they a chance to be editors and -- at major newspaper. they much more a chance than they used to have probably in television even. that might be disputed. but certainly in print they have more opportunities; however, the business is changing so. they got the top of a field and the field crumbled away under the feet. >> morn rei beasly, the authority of "women of the washington press: politics, prejudice, and persistence" in an interview in maryland, arrest o'connell talked to the history of the u.s. marine corps. it's about fifteen minutes. as part of the university series we like to visit campuses across the country and talk with professors who are authors. this week we're at the u.s. navel academy in maryland.
joining us is aaron oh connell who is also the authority of this book "underdog: the making of the modern ma marine corps.." what was it established? >>1775. but the birthday is something of a myth. the marines claim 10, november, 1775. that's actually just the date that congress authorized the creation of the marine corps. ..
it's a very small part of the navy. the burning cars completely separate from the navy now. >> they are completely her. this became contentious throughout the course history. they would claim they should follow the rules of the navy. when they shared the regulation of the army and eventually in 1832 they became a separate service inside. >> host: had their mission change? guests at the mission to change so much. there midship urged into the 20 century, but there were some in the jack of all trades. they would do other traits, most
often as landing parties and the navy with 10 flavors and marines, investor of the 20th century he took on a variety of mission in haiti and the philippines, nicaragua and just before world war ii, they started creating amphibious landing forces. mandy mickens defended islands. >> host: what was the marines corps' reputation throughout much of the history? >> guest: not very good. ever thinks about the marine corps today is the most procedures were the to the major services and that's been validated by numerous polls over the last 12 years routinely the most american people say. it wasn't that way at the start of world war ii. was that of the spanish government to be rough and rowdy. parents are meant to be the least desirable associates and they were the least popular service in a nationwide study. is pretty similar to that.
these are big thuggish guys in the neighborhood might then, i didn't like dominica have problems getting qualities and since the beginning until world war ii. >> host: what happened? desk or a couple things change. the most important is world war ii. once the marines can initial payment is start of the war until christmas day against repeated japanese attacks, president roosevelt makes a mention of him and misery created because of active intervention by the court and just the nature of the fighting against japan. the first major land operation in the pacific, operation guadalcanal, the birds come through some horrible citing and they hold the island of my reputation is re-created from that moment forward.
postcode now, did their mission change over the years organically or was it on thing that was legislatively done? >> guest: yes, the mission changes organically with the active planning of the marine corps appeared really in the night to pick these, something interesting happened. after world war ii, the other services and the president and anyone who's qualified to speak at national defense argues nuclear weapons have changed everything. the camp of men from ship to shore in the army uses this as an argument to radically reduce or perhaps even abolish the marine corps. the marines fight back and they win. as early as 1947, they start arguing the worst nuclear weapons is probably not going to happen. they say how you going to keep stability in the cold war periphery is all you have is something that cannot amaze
people? you need forces that can go wide range of things. humanitarian relief, peacekeeping, disaster relief, small stability operations. they start arguing a 47. by 56 to argue explicitly with the soviet union is not going how. any capable nonnuclear forces to arrive immediately and do lots of things and we are the jack of all trades service. by the late 40s, early 50s, they are building the marine air ground task force and from which are today called the amphibious force in readiness today at all times there are several thousand marines floating around the world on navy ships at the wrong plane, tanks, engineers, water making machines and they are ready to plan on ending for sure with anywhere depending between 24 and 96 hours. once they are common they can
help the existing government or scalability combat operations. the marines do you need at the start of the cold war. to me as a primary contribution to national defense today. >> host: was very strong, not to push this change initially? >> guest: there are quite a few who were important, but rather than focus on the leaders, the argument is "underdogs" instead understudy is a causal factor in changes in the mission changes in the public relations successes and political auburn which is a fascinating story. the main argument here is the wisdom or insight about themselves. it was different from the way the other services did and it gave them a quotation in a sort of energy not seen any other
services. it's all an elaborate proof of the claim by dr. samuel johnson that concentrates his mind wonderfully. the marines to fight in world war ii and korea have a lot of experience and the result is then i came home and they saw threats to their service, institutional threats inside the establishment and mustered an extraordinary amount of cohesion and focus to push attempt successfully. >> host: what was the marines rolling korea? >> guest: marines were the first forces -- they want the first forces, but they were sent as conventional combat alongside the army's doing the exact same thing as the army. but they got there early because as soon as the north koreans invaded on june for the joint
chiefs. they immediately start mustering troops and less than a month. they came with their own aviation. so what this meant in the critical first battle to stop in advance that the marines were doing was called combined operation. they had their own flying overhead. that to arrive immediately and be ready for combat right away is exactly what marine said was important after world war ii and other services are saying you'll do that anymore. >> host: you mention political lobbying, how did that occur? >> guest: after world war ii world war ii, all the services do away with the navy department has the principle cabinet position and instead create the department of defense. in the start of this process, all the other services were on
board with radically reducing the national defense. they thought the marine had come to her world war ii. the marines took some of their smartest and most connected officers and became insurgents inside the establishment. they copied them, gave them out to the press. they directly violated president thomas carper, not relieved and did all this because they blew the course at risk within the rules for working outside those rules. it was an extraordinary success. not only do they defeat recognition, but the the commandant of the church easterly to start major general to a four-star general and they get a special congress would not
be any smaller than three divisions in three arrays. you can't change that. that's a remarkable achievement for military service to reach into the president's prerogative on how we shall structure the armed forces than they did it through backdoor lobbying. >> host: was president eisenhower santa maria? gusto neither really fanned. eisenhower's chief of staff of the army when they try to do the restructuring which debuted at successfully. president truman said in a letter and cautious case that the marines have a propaganda that is almost equal to stalin. he has to make a huge public apology announced today they get their special protection in response to truman blowout. >> host: are your marine?
>> guest: adjoining i-295 straight out of college. graduate work at yale. is there tonight did duty for five years. i'm incognito at the naval academy until summertime when i get my haircut. >> host: were usurped? >> guest: afghanistan a year ago and also a camp of june in north carolina. >> host: what are some of the tension the marines have at the navy because there's a relationship as mayor? >> guest: i wouldn't say they're are major tensions. you can hide in the path to know how to do too much work in the present. the modern marine corps today is a remarkable success story.
the tensions are low. in the 40s they spend a lot of time say we provide the ships cannot pay for your airplane. we pay for a lot of the equipment we use and you should be happy we're here. after korea, after world war ii world war ii, the story changed somewhat if you lose the navy, you know how these marine task force says that to all these good things. the relationship is a little worse. as additional power of the marine corps radically different now than it was. then they were 3% of the active-duty and a 1941. today they are 14% of the armed forces. then they had no public relations are created and offices for people people in
1941. now they have a rather elaborate with the incredibly successful brand. enterra bill shows he can possibly mention this is all evidence of their ability to create powerful military alliance is in times of peace. >> host: deter marine is misleading, isn't it quite >> guest: cusick reprove of inherently tied to amphibious operations moving from ships to shore. if faster, why is general john allen of the united states during quarter for top commander of coalition troops in afghanistan, perhaps the most landlocked country in the world and the reason is the marines
have expanded their role in national defense. so it doesn't seem right. are they called marines up there in the mountains of afghanistan? >> host: what you call this the "underdogs"? >> guest: device had a nickname for themselves to which his devil dogs from world war i. the best term to describe how they thought of themselves. they are just a very small institution inside the larger defense establishment and always felt from the beginning to be persecuted and under risk, under siege by the army and navy who they were it would attend to reduce their numbers so the single most important characteristics of the culture is this notion that if they don't do everything they can to win alliances, friends and protect entries, who.
>> host: aaron o'connell, is that underdog feeling reinforced in the marines? >> guest: there's some positive elements of a cultural trait to spend been extraordinarily focused, energized and cohesive. there unquestionably popular and important. marines will still say got to watch out and take care of our own. if we now, no one else will. the marine corps will cease to exist. >> host: what do you teach at the naval academy? >> guest: i teach some classes on afghanistan and i teach some classes on military relations. >> host: today transitioned over there? >> guest: they go to the marine corps. it's a very competitive selection process.
often more marines want to become the spots are them. they can transition white well. both in the classroom administaff who give them familiarization with marine corps culture. >> host: professor o'connell, when he served on active duty company to ever serve on chip? >> guest: i never did come which is rare. probably because most of my years for reserve time at work slickly santana shea. >> host: you mention that he had to yell and brassy was on campus. is it prohibited on any campus? >> guest: many schools have not brought them back after the tumbles of the 1960s. so they are coming back. >> host: it's been the response? >> guest: very positive.