us. i think the things we don't do is to think about where we have the most people the fastest. thinking about per capita returns on investment, and i think that our biggest weakness as a nation is community colleges. it's the skill gap that we have left open, left wide open between the industries that we are holding onto as we compete globally and how well we have done educating the people to take their place in the economy, and i would hope that whatever agenda comes forward we have an agenda that is deeply, deeply focused on adult learning, and of education, community colleges and finding more ways for people to constructively enter the economy. >> counselor? >> i would concur on those points. i'm grateful i live in a state that has a governor deval
patrick and living in a country with president barack obama. one of the reasons you just stated in creating better access to both educational opportunities and health care which is eliminating all of those other disparities. it's important we not upset about the 99% of the 47% and just remember that there are people behind all of those percentages, and people that has been struggling and people living in poverty. if you talk about the shrinking middle class, who were the joining? and so i want a president and governor and a major that believes in making those critical investment in physical infrastructure and in people that support the rule that everyone has to play in the economy including giving people in poverty on a pathway to self-sufficiency that is just as important. >> a round of applause for the panel. [applause]
jim bendat correspondent for msnbc come i tv and sky news is next on booktv. for the next half hour, he talks of the history of presidential inauguration going back to 79. -- 1789. >> thank you for that introduction. it's wonderful to be here at such a great american institution as the rotary club and speaking about a great american tradition, presidential inauguration day and doing so here it a great american venue so let's begin.
it's dawn on inauguration day in washington, d.c.. a huge amount of people gather on the washington mall. in 2009 and was all the way from the capitol all the way to the lincoln memorial. we just lost our picture. they are there for the inauguration. people gather to watch and other places as well. in times square in the new york city and classrooms around the country in paris and iraq and afghanistan people are watching the u.s. presidential inauguration. they've all come there and there
is a big crowd on the mall. i'm going to speak to you today about this great historic subject come of this institution and i am not -- i'm going to do it in the same way in which organized the book. rather the book is not chronological. it's not divided that starts off with george washington and then john adams to going to the president. instead it is divided by the various parts of the day and then i sprinkle vignettes. some of them very serious, some of them of course very traditional, and a lot of them i'm always looking for those, too. i also going to cover some things we are not going to see it coming inauguration in january because this time we do not have a change of power. as we are not going to have that transition as we see sometimes. but nevertheless in the morning
at inauguration when a president does the office come here is a 1961 dwight eisenhower thinking the staff at the white house. at the same time, the incoming president that year, john f. kennedy and his wife jacqueline leaving the blair house getting ready for the big day. another thing that takes place on inauguration morning and this will happen is a religious service. when i was in washington with my wife a few years ago, just a half a block from where we were staying, there was this church called the first am church and that's where the services took place for america's first black president, bill clinton. [laughter] i have a little map for you. things start at the white house
and they move along pennsylvania avenue toward the capitol which is on the right and there's a traditional copy of the white house that takes place and it's a big deal on the days when there's a transition from one prison to another. again, 1961 and that is when a lot of these pictures were made available. you just don't normally see these pictures. here's eisenhower and kennedy together, and at the same time, you have the when women together and they were actually the four -- they were the first lease of our country between 1953 to 1974. its eisenhower who was the outgoing first lady with her back to us that this lady bird johnson and others jacqueline kennedy who became the new first lady in 1961 and pat nixon who was the outgoing wife of the vice president at that time. another thing that takes place
on inauguration day when there is a change of power is that by tradition field going president leaves a note for his successor. this is the note, this is the large envelope that was left in the oval office by george w. bush for barack obama. he just put a posted with 44 and the inside of it was another envelope that said to 44 from 43. and then the next morning here is a picture of barack obama reading that actual note. the procession to the capitol is always a big deal. here's a picture from exactly 100 years ago. an open carriage, and that is william howard taft on the right and the new president woodrow wilson on the left. in 1933 we have a situation with
franklin d. roosevelt and herbert hoover. the two of them didn't get along so well. there wasn't a lot of conversation during the right to the capitol. in many pictures the were taken that day, roosevelt can be seen leading to the crowd or smiling to the crowd or turning toward hoover and trying to have a conversation. every picture you will see hoover is just looking ahead ignoring him. there's been other times also where the president, the newly and the old, didn't get along so well and that mentioned in my book can't we all get along. sometimes the weather is a big issue. here's 1909 that is william howard taft driving together with teddy roosevelt. we can't see them, but they are in the carriage. and here is the route they take. that's pennsylvania avenue heading toward the capitol.
now from 1829 all the way through 1977, which covers the great majority of american inaugurations they took place on the east side of the capitol, the east side. if you've been to washington, then you know that is the site where the library of congress is and the united states supreme court. so, here's what that looks like today on any given day that is the east side of the capitol and that's what it looks like when the eustis were set up for the inauguration they would have a platform in front of it. here's another view we can see the platform to the left there is a press stand in the middle and the crowd gathers but 1981 everything switched and they decided to move it to the west side of the capitol and that's much larger and that allows for far more people to actually see the ceremony. here's what the west side looks like most days.
and when they drive it through the inauguration, they put up the flags and that's what it looks like every time we see the inauguration since 1981 for. here's another view you can look back at the washington monument and can sort of the scene in the background and the lincoln memorial is even further than that. the inaugural ceremony itself we have an indication here today there is normally an indication of the presidential inauguration and the clerk i found took place in 1961 when the cardinal delivered the indication the kennedy's inauguration and the platform actually started to catch fire. you can see the smoke right there and the marshall just to the right working to put it out and you can also see the looks of concern on eisenhower and kennedy face. [laughter] no question about that you get the marshall put out. was a little short in the
electrical system. now another thing that has taken place four times in our history has been a poet delivering the poem at the presidential inauguration. and the first time that ever took place was in 1961. there was a lot happening that year with vice president johnson botched the vice presidential inaugural vote. but here dealing with a poem that's robert frost the first kuwait to evers to get the presidential inauguration, and i think this is a good time for me to read an excerpt from the book. you will probably remember the famous poem called the road not taken written by frost, so here is my tractor called the polemic not spoken. in 1961, 86-year-old robert frost became the first poet to ever be invited to speak at the presidential inauguration. in the days leading up to john
f. kennedy's and automation, frost wrote a special column for the occasion called dedication. there was a major snowstorm on the night before the ceremony. on the day of the inauguration, however, the sun was shining brightly and the sky was blue. frost was about to begin to read his poem but the bright glare of the snow prevented him from being able to see his manuscript clearly triet here was one of the world's most famous poets but he couldn't read his own words. new vice president lyndon johnson stood up and made an effort to create some shade for frost with a top hat, but it didn't help. you can actually see that in the picture. john thune is sitting next to him holding a top hat. frost could be heard to say i'm not having a good light, and i can't see in the sun. so, instead, frost delivered an older home one that he had memorized. but even then, his problems did
not end. he concluded his presentation by informing them that his poetry had been dedicated to the president-elect, mr. john finley [laughter] frost had inadvertently stated the name of a scholar from harvard. findlay new frost and may have been a friend of frost. but he was no jack kennedy. [laughter] here's a picture of washington's inauguration the first one in 79 that place in the capitol at the time. the next inaugurations took place in philadelphia and the first one in washington was in 1801. now there is a mess, a legend of the george washington so help me god at the end of the los.
but there is no proof that he said that. out of the four words at the time it's come to be a tradition at least from 1933 to the present those words have been added at the end of the los. this is 1929 coming in on the left is the chief justice william howard taft and he is administering the oath of office to the new president herbert hoover. he's the only person ever to be both president and chief justice and you're supposed to say preserve, protect and defend the constitution that he said cruisers, maintain and defend and this was a mistake was actually discovered by a little 13 year old girl listening to the inauguration on radio in the classroom and the state of new york. she's the one that brought it to
everybody's attention and they checked out and she was right so that was a mistake that leads us to four years ago. you may recall that when chief justice john roberts administered the oath to barack obama on january 20 as of 2,009 there was a major problem. the major problem consisted of the words that he said. roberts is supposed to say -- roberts was supposed to say i will execute the office of president of the united states, but instead of saying those words, he said and i will execute the office of the president to the united states faithfully.
so then barack obama stopped, paused, smiled as if to say come on, man this is my big day, we've got to get this right. but unfortunately he did think it right and then obama evin leader some believe could repeated some of his mistakes. so the very next night in the white house they did it again. it was the second oaf and this time roberts used notes which he hadn't used the first time and they got a right. so that chapter in my book is called they did it again. [laughter] in 1965 ladybird johnson became the first lady to hold the bible as the oath was administered. there was a president and that has been the case ever since. you can see here from the inauguration four years earlier
jack kennedy is off to the left in the picture and the bible was instead held by james browning who was a clerk of the supreme court. a few more pictures to show you. here's ronald reagan swearing in in 1981 jimmy carter out of president to the right of the picture and bill clinton in 1993 years 1985 this is the second inauguration and notice it is a different locale yet the reason is because the weather was so bad in washington, d.c. in 1985 there is a factor if everything got canceled, the parade canceled, they moved the oath taking in doors into the capitol rotunda so there are about a thousand people and the letter has been a problem as i mentioned in 1989 a lot of rain that today for the inauguration of benjamin harrison and then in 1945 this was franklin d.
roosevelt's fourth inauguration. he wasn't feeling well come he was ill and everything was moved to the white house. he took the oath at one of the balcony is there at the white house. so you know that fdr had for inauguration's. here is my trivia for the day you will be able to impress your friends. barack obama is about to tie franklin d. roosevelt's record. how can that be? roosevelt was inaugurated four times. we already know obama was inaugurated. the inauguration in january this year falls on sunday said there will be a private ceremony on sunday and the next day january january 21st. that's what happens when inauguration day falls on sunday. here's eisenhower on january 25th 1967 which was a sunday private ceremony.
the inaugural address there's a very old picture this is from 1865. this is abraham lincoln's second inauguration and a very famous speech there in which he said with charity for all franklin d. roosevelt the only thing we have to fear is fear itself. john f. kennedy in 1961, ask not what your country can do for you. ask what you can do for your country. in the departure of the old president. here's george w. bush departing the scene on the back of the capitol for years ago flying off in a helicopter looking back at the capitol. then there's a luncheon, obama's luncheon for years ago. and then to return to the white house. after that this is the first time that a first lady ever
drove back to the white house with the president in 1909 that is nellie taft with william howard taft. we will see that again this time. the kennedy's, obama walked part of the distance. jimmy carter and rosalynn carter walked the entire distance of the my yolly and half in 1977 from the capitol back to the white house. in the inaugural parade will take place reviewing stand is always set up in the white house that's grover cleveland back in '95 there's the white house in the background and is a classic inaugural picture the capitol is in the background with bands marching in 1953 a famous old cowboy named montana lassoed july eisenhower with his permission. in the afternoon of inauguration day backend 1829, there was a sort of stampede on the white house. they had a big party at the people trampled the place,
trampled the white house with their muddy boots and the wrecked the curtains and the carpeting and finally the fiasco ended when assembly of the brilliant idea of putting a large tub of whiskey out on the white house lawn slowly but surely every left 1953 there's the kennedys and 61, george and laura bush, bartok and michelle obama and planned inaugurations are also a big part of inauguration day. it's not really the inauguration day that they are a part of the history. you can't deny this and many of us even remember 49 years ago next year will be the 50th anniversary of the assassination of john f. kennedy followed by lyndon johnson being sworn in aboard air force one in dallas. he was sworn in by federal district judge sarah hughes, the only woman to ever swear in a president. here is a gerald r. ford being sworn in in the white house in 1974 after richard nixon
resigned in disgrace and here is a picture and it's my final story for the day this story actually inspired me probably more than any other to write this book. this is calvin coolidge in 1923 who became president after the death of warren harding. at the time of harding's def, coolidge was staying with his father is a very small cottage in vermont, a place that had no running water, no electricity, no telephone, no internet, they didn't have any of those things. so a courier came by to present the news that harding had died. and then everybody wanted coolidge to be sworn in as soon as possible. so the question was who would do it, who would swear in the president? the answer turned out to be his own father. his own father, john coolidge
was a local justice of the peace and a notary in public. and so by the light of an old kerosene lamp at 2:47 in the morning on august 3rd, 1923, john coolidge swore in his son mcalpin as the new president. so, that's pretty much it. hopefully this all helps you when you view the inauguration coming right up. thank you very much. [applause] >> if there's any questions i have be to try to answer them. >> who was the first president to walk between the capitol and the white house? >> can you repeat that? >> who was the first president to walk, get out of the vehicle and walked? >> that was jimmy and rosalynn carter. it was a total shock. the secret service knew, but the
public didn't know, the press didn't know. they just never got into the car. they walked the entire distance. since then, other presidents and first ladies have what part of the distance. george and laura bush did, and the clintons did come and barack obama and michelle obama did as well. >> how many presidents died after the inaugural and why? >> how many presidents died after the inaugural in office? >> welcome there's been eight times, i believe the number is eight where we have had a change of power in that way. one was the resignation. there's been four assassinations the presidents were assassinated and there was a few other deaths in office. >> [inaudible] william henry harrison in 1841.
he was our oldest president at the time, she was 68. [laughter] at that time he was. and he spoke, his inaugural address lasted for two hours in the cold weather. he caught pneumonia and he died exactly one month later. >> who was the first president to hold the inauguration on the west side of the capitol; and in the background on that? get ronald reagan was the first, 1981 the first to be on the west side of the capitol. among understanding is that it was a senator of oregon's idea and reagan thought it was a good idea she would be getting to face california that way. he liked that idea. but the biggest factor was now so many people can view it. now there were 1.8 million people for obama as inauguration four years ago. by far the biggest. they can give out all of that
about 140 or 150,000 tickets and the rest of the people show up and stand there. but when it used be on the east side there were about 20,000 people who could view the actual ceremony to read and oftentimes there were a million people for the parade. >> are all of the pictures that you showed on the slides are those pictures. >> i have many pictures were not part of the slide show that were here if you take a look at the book you will see i've got more than 50 pictures in the book. >> yes? >> [inaudible] >> they do say that it costs a lot. i don't have an exact figure but i would hope they would be
somewhat scaled back this time not only because of the economy but the second inauguration. by definition a second inauguration isn't quite the same importance as the first. there is no change of power, there is no transition, it's a continuation they ought not yet made an announcement about what is going to be like this year. it's called a do we need a second inauguration he. the country wouldn't lose out at all if they scaled back a little bit for sure. >> one more question. does any president-elect die before he was inaugurated? >> that's never happened. it there was an assassination of president-elect roosevelt in 1932. but it didn't succeed. estimate does the vice president become the president?
>> as the vice president take over? >> the vice president-elect would take over? >> i believe the would be correct. >> one more quickly. >> i was wondering about [inaudible] stat of course he was the civil war president, and washington is said to have been an armed camp at the time because of the allied invasion with sharpshooters on all of the rooftops, sort of like it is now. [laughter] - to the last three inaugurations, and ever since 2001, there's been tight security in 1861 and 1865 as well. >> thank you very much. [applause]
pipe neyer profit is the name of the book. george mason university professor john turner is the author. we are here on location and george mason university. professor turner, who was brigham young? >> he was the second president of the church of jesus christ latter-day saints the successor to joseph smith across the country over the mountains to their new home in the west. >> how did he become no to become more well known today than joseph smith? >> keen lived a lot longer. that helped. he led the church for over 30 years. joseph smith was in the church for about 13 years until he was murdered in 1844 and brigham young takes over. he settles and colonizes what is today utah and actually a larger portion of the american west. and he becomes a major long-term
opponent to the u.s. government. and that gets him a lot of notoriety in the 19th century as well. >> so, where did brigham young come from and began his life? >> he grew up in basically a state western new york. he came from a very poor family. he didn't have any formal education. and was impoverished, really hard childhood. his family moved around a lot. once he was out on his own he moved around a lot. he was a craftsman, kind of a furniture paynter and never really got ahead. in his life entirely changed once he converted to mormonism when he was a little bit more than 30-years-old. >> so how did he need joseph smith etc? >> the book of mormon, shortly after it was published in 1830 some of his family members read it. he later said that he read it and he spent a lot of time thinking and out.
he didn't jump on board right away, she was a little bit skeptical and a little uncertain and spend a couple of years considering the claim of this new work of scripture. then he encountered a group of traveling mormon elder is your missionaries and he sold them speak in tom. something that he hadn't encountered to that played in his life for and got's power. it would become a member of joseph smith's church, and after that to your period, once he decides to join in and get baptized, she is fully committed to their effort and a great sense of purpose and direction and that is his identity for the rest. >> where did the term mormon come from? >> it comes from the book of mormon. where it is joseph smith's claim
was an ancient record of a variety of people who had come to the new world, and that jesus christ had appeared to these people in the new world and their descendants were native american, the indian that white americans knew well in the year early 1800's. that's where the term came from and joseph smith early followers were called mormonites and they got used to it and claimed it as their own identity to a large extent. >> why did joseph smith and his followers leave upstate new york and travel? where did they go next? >> sure. the first 15 years or so the church's existence is a story of them getting more or less katella of one place after another. joseph smith talked to the
followers to gather together to form cities usually one at a time and so after they left new york they gathered in northeastern ohio and eventually things fell apart. there was a lot of antimormon pressure and the church always had a lot of dissension. similar things happen there. they moved to illinois when they had 15,000 or so mormons gather in this one town in western illinois everybody else was terrified southern is a lot of political pressure in the practices and a doctor in some -- doctrines. he's murdered. >> why? >> by an antimormon mob. he's arrested and he is in jail. the mob stories into the jail and shoots and kills joseph
smith and his brother and joseph smith falls out of the window and he's had. and then brigham young isxñ essentially there to pick up the pieces. >> where is joseph smith buried? >> he is buried in illinois. >> so brigham young takes over essentially in illinois? >> he takes over. >> and how does he get to you talk? >> once again the mormons are forced out. the death of joseph smith doesn't satisfy the political opponents of the church in illinois. but then about another year there are moms that are burning mormon homes, and under address brigham young agrees to leave and contemplates do we fight back, it do we try to fight these mobs, but ultimately they've got to go. >> at that point, john turner, had the mormon population become integrated into the illinois life? >> not really.
the church had gathered there for about five years, and were predominant in this one part of western illinois. but it had been a pretty transitory existence for a lot of people. so when they leave brigham young west they go across the body what territory and then spend some time on the banks of the missouri river and then in 1847, brigham young leads a group available but more, about 150 pioneers that go over the mountains to the valley. >> what happens when they come over the mountains? >> guest: well, brigham young was incredibly sick at the time. so he didn't end up being among the first group that made it down to the valley. the traditional story is that she looks down on the valley and says this is the place and that's where they are going to
settle. he did say this is the place but i think maybe not until they got that into the valley and they were thinking about exactly where they should settle it they said this is the place we don't need to go further, we don't need to go to the west coast or california. >> is it for salt lake now exists when they came over the mountains? >> not at all. there were a couple of white mountaineers in that region and other than that, there were a variety of native tribes. exactly where the latter day saints first settled was fairly on populated and exactly where they first went. >> so that's in 1847. when did brigham young buy? >> keep on with an 77. foothill -- it was to the
territory or the state within the united states. after being expelled from illinois, the mormons and brigham young were pretty wary of the united states, so the government hadn't protected them or their land and they felt like they had been forced in this situation they pretty much are an independent people coming and 1849 they create a state of deseret.?÷ that's what they call their new state, their new home. it's from a word in the book of mormon called honey bee and it is the cooperative people. i think brigham young thinks that doesn't get's experience is that of california. former state government and then led into the union as a equal
sovereign state. the government is not interested. the mormons ask for a huge swath he doesn't want to get d.c. doesn't like the word desert at. he doesn't want a mormon controlled state into the state of the union and so it is said the territory of utah is created. the u.s. government, the president fillmore was a point brigham young has the governor. >> he appoints him. >> how long that brigham young served as governor? >> he served six years as governor. spain was he the head of the church at the time? >> absolutely. >> was their political insight within the church and did he have rifles? >> not really he felt that he didn't have any rivals within the church especially after they get to utah.
there are other people that put themselves forward as possible leaders after joseph smith's death, but at the time brigham young's faction of the church reaches utah, he has eliminated most dissent. in fact she brags that the church does not experience 10% of the dissent under his leadership as it had under joseph but he had a firm hand. >> how many wives did he have? >> only 55. >> how many children? >> 58? wohlstetter does he have descendants today? >> tens of thousands. if they but all by the book i would be very wealthy. >> were you able to talk with any of his descendants and researching pioneer profit? >> i didn't set out to talk with any of his descendants but there are quite a number of brigham young's descendants in utah and i spent a lot of time in utah during research for the book so i happened to meet some of his
descendants. >> did the church cooperate in opening up their archives to you? >> it will operated a great deal. i came along at a great time they gave me access to the entirety of the brigham young papers, which really had a good chunk of the library of george mason and a massive amount of peters including a lot of information about brigham young's marriages and the figures in the church. i got to see overall perhaps 98% of what i wanted to see. >> why did you get that access. are you boreman? why are you writing this book? why did you write this book? >> i actually wrote it in part because i wanted to learn more about mormonism as a student of history in the united states. if that is what you are interested in it is hard not to get interested in the latter day saints and it is such a colorful and a dramatic story of
persecution, polygamy, so i got into the project as a way of learning more about it as a church and as a religion and also because brigham young is such a figure of broad significance in the 19th century america. >> and the most famous today's mitt romney. does the romney family have interaction with the brigham young plan? >> i'm sure there are many descendants that know each other. the church is still a fairly tight knit institution and especially in utah it means a lot if you have ancestors that go way back to the pioneer era of the church. >> romney does as well. >> why did the family in that in mexico at one part? >> wealthy ended up in mexico
because i believe mitt romney's great grandfather practiced marriage, she was a polygamist and later a part in the 1800's case serious effort to incarcerate more men men who produce polygamy and they went to mexico to escape persecution and i'm not an expert on the family history, but i believe mitt romney's great grandfather was among them. >> the wait until he had died before the out of the polygamists? >> it was out what putative is essentially made a federal crime in 1862. but the u.s. government doesn't really have the wherewithal to prosecute it until the 1880s and that happens to be after brigham young's death. >> after researching this book, professor turner, give us two or three impressions of brigham
young that you have. >> a dark sense of humor, intense dedication and commitment in the industry, and a very heartfelt devotion to joseph smith. as a very sincere and authentic part of his personality. spent john turner professor here at george mason university. we are talking about brigham young, the pioneer profit. thanks for being with us. with just days left in 2012, many publications are putting together their year and a list of notable works. booktv will feature several of these books focusing on