure, but i would hope it would it would be somewhat scaled back, not only because of the economy, but the second inauguration. by definition a second inauguration is not quite the same importance as the first. there is no change of power, and a transition. it's a continuation.
they have not yet made an announcement about what it's going to be like this year, but i was actually recently interviewed by npr on that very subject. somebody wrote an npr article on the internet called do linnaeus in inauguration. and i feel like the country would lose out at all if they did get back a little bit for sure. >> one more question. >> as in the president-elect died before he was inaugurated? >> that has never happened. there was an assassination attempt on president-elect roosevelt in 1932, but it did not succeed. >> if that happens with the vice-president takeover? >> the vice-president elect a takeover. >> i do believe that would be correct. >> thank you. >> thank you. >> one more quick question parks i was wondering about. [inaudible question]
>> of course he was our civil war president. washington is said to have been an armed camp at the time of his inauguration with sharpshooters on all the rooftops, sort of like it is now. [laughter] i have been the last three inauguration's command ever since 2001 there is big time security. it was definitely the way back in 1861-65 as well. >> thank you very much. [applause] >> we would like to hear from you. tweet us your feedback. twitter.com/booktv. >> i don't want to spoil the book for you, so that me just say that the year began with the american republic in grave danger. the union armies were struggling to grow virtually overnight from a few thousand men scattered across the continent to more than half a million.
the inexperienced officers rushed into command of the ross volunteers were stymied by the sheer size of the breakaway confederate states of america which covered a space larger than the entire european territory conquered by napoleon. lincoln's closest adviser was secretary of state william henry seward. seward said that even they fail to see the difficulty of the union's task cannot apprehending the vast extent of the rebellion as he put it. military operations to be successful must be on a scale hitherto practically unknown in the art of war. >> the second year of the civil war, the strange federal government and we can in forces. 1862 and abraham lincoln's rise to greatness at 830 eastern,
part of four days of book tv this weekend and read through christmas day on c-span2. >> with just days left in 2012, many publications are putting together their year-in list of notable books. book tv will feature several of these list focusing on nonfiction selections. these titles were included in the st. louis post-dispatch is best books of 2012. in the last great senate courage and statesmanship in times of crisis. a former senate staffer recounts the successes of the united states senate during the 1960's and 70's. neurologist oliver sacks examine the causes of hallucinations in his book hallucinations. in little america, the war with in the war for afghanistan, "washington post" senior correspondent reports in the military and government failings in the war in afghanistan. nancy gives, editor at large and michael duffy, executive edit