lineup for tonight beginning at 7 eastern. a panel discussing the feminine mystique, a book that was published 50 years ago. and then former florida governor jeb bush talks about his new book, "immigration wars: forging an american solution." at 9:15 eastern, sarah carr explores the new orleans school system. her book is "hope against hope." at 10 p.m. our weekly "after words" program this week with kim goddess examining hillary clinton's role in u.s. diplomacy abroad. and we'll conclude tonight's prime time programming at 11 eastern with phil lafley, author of "exploding the phone: the untold story of the teenagers and outlaws who hacked ma bell." visit booktv.org for more on this weekend's television schedule. >> and now on booktv national book award-winning author edward ball recounts the relationship between edward mybridge, inventer of stop motion
photography, and his patron, leland stanford, former governor of california. this is about an hour. >> the inventer and the tycoon is the story about two improbable friends, a man called leland stanford who was one of the early robber barons in the american west and a photographer called edward mybridge who was an artist. and they did not belong together, they met in an unlikely way, but over a period of ten years, these two men created, i think you can argue, some of the culture that we have of today which is the fascination we have with moving images. every day we, you know, wade through a river of motion pictures on our phones, on our computer screams, on our
televisions -- screens, on our televisions, in movie houses. what is the statistic now, people are spending eight hours a day in front of a screen? we are screen-o-philic if you like. and the kernel that holds these media together is the image in motion. it's the thing that stops us when an image leaps into motion. we fall silent, we fall into a state of fascination, we are mesmerized, and that state of consciousness continues until the picture stops moving. these two men, stanford and mybridge, invented, if you like, the first pictures in motion, the first moving pictures 130 years ago in california. let's go to san san francisco,
january 1880. leland stanford, former governor of the state, president of the central pacific railroad, the richest man west of the mississippi has built a mansion on the top of california hill. we call it today nob hill, at the time they called it california hill. they call it nob hill because of stanford and his preposterously rich friends who moved there to build their enormous houses overlooking the city. stanford's house has 50 rooms, it's 50,000 square feet, it's decorated within an inch of its life with rosewood cabinetry on every wall and murals painted by italian painters that imitate the frescoes found under the ashes of pompei.
model statuary, a dining room that can seat 50, ballroom that 300 people can dance in and 15 live-in servants. three people live in this house, leland stanford, his wife jane lathrop and their son, leland stanford jr., age 10. january 1880, stanford has some friends in for a party and a show. he's got a man that he regards as his companion, but also his employee. the around the u.s., edward muybridge. they could not be more different from one another. muybridge is rail thin, he's got a shock of white hair, a ragged beard down to the middle of his chest. he combs neither his hair, nor
his beard. he's got beaten-up jackets, pants with the strings hanging off the cuffs. he smokes a corn cob pipe. stanford likes to wear formal clothes even at home. he goes to work in tails, his shoes are shined to mirrors, he wears diamond jewelry, he carries a gold-tipped cane and a silk tophat. they're an unlikely couple. stanford invites his friends who are other very rich men and women who have struck it rich mostly in mining. california and nevada, of course, are the center of the spraying out of gold and silver that has enriched a handful of minding families -- mining families.
and these guys and women, mostly guys, live on nob hill. he invites them in for a show. he invites his friends who are politicians, he invite judges, he invites the governor of missouri who happens to be in town -- of new york who happens to be in town. sits them down in a room called the pompein room which is decorated, as i said, to look like one of the old villas in pompei where muybridge has set up a new apparatus that he wants to show off. it's a projector. muybridge has built the machine which can put 30 images in motion on a screen, something that has been done with animate ed, hand-drawn images but not with photography. so stanford has his guests sit down, muybridge comes in and
sets up his machine, but he's an odd person in more than one way. there is the fact that despite the fact he's an intriguing artist and something of a showman, he's also a murderer. it turns out that muybridge killed a man, and he's well known throughout the state of california for having done this. there was a notorious trial. and so as he sets up his device, stanford's guests no doubt look at him through squinting eyes wondering who this character is. he lights up his projector, and suddenly on the screen horses begin to gallop, and they gallop
again and again as though in a kind of repetitive loop. he takes a disc from the machine, puts another disc in, more horses begin to gallop and gallop. the newspapers that write about this night always -- the newspaper writers that wrote about this night and subsequent nights when muybridge showed off his machine usually said the same thing, they said there was an astonishing moment when we were in the presence of what appeared to be a living animal. and the only thing lacking was the breath of the horse and the rattle of hooves on the turf. after this moment of astonishment, the party ends, muybridge goes off, and this is
the debut of the motion picture apparatus that he's designed. when are these two guys? edward muybridge was born in england in 1820 -- in 1830. he was the son of a family of corn sellers on his father's side, and his mother's family ran barges up and down the thames river. his town, kingston, outside of london was a sleepy village on the thames, but in muybridge's youth the railroad was built out from the city connecting his town to the capital. this was a sort of astonishing moment when the railroads and telegraphs were being built out from the capital. muybridge becomes interested in machines, and people who knew him as a child said he was fascinated with making gadgets.
he would build things for his cousins and little trick devices to impress them. now, he was better off than eight or nine of his other 80 or 90% of his peer group in that they had a nice place to live, but he was not of the class who would get the higher education. at this time maybe one in a hundred men -- let alone women -- were able to go to boarding schools and matriculate at oxford and cambridge. so muybridge went to the local grammar school and followed the typical path for a boy of his stripe. in his mid teens, he became an apprentice to get a trade. he apprenticed in printing in london at age 16, so it seems, and two years later he was
capable enough to get a job with something called the london printing and publishing company. that's a print maker and bookseller. at this point, age 20, he does something kind of unusual for his group, he decides to immigrate to america. he comes to new york in 1850, works as a bookseller in new york for this company pack in london -- back in london, and he makes a moderately good living as a salesman coming to libraries, selling encyclopedias and art books and novels, coming to booksellers selling the same and getting a commission. but something happened simultaneous with his arrival in america, and that is california. there's this fever going on on the west coast.
everybody on the east coast is talking about this explosion of money and real estate speculation and opportunity known as california. california has entered the union in 1849, gold was discovered mere sacramento in 1848, and 50,000 men in 1849 go to california and set up these instant cities, sacramento and san francisco, and start digging for gold. muybridge hears about all this, of course, and in 1855 he decides he's going to go to california. he goes to california, goes to san francisco, and he doesn't dig for gold, but he becomes a bookseller in california and makes a modest living in this
strange frontier town where four out of five people are men, where 50,000 people live in hastily-built shacks on muddy streets, where the principal employment is hustling and where people are making fast money and losing fast money week after week. muybridge realizes after a period of time that this is not an intellectual town, that book selling is not going to find him in an interesting place in years to come. he goes back to england, and he returns now in his mid 30s having discovered photography,
the thing that will obsess him for the rest of his life. he comes back to california at age 37, reinvents himself as a photographer. he becomes a landscape photographer. by the way, throughout all this period muybridge is changing his name, changing his name every five years. he comes to new york, he changes his name to edward muygridge. he goes to california, he changes his name to edward muybridge. he goes to england, he comes back as a photographer, he changes his name to helios, the god of the sun. [laughter] he calls himself helios, the photographic or artist. [laughter] a couple of years of that, he changes his name again.
so he's on the one hand reinventing himself and on the other trying to figure out what to do. he becomes a landscape photographer. he takes the most impressive photographs of yosemite valley, that gash in the middle of california with its tissue-like waterfalls and its sheer rock faces. quote mite, which has -- yosemite which has become already the emblem of the western frontier. it's romantically inflated in the imagination of not only the americans, but the europeans. it represents what it is to be a part of this western expanding empire of the united states. he talks these giant photographs of yosemite which sell very well on the east coast, very well in europe, and he becomes at age 38 famous as the great landscape
photographer of the west. leland stanford, he was born in 1824 outside of albany, new york, the son of farmers. he had five brothers. they chopped wood and shoveled manure as boys. stanford was the son chosen by his parents to get the better education. he's sent to small boarding schools in upstate new york, his brothers quit school after seventh grade. leland stanford goes on to apprentice as a lawyer in albany, and he becomes an attorney at age 24, and he decides to join the western move. he goes to wisconsin, becomes a small town lawyer in a town on the shore of lake michigan in
wisconsin. he thinks it's going the boom like chicago has boomed. and he's mistaken. this town doesn't boom. he comes pack to albany -- back to albany, he marries a woman called jane lathrop who's the daughter of an accountant, and he's marrying up, in fact. and they return to this wisconsin town, and they're bored. two years pass, stanford's brothers, meanwhile, have all gone to california. the year is 1850. they've all gone to california. they all started digging for gold, and suddenly his brothers realize very quickly that the way to make a secure living was not to dig for gold and lose your shirt, but to sell things to the guys who dig for gold. so the stanford brothers open a series of little shops in the sierras selling pick axes and bags of rice and camp gear and
liquor to the miners. stanford, leland stanford in wisconsin is exchanging letters with his brothers. they're saying come out here, the getting is good. stanford's law office burns in a fire, he loses his files, he loses his law books, and he decides i don't want to be a lawyer, i'm going to california. he goes to california and joins his brothers. he borrows money from them, he opens a shop in the mountains called stanford and smith and sells to miners. stanford is a taciturn businessman. he's practically wordless. anybody who met him reported the same thing, he has five words an hour. he is laconic to the point of pathology. [laughter]
but he's an amiable behind the cash register, and he deals straight, and so he succeeds rapidly as a shopkeeper. he moves his shop to sacramento, the capital of california. now, the capital of california in the mid 1850s had the enormous population of 12,000 people. it's a cow town, but he becomes the grocer in town who sells the best goods. next door to him there's another shop which is a hardware store called huntington and hopkins run by a couple of guys who sell hardware. and one day in 1858 hopkins, stanford and huntington receive
this salesman who's coming through town trying to pump up the idea of building a railroad from california back to the midwest. his name, if i can remember his name, oh, what was his name? oh, a walk-on character in this book, so -- [laughter] handsome guy, fast talking, and he says would you guys put down $3,000? i can do a survey, and we'll try to pitch a railroad idea that will succeed, will get government funding. and stanford and huntington and his confederates including a guy called charles crocker put down a little bit of money, and this railroad scheme starts to take off. they call it the central pacific
railroad. it just happens that in the same period the united states is being torn apart by that little thing called the civil war. a railroad scheme has been proposed in previous years in congress, it's gone nowhere because the northern senators and congressmen want the railroad to go from chicago across the northern states to california. the southern senators and congressmen would like it to go from new orleans across texas and up through the southwest. so no one can devise a bill that satisfies the regional conflict. well, this thing has, the civil war breaks out. all the southern congressmen and senators leave washington, they go down to richmond to join the new enterprise known as the confederacy leaving the capitol half populated only with northern congressmen. stanford comes to california --
to washington with this railroad scheme, and congress takes the bait. saying we've got -- the war is on, we've got to keep california in the union. the way to keep california in the union is to subsidize the construction of this transcontinental railroad. the railroad bill passes, a route is devised from central missouri out west. two companies are inaugurated, the central pacific railroad and the union pacific railroad. stanford is made president of the central pacific railroad, and they begin to build this snakelike train track up the sierra mountains over into utah, or i should say, rather, 25,000 chinese immigrants begin to build this snakelike train
track. their story is an extraordinary one that my book doesn't have time to tell. stanford, meanwhile, has gone into politics. he's a republican. this is the anti-slavery party, and concomitant with the breakout of the civil war, the republicans in california who had previously been in the minority suddenly experience this kind of patriotic surge of support. stanford is elected to the governor's mansion. he becomes the governor and the president of the new railroad enterprise at the same time. talk about self-dealing. within a few years, there's a vast river of money flowing to these four men, the so-called associates. they're regarded as heroes in
california because they have completed this impossible project of linking the west to the east. as we all know, in order to get from the middle eastern, from the mid atlantic states to california you could do one of two things. you could take the overland route which would take you six weeks at the minimum, perhaps up to two months over these rutted roads that sometimes petered out and were washed out and were under occasional attack from apache, and you might end up stranded in the mountains and freeze to death, or you could take the central american route which would take you three weeks. most people who could afford that did so.
they would take a steamship from new york to the eastern shore of nicaragua, a mule train over the central american mountains to the western shore of nicaragua, another steamship up the to san francisco. either way, it was an arduous trip. the railroad shortened the hardship and the trip to five days from coast to coast. stanford is lionized initially as a hero. he becomes fabulously rich. he builds his mansion on california hill. but within a couple of years, it becomes apparent that the railroad's monopoly on transportation is not a gentle one. the railroad is named the octopus by journalists and by its opponents in the labor movement. stanford falls from the status
of hero to villain, and he becomes a man hated for his exploitation of farmers, for his exploitation of steamship companies, his exploitation of banks, of politicians, for his manipulation of real estate. the railroad company, for example, between one year and the next because of the way that the grants were written acquired millions and millions of acres adjacent -- from government land adjacent to the track. so from one year to the next, became the largest landholder in the country second only to the federal government. anyway, in any case, so in that month in 880 when -- in 1880 when muybridge debuts his apparatus at stanford's house, stanford is not a well-liked man. so how did these two guys meet?
muybridge is a landscape photographer, stanford has built a house. he asks muybridge to photograph his house. muybridge is a well known man. stanford is the most well known man. muybridge photographs the man's house. somehow they become friends. it's not clear to me how. and they begin to spend time together. stanford in his rise to conspicuous consumption develops an interest in horses. he buys dozens, and then more than a hundred. standard breeds and thoroughbreds. he buys attractive land, 10,000 acres, 30 miles south of san francisco, and he names it palo alto and installs his horses at palo alto where he builds
another mansion. palo alto becomes, flash forward 100 years, the site of of stanford university. the horse farm was there, and then stanford university was built on top of stanford's horse farm. stanford spends a lot of his time now with his horses watching them gallop, and he's fascinates by one enigma which was this: do the hooves of horses ever leave the ground during a gallop? do all four feet ever leave the ground? do horses ever become our born when they're -- airborne when they're running? this was a question known at the time as the question of unsupported transit. [laughter] and horse officionados were curious about it. there's a nice irony that the man who's made his fortune in
the railroad is fascinated with the form of transportation that's been displaced by railroad. so he says on one of their nights of talk, muybridge, i want to know if the horse's hooves ever leave the ground. can you photograph them? tell me that. and muybridge says, no, i can't -- nobody's ever stopped the motion of a galloping animal. can't be done. you know, photography is not capable of doing that. and stanford say, muybridge, here's $50,000. do what you've got to do. muybridge move toss the horse farm at palo alto, he builds a shed that's about 30 yards long with a long open window along
its face and puts 12 cameras side by side in that window pointing out on the horse track. he has the horses gallop past this shed and past these cameras. he puts strings from each camera across the track so that as the horse breaks each string, it pulls, it snaps and exposes and pulls the shutter and exposes a photograph, so he's got in rapid order in a second and a half 12 pictures. ..
they set up in a comfortable neighborhood in san francisco. and tremont begins to travel. he traveled up to alaska and down to the border of mexico to visit from white house is told by the government. he traveled inland. he crisscrosses the west. she gets involved with a handsome englishman encountered he sets himself up as a drama critic for the san francisco chronicle. he starts taking this married woman out of the theater. they begin love affair.
this goes on for a year. suspicious, but in denial. one night he comes home and he finds some evidence of this long-running affair of his wife. he has a violent state. one night he goes to the house for his face. he knocks on the door. he has a smith & wesson umber three revolver. everybody in california has a smith & wesson number three
revolver. it is begun of the western expansion. of of the gunslingers in the garden of the traveling salesman. the gun of the barman. and the murder rate in california something like 100 times what it is today. he knocks on the door. he comes to the door. he said this is eadweard muybridge and i have a message. and he shoots him and kills him. dead within 30 seconds. and there are eight witnesses to the crime. tremont is arrested and he has made arrangements to take care
of his estate. he is arrested and jailed and charged with murder. he confesses to the crime or if there are seven witnesses. he goes on trial in napa. he is a well-known man. it is a tile covered in the papers of california and because of the associated press. the trial appears in all the papers of the united states. baltimore,, new orleans, if you're in chicago, you're reading about the muybridge murder trial. he's not on the best photographer and artist in california, but he is one of the richest men in the state it is a
crime of passion. his lawyers plead insanity against muybridge's protest. the jury a quicktime of this crime. the judge told them not to quit this man just because you are sympathetic of his position as a wronged husband. so he has a provocation defense for justifiable homicide. it's if someone provokes you, if someone pulls a weapon on you, you have the justifiable means to kill that person.
the provocation in this case was the outgoing lifestyle of his wife. the justifiable defense, it was a defense that succeeded in juries straight limit middle of the 20th century. although the judges try to tear it down. i never found the case of a woman who took advantage of these justifiable homicide defense panels. women apparently did not have the prerogative. so he is declared a free man.
he goes back to stanford the evidence implies for him to get a lawyer to help him with his defense. so then he goes back to palo alto. he says he did not finish photographing my horses. to defeat ever leave the ground. so he has a number of cameras and he devises a shutter release device that knocks off each one in quarter second interval. so you can shoot 24 pictures. he starts running horses passed it. he is making motion photography. the photograph is well-known.
athletes come do things in front of his camera is that he can capture. what he calls motion studies. he gets women to dance. it's a dog to race raise this way and that. he is a motion study scientist. he crisscrosses the country, giving talks and at that point he decides that i'm going to put these images into motion on the screen. he has a magic lantern, that the common projector. he takes a disc that he has put
images around the edge. he spins it. the projection throws a light on the screen and horses began to run on the screen. that brings us back to january of 1880. when he does that, he doesn't need leland stanford anymore. he becomes the toast of everyone who can invite him in. he shows off his gadget to museums and places like boston and chicago and baltimore and new york. back and forth. back to california. up and down the coast. two audiences in music halls.
he is invited to france to do the same. he was invited back to the uk. he is invited to germany and italy. he goes to all of these societies and shows off his new apparatus. meanwhile leland stanford also goes to europe. he goes there to buy art. he and muybridge cross paths. leland stanford is a custom to being the biggest fish in the sea. he is the guy with the checkbook. he goes home to california and
publishes muybridge's photographs in a very fancy art book without putting his name in it. taking credit for these photographs. he said i pay for these things, they were my horses, and muybridge feels betrayed and files a lawsuit against him. the friendship ends in a bitter dispute. muybridge loses a lawsuit, leland stanford wins. they go separate ways. so muybridge is in places like chicago.
it. show me the apparatus. and muybridge says, yes, and we should work together. we can make this device that i could better. maybe we can add sound to it and we could have something really exceptional. muybridge leaves. edison studies the material. he assigns his staff engineers to work on the problem of making a motion picture camera. just by chance, this is now 1889, a material called celluloid has been invented. george eastin in new york has created this, allowing you to put hundreds of pictures on a long strip of film.
whereas muybridge was able to only photograph 21 pictures in a row. he uses this film strip and there is a device that he calls the scope, it is known as the nickelodeon of sorts. it runs 32nd clips of film. getting people to drop money into these come and watch women dancing, horses running, things like that, they never see each other again. edison becomes the first
entrepreneur of the motion picture industry. by the end of the 1890s, he has cornered the market in this industry of film production. using his camera equipment. muybridge is a disappointed man. he knows that history has passed him by. but he has missed his chance to make it big, i suppose. he moves back to england, his childhood home. he had not lived there for 50 years at this time. and leland stanford has one terrible thing happen to him. he continues quite comfortably along with his peer group to
occupy not the 1%, but the 1100th of 1%, the the top of the pier med comets went quite well. his son, on the other hand, his 15-year-old son was a precious prince avoid by all accounts. very gifted young man. he has been raised very much like a prince. on one of these trips to europe, the teenager is thick with influenza and dies. in the mid-40s they are dressed. and they are insane with grief.
they began to consult mediums who have put them in touch with the dead boy and they go to séances, dozens of them, trying to speak to their son. when they come out of this awful time, now they are childless. they decided that what they are going to do in the aftermath is create a school. we will call it leland stanford university. in 1893, the university opens in palo alto. meanwhile, muybridge has become a senator, served a term in the
half. and within six months, he is dead. his wife goes on to run the school for half a decade. and after faltering for a while, it begins to grow into the phenomenon that it is today. it did not hurt that the stanford couple endowed it with $500 million, which is the equivalent of $150 million in cash today. so muybridge goes back on england. he dies in 1904. the first full-time round-the-clock movie theater opens in america. it is centered in pittsburgh. prior to that, muybridge had been the opening act for vaudeville performers.
in the film industry would grow and grow. but it was muybridge and his odd companionship with this tycoon that created and gave us the dna of this beast. this moving picture beast has grown to occupy so much of our time and so much of our lives. muybridge and this man who somehow disdained his companion.
and that is the story of my book. thank you all for coming. [applause] >> would anyone like to comment on this? would like to ask a question about it? just a moment, we will get you a microphone. >> more obvious story could've been talking about edison and muybridge. how did you focus on the original relationship? >> well, the story was edison's contribution to motion pictures. it is actually, well, cold.
he is regarded as the originator in this country. but in france, it's a different matter. there's another family there who is considered the image of film. in the originators of it. in 1895 they built a film camera but in america edison has a highlighted role of the author. i was interested in what happened before. because that was the story was
told. muybridge is actually someone who is well-known if you're interested in art history. but what i just described, is not one that is so much heard of. most people who talk about him, there are quite a lot of them, they say well, by the way this and that. an act of passion and whatever. >> is anybody else? would you like to ask a question? >> [inaudible question] yes, it ended badly.
she had a son with muybridge. muybridge was probably correct in thinking that the son was not his son. it was the son of harry larkins. when muybridge killed his wife's lover, his wife, as you could imagine, was repelled and grieving and crazy with fear and loathing. she sued him for her voice. she sued him for child support and alimony. she was granted. then in short order, within a
year, she contracted influenza and died. at age 24 or 25 years old. the boy, he comes from a foster home puts him in an orphanage because he doesn't want to raise him. he doesn't want to raise his son and the boy said he had nothing to do with him. it's a better subplot. really it is. one more question. >> [inaudible question] >> was he wealthy? >> well, he made decent money during his tours and the
photographs. he supported himself for decades. he had a small estate, 500 or 1000 pounds, which would be enough to live on for five or six years. when he died, he left his cash to a young cousin who needed the money. and he left his photographs and equipment to museum. there's the museum that has always photographs. i leave you with one image. he was an odd man. he liked to do odd things. so we had this nice house at 74 years old and he likes to garden. he decides to design a garden.
he starts digging out the shape of the great lakes in his backyard and planting flowers around him an iv and whatnot. and before he is done, he is in the middle of the great lakes and collapses in this image of america that has made his life. he collapses and dies. [laughter] thank you all for coming. it has been fun. >> if you wish to buy a book, i will sign it. >> is there a nonfiction author book that you'd like to see featured on booktv? send us an e-mail at email@example.com. or tweak us at
twitter.com/booktv. >> the simple fact is that we are all getting older together and we are not the same because her fertility rates have dropped dramatically and we are having an inverted term and that makes her challenges in relation to tiedemann and security even greater. slow-growing countries have had for decades lower fertility rates. japan and europe and russia. china is also starting to feel the impact of the one child policy. we are better off than the rest of the developed world, but her fertility rate has dropped to below breaking even, the lowest drop and we have a tried and true way to deal with this demographic time bomb. demography is if you change course. the path is to allow for a strategic reform of immigration laws so the