at the roosevelt presidential let her a museum. on behalf of the franklin roosevelt presidential library and museum i'd like to welcome all of you here in our audience and those of you watching at home on east and for the 10th annual was about reading festival. franklin was no plan to become a premier research and tuition for this study that the entire roosevelt area. the libraries research on this consistently one of the busiest of other presidential libraries and mysterious outburst reflects a wide variety of research that done here. let me quickly go to format. at the top of each hour i begins with an author talk followed by a 10 minute question-and-answer is and then we're going to wrap it up after that. then we will move to the table in the lobby outside of the new deal store where you can purchase books and have the author sign them. at the top of the hour the process repeats itself. today's attendees can go to the new museum and take a look at
the wonderful merits of its behalf they are with a little admission but that we would give you at the end of the session. please remember to come up to the microphone and review the questions and answers in there. it's my pleasure to introduce, share a meal and talk, author of "double victory: how african american women broke race and gender barriers to help win world war ii." she's a former high school history teacher and state education department of. in addition as a project manager to have a public television station she oversaw educational multimedia resources. she's edited and written for publications including arizona living magazine, independent independent newspapers in major world news. this cheryl mullenbach has contributed entries to the encyclopedia of american women at war and her article in iowa heritage illustrated titled the election of julia addington, an accidental milestone in iowa politics uncovered this array of
an iowa woman who was believed to be the first woman elected to public office in the united states. it's my great pleasure to introduce sheryl. [applause] >> it's a great honor to be part of the 2013 roosevelt reading festival today. for anyone who lives history, it's exciting to spend time in a presidential library and museum. but for a left-handed by reversible, it's especially gratifying to be here hide her. it gives me the opportunity to introduce the stories of some and visuals who like roosevelt showed courage and determination as they fought to overcome fascism and not the ascent to make the world safe for democracy. they did it with perseverance, resolve and stubborn resistance. off it with grace and dignity under unimaginable pressure.
unlike roosevelt, the experience of these african-american women were generally ignored during the war years. largely forgot by the time we realized was running out to collect the fading memories of that generation. many american showed courage and grit during those war years. they worked in fact theresa volunteered to strout draskovic gave blood to the red cross and many joined the armed forces. some of them are your parents or grandparents. despite the eagerness to become involved in the war effort, many women had to overcome gender issues as they try to do their part. but african-american women face double barriers. because of their gender and their race. as african-american women applied for jobs of warplanes, they were reminded time and again they were outcome. if not because of their gender, because of the color of their
skin. when some african-american women try to register with an employment agency in the nation's capital in 1942, they were told the agency had not yet started taking eco-women. when a couple of women responded to an ad for civilian positions at an army camp in 1942, they received letters telling them to report to work. when they backed at the facility, they were told the growth cannot be accepted. the commanding officer at the camp told them it wasn't out when the letters were sent to the recipients were black. although they had passed government passed as machine operators, he explained negroes cannot be used in such a capacity. in 1843, an east coast for plant explained by managers couldn't hire african-american women who had applied for jobs.
the work required by handling of small mechanisms and all the black women had sweaty hands. in 1943, a spokesperson of the baltimore were planned toward black women who applied for work that colored women just don't have the native intelligence necessary to do highly skilled work. all of these companies had advertised their urgent need for workers. many were benefiting from huge government, tracts. confronted with such stark racism, it would have been understandable if these women had given a. thousands of african-american women refuse to let racism and discrimination keep them from serving their country in a time of need. bertha stallworth got a job as an inspector at an arsenal of pennsylvania. our hunter left her position as a domestic in texas and secured
a job in a california plant is built warships. in chicago, sammy curry and hattie alexy and i went to work for the columbia central railroad. they shoveled vendors in pics. betty murphy phillips was a journalist working for the family newspaper, the baltimore afro-american. she became the first black female overseas workforce when she traveled in 1944. after giving that she reported her hospital bed as black soldiers came to her bedside to tell their stories. willa brown holiday commercial pilot license and a master mechanic certificate. can you imagine how unusual that was in the late 30s? she's hot aviation classes for the new deal wpa, the work progress administration with her husband established the coffee school of aeronautics and
chicago. at the school of a trained pilot. the school is open to amendment in every and men who completed training could take the exam to qualify for training its pilots at the u.s. army air force at et. even some of the abstract yours had been trained, many by her. none of these women might discrimination stand in the way when their countries do-not-call for workers. as few or none were available to fill jobs in related industries, opportunities opened up for women in these african-american women as well as many others like them are willing and able to step a p. at the same could be said about service in the armed forces. in 1842 in the women's army ancillary court was established, black women out to be included.
mary macleod successfully led the effort. partly because of her close relationship with eleanor roosevelt, african-american women were looted in the quarter. but the government used a quota system to limit the numbers of black women. it was estimated that 10% of the u.s. population was black at the time for the number of african-american women allowed was limited to 10%. some newspaper reporters referred to them as the 10% errors. as the first class of 400 or deny female officer candidates began to arrive at the training center at fort des moines, iowa in july 1942, the commanding officer issued its first direct it. while the colored girls move over on this side. they set the stage for the 39 african-american women who had come from across the country.
most of whom are college graduates. barry campbell was a podiatrist from new york. cleopatra daniels county school superintendent superintendent from alabama, mildred carter, graduate of the new england conservatory of music. this first class of officer candidates that scummy nations throughout throughout the six-week training. it started the first day. the african-american women were housed in building 54, segregated from the weight blacks as they entered the mess hall for their first meal, it was clear they would eat away from the white? , too. i find with the word color it had been placed over a table in the corner. this prompted the black squares, but not the last to visit and. at first meal they sat at the designated table and ate. when they arrived in the mess
second day, they sat at the table arced colored and turned their plates over, refusing to eat. when they arrive for meals or third day, the sign had been short to four seeds. the black thick and turned their plates over and refuse to be. but then a week, all the signs have disappeared. the black? were let to use the camp swimming pool, but only one hour a week on friday night. the pool was drained and purified after the black used it before whidbey is the next day by the way women. anyone who knew the army way of life i have bought the content of the poll was just the armies of session with order and cleanliness. the african-american new opus more. it was intentional. thousands of african-american
women served in the military during the war. hazel in may so clear from texas for the first ones to join. the o'bryan family of churches sent three daughters into service. marie sublet from illinoi asthe first african-american prt out there to join. she was the granddaughter of a veteran of the civil war and her dad fought in the great war. after basic training is? with digital descendents, they were as typists, librarians, medical technicians, photographers and mechanics. many african-american women saved it what you got, arizona with a folded variety of positions. a photographer and a blueprint technician. womack reached on come a cosmetologist in civilian life was for the officers. she also made to military vehicles, maneuvering trucks and
tanks and repairing engines. oliver bracey with the chemist who had one of the jobs at the base. she worked in the sewage disposal plant where was her duty to prevent odors escaping the plant. consuelo blade, unaccomplished soprano in civilian life as a mail clerk for which ukiah, one of the postal packing mamas if they were lovingly called beta male soldiers. african-american nurses travel to awkwardness of the world to suit their come tree. they usually serve in segregated units. black nurses carried only for black soldiers. they served in africa, in lynn, the china burma india theater in the pacific. in liberia, treated patients at the 25th station hospital.
prudence burns with a surgical nurse in new guinea and the philippines. before she left the philippines, she and her fiancé wanted to get so her fellow nurses, not having any fabric for a wedding dress to soak from a pair of shoes to make the wedding dress for her. daryl foster in agnes clasped were among a group of nurses in the hospital at the all-black 335th station hospital in the china burma india theater. before they could treat patients, nurses help set up the hospital installing a water system and drainage system. in england, african-american nurses cared for pows. some believed they were intentionally assigned to pows a job other nurses didn't want. stir in the world war ii years, generally the site of a military
uniform commanded respect and special treatment, but that wasn't always the case, especially when the uniform was worn ipod women. luis miller had been serving overseas at a black nurse a unit. towards the end of the worse she traveled back to her home in the united states, we've experienced firsthand the insults of racism and her army uniform didn't shield her. during a layover at an airport coffee shop, she was told she could eat the shop, but only in the back of the room. luis said she left the shop without sert because in her words, i know that i could be alleged in a u.s. uniform as well as the man in overalls. we've experience with racism didn't and that the terminal door. just as she settled into a seat for the next leg of our trip, the flight attendant asked her to move to another seat. the way passenger didn't want to sit by her.
volunteerism is a big part of the war effort. hundreds of organizations existed to provide services to military personnel and to their families and communities across the country. some offers several defense classes or conduct his scrap drives. usually the groups were segregated by race. when black women were denied access, they sometimes form their own groups. there is the american women's volunteer service, the awb has. there were chapters all across the country. in 1942, the los angeles group sponsored a boxing match between one to read up a triple titleholder, henry hurricane hank angstrom. they raised over $4000 for their cause. the women's ambulance defense corps of america, the wac dca
was another one. they had 54 chapters across the country. it included motorcycle cauvery units. they would military trained and they knew jujitsu. they are known as the quarry tiles and their motto was that how we can't. the red cross offered opportunities for civilians to volunteer for the war effort. the group organized blood drives and trained nurse aide ayn rand clubs for members of the armed forces could relax and socialize, both in the united states and overseas. african-american women served overseas at the red cross around the globe. alan dixon caused a sensation when she reported for duty along the alcan highway in march 1943. hazel was an assistant director of the red cross club, insisted
because women could not be direct or is. she worked in the red cross club in dawson creek, british columbia. the only woman at the club. acer and 95th engineers, that group of engineers who built the highway across canada and alaska. when she arrived, she was greeted by 1300 black soldiers. they hadn't seen many women in the hearing half the on-the-job and hazel was the first black woman 18 in all that time. grace out i was one of four african-american women who arrived in australia in august 1943. they operated to dr. carver right cross code. clear wheels operated a club in new guinea where she described her typical day is far from glamorous. no time for breakfast, no coffee, no juice, no ice, no back, no mouthwash, plenty of
dancing mosquitoes and faithfully plenty of teodor it brought from home. katie cox was the only one in 10,000 men at or obey in new guinea, where she operated a red cross establishment called club paradise. she was known as having a knack for locating scarce supplies like ice cream and jan, cheese, chess sets, paper cut you circus tents. geneva holmes ran a red cross club in england for black soldiers who had participated in d-day. after the liberation of france, she set off for paris to set up a red cross club there. differently was a red cross worker stationed at a club in india in 1945. calcutta was the place for relaxation for black and white soldiers. the army had built a new swimming pool for soldiers and red cross workers to use.
a big grand opening celebration was planned for july 4th fairway personnel and a separate for july 3rd. the black troops and red cross workers decided to boycott july 3rd party. she wrote to the right cross headquarters. july 4th is a daylong honored and did by negroes as well as other americans for a significance to democracy and the principles on which our government was founded. such a day celebration involving americans anywhere in the face of the globe become finance of two whenever a minority group is excluded from participation. african american entertainers and movie stars did their part for the war effort, just as their white counterparts did. but they face unique obstacles. no matter how successful they
were come african-american entertainers were not immune to racism. hazel scott won acclaim as a broadway performer and a hollywood films are. she gained popularity combining training as a classical pianist with her love of jazz. traveling by car to the midwest in 1945, she stopped at a café along the way. when she went to the counter and asked for service, the waitress said you have to eat in the kitchen. i'm sorry, but i don't eat in kitchen's hazel replied. when hazel asked if she take a few matches to take out, she was told she could, but the she couldn't stand at the counter to wait for them. later, someone asked a slow way she did not identify herself to the café workers. surely she would've been served if they'd known who she was. hazel explained, i don't want any special privileges. director tenet and hazel scotts
in america, they just don't play the piano. black women entertain the troops across the united states and around the globe. many were part of uso shows. as with most areas of society in the 1940s, the shows were segregated. black entertainers perform for black audiences. alberta hunter, touring with u.s. shows made a name for herself as the cow who sat to, and it afire. she performed in india in the jungles of burma. in may 1945 in general eisenhower and the allied elite series victories were meaty and defeated germany to discuss postwar europe, he of david albertus uso shows to perform for the officials said it was reported that icon along with all barda and she performed one song after the other. the international sweethearts of version cobbled around the country in the basket earth.
it was difficult for black members to find sleeping accommodations, so it easier to sleep in the bus. another problem they faced was that white van members performed on stage with black men are his, something that was against the law in the jim crow south. so wait members were dark makeup and permit fair to pass for black. towards the end of the war, the speakers performed for troops in europe and refreshingly had no problems with race. lena horne performed at the uso during the war. when she prepared to step on the stage for a show in a southern state, she asked someone why there were no black soldiers in the audience. she was told she was seeing for the next day on a separate show. the next day she prepared to step on the stage to perform, she saw the black soldiers sitting in the back row and
white men in the front seats. now who the are they, lena asks. they are german pows she was told. lena walked down to the back rows and performed facing the black soldiers with their pack to the german pows. this summer will commemorate the 50th anniversary of the march on washington. we generally think of the 1960s as the beginning of the civil rights move meant. however, the changes that came about in any teen 60s may not have happened without the efforts of some determined african-american women in the night porteous. another march on 10 was planned make 241. it was late nighta philip randolph with the help of two win in game khalili lane and pauline meyers. philip randolph called for
african-americans to come to the nation's capital on july 1st to draw attention to discrimination in hiring practices and in the military. the march never took place because president roosevelt signed an executive order ee 02, which banned discrimination in the employment of workers and the industries that government. the march on washington movement was established in to continue to fight for equality for african-americans and it was organized largely by three women. whaley lane and calling myers and a woman named ethyl pain. they developed a slogan for the movement. nonviolent, goodwill, direct action. in other words, they encouraged african-americans to resist discrimination by direct action taken with goodwill in mind in a nonviolent manner.
they planned protest over the united states in 1942 in 1943. the march on washington movement trained people to participate in pickets and parades and not a ways. it taught them how to remain quiet when venus bolted. how to endure physical assaults without striking back. howard university law student polly murray at the fitness and restaurants in washing d.c. there were segments and restaurants in st. louis and chicago. some of the banners that participants in those segments cared as they march in front of the restaurant. our boys, bombs, brothers are fighting for you. why can't we eat here? we die together, why can we eat together? another one, and not feasible it is no prejudice. how do you do fall was one women
who was involved in a protest in st. louis. she carried a sign that said i invested 5 cents in the service. these women laid the foundation for the civil rights movement of the 60s. they and many other african-american women believed there was no better time to demand equality. the world without war to defeat fascism. black men and women were risking their lives in dangerous war-torn countries. some gave their life for a country that denies the basic rates. what better time to demand an end to racism? doubled the trees signify the struggle of african-americans who are are fighting for the river fascism and river discrimination a home during the war years. the term also took on meaning for african-american women who file for the river sexism and racism. over the past 70 years, we were to recognize the heroes of world war ii.
their stories of courage and sacrifice have been told that preserved for future generations. many of the contributions of african-american women who broke her extraordinary barriers in order to serve their country had not been celebrated. i hope in writing about some of those experiences is that workers are raised will be uncovered, remembered and appreciated. fewer and fewer of the greatest generation remained. throughout their life come in many stories of triumph over the challenges african-american women faced were overlooked. many of their accounts of victory over racism white board. it's up to the children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren to recover the stories of the women who survived. it is their responsibility to ensure the sick tories would men are not forgot. it will be a double that to read. [applause]
>> thank you. match. [inaudible] within those men such as the civil rights to read and the labor movement and scholars to concentrate on the labor movement by stepper away writes about the exclusion of women from subarray? and during the soccer world war, did any women experience sexism and from within the movement? or was this a deviation from the pattern of excluding women from the civil rights move meant, which was practiced by not all leaders, some leaders? >> i'm not sure i'm understanding exactly what your question is.
>> okay, let me try to rephrase it. women sometimes were excluded from the civil rights and and from other minority movements that involved both men and women, women have been experienced sexism. was that a case? >> yes, i did find things especially the march of washing in the neck, examples of that, absolutely. >> to remember specifics quick >> sometimes the women i mentioned, lately lain in polly myers-briggs emigrated by some of the men in the group, yes. >> thank you. >> anyone else? [applause]