Skip to main content

tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  October 28, 2013 8:00pm-10:01pm EDT

8:00 pm
a host of this week on "the communicators" we are joined by steven berry the president and ceo of the competitive carriers association. mr. berry welcome. we are also joined by paul barbagallo of limburg bna serves as their managing editor. thanks for coming along to map. mr. berry to start with the competitive carriers association how to describe it to friends? >> guest: i describe it as everyone other than the two largest wireless carriers. there were over 100 wireless carriers in the united states and we represent from sprint to t-mobile down to the smallest carriers in the united states and there may not be the normal household names but in the area
8:01 pm
that they serve they are important to the community and they are community-based and small businesses. so we have 100 carriers some also outside of united states and we also service almost 200 associate members. that's the small businesses that make up this system that support wireless carriers. >> host: why is it important to have the service directly for those types of customers rather than have them go to a verizon or at&t? >> guest: i think you probably said consumers like the right choice and choice has many benefits including price points and the small areas in the the rural aries and united states the regional markets the small carrier may be the only carrier willing to build out that last mile or two miles or 10 miles so that their service to the population in that area. they are very cognizant of their constituent i.e. their customer
8:02 pm
and i think they distinguish themselves with high-value service. >> host: you have a presence in washington d.c.. why is that? >> guest: we represent the competitive carriers before the fcc and the hill and the executive ranch and focus on policies that are really critical to their well-being. >> host: so if you had to define the top three policies of interest to you whether it be for the fcc or congress or whatever what would those be? >> guest: competition is really the heart and soul of many of these issues. i would say interoperability which hopefully we will talk in a little while is very positive but access to the spectrum access to devices access to networks, those are all going to be critical -- critical inputs to allowing a
8:03 pm
competitive carrier to continue to thrive and give customers the kinds of services and unique quality of service that they have become accustomed to. >> host: paul barbagallo can pick it up from here. >> guest: one of the policy issues you mentioned was interoperability. why is that important to your members? >> guest: well it's a huge issue and something we have been trying for four years. interoperability the easiest way to say it is it's the ability for multiple carriers to be able to interface with each other with common devices that are in the same spectrum. the largest carriers for example at&t and verizon have the ability to go to the oem and say i want this device built that operates on my spectrum. the smaller carriers in the past have always enjoyed the benefits
8:04 pm
of interoperability and every slice of spectrum from the beginning in 1984 and 1985 when the first 15 megahertz of spectrum was split and given to incumbents and the new innovators, interoperability was a requirement. it continued to be a requirement in the aws spectrum and the pcs spectrum and i think we got away from sound and not only business but public policy spectrum management concept interoperability in the 700 megahertz but drum auction in 2006. and it's been critical because if you don't have scope and scale -- we are talking about some these carrot -- carriers that have fewer than 1000 customers in these rural areas. you can't get devices than you can provide service. then if you have devices that don't or will not or do not operate on the largest carriers networks than you don't have a national footprint.
8:05 pm
everyone small as they maybe have to provide a national product. wherever you travel or where people in the united states you want to make a call and you'd like to make sure that call goes through. there is no reason technological region -- reason that can't happen but through business decisions of the largest carriers with their dominance in the marketplamarketpla ce they can make decisions that really impairs small carriers from getting access to their networks and obviously they would not want to be on the small carrier's network. and that is what we are looking for, as sound spectrum policy. the spectrum is a taxpayer owned resource and we believe it benefits the economy and benefit society as a whole. if you have access to that resource in a way that benefits the consumer.
8:06 pm
>> guest: recently at&t agreed to voluntarily work towards interoperinteroper ability in the 700 maaco heart -- megahertz spectrum which would allow your members to begin building out their lte device portfolio if you will. tell us about how this will affect your members going forward? is this a good solution at this point? >> guest: i think it's a very positive solution. my quibble with the voluntary decision to go forward a lot of credit goes to chairwoman clyburn. had she not said that there's going to be a solution one way or the other and literally roll sleeves and got into the middle of it, really a display of leadership to find a solution that was business-based solution that relies on a smaller carriers to unleash the spectrum that they -- there were over two billion dollars worth of spectrum that
8:07 pm
are smaller values purchased and they weren't able to unleash that spectrum and provide services with 4g mobile service throughout america. the commissioner clyburn, chairwoman clyburn said we are going to fix that and with a lot of encouragement we did. we found a solution and my hat is off to her. a dilemma that we are really impeding the quality of service for many consumers all over the united states and they think and i hope we learned something from that. while you try to put interoperability back into the game plan of 700 megahertz i hope that interoperability will be sort of the staple of the 600 megahertz auction the incentive auctions they're that coming up. >> host: was the fact that the
8:08 pm
fcc did what it did, was it a stepping stone to possible for the regulation or direct action by the fcc before at&t decided to voluntarily go ahead and do what they did? >> guest: i think chairwoman clyburn's statement that there had to be a solution was really the cattle as the fed okay let's find a solution that works both for at&t and the smaller carriers and a fashion that is economically sustainable while we actually get to the ultimate result which is interoperability. i do not think it would have happened without chairwoman clyburn. >> host: how did the commission treat this in the past, this issue? >> guest: with a lot of neglect. i am not particularly pleased with the way it was addressed and the longer it went on the more difficult it was to solve. had there have been when we filed the original petition in
8:09 pm
the proposed rulemaking when we filed the original petition had the fcc acted than then it would have been far easier to say no we met interoperability when the auction was created and there's a back story to this. when the auction occurred everyone thought it was interoperability. at&t and verizon went to the standards setting body. there's a place called the 3g ppp and sets the standards for technology standards and they went to that audience said we want standards that are unique to our particular -- are they created their own boutique. the fcc was asleep at the switch on it. there was not sound spectrum management. they allowed the private sector in this case the two larger carriers to uniquely classify the spectrum in ways that essentially foreclosed other smaller carriers from getting access to the entire ecosystem
8:10 pm
that supports that 4g lte the next generation technology. >> host: who was the chairperson at the time? >> guest: one started out kevin martin and then chairman genachowski. genachowski i met with him on numerous occasions and i brought our ceos and companies and then we showed them the facts and chairwoman clyburn from the get-go said this is not what we expected. we need to fix this so i'm absolutely delighted that she is good onward. >> guest: are you confident that this development between at&t and other industry players this agreement of sorts could become the norm for interoperability in other spectrum? >> guest: i hope like i said we have learned something from this and i hope interoperability will be the trademark of blocks of spectrum made available as we
8:11 pm
go forward. the 600 megahertz is critical to every carrier out there. population values and characteristics that goes long distances and rural areas and urban areas. you need it to get into the basements and the hard to reach areas. i hope that we have made progress there. i would say i know many people at the fcc realized how difficult it was to put humpty dumpty back together so hopefully this time we will have interoperability from the get-go. >> guest: you mentioned the competition issues surrounding policy and the fcc is in the throes of finalizing rules for first-ever incentive auctioned spectrum which involves broadcasters selling spectrum -- spectrum to the fcc and in turn selling it to wireless carriers. should the fcc restrict the
8:12 pm
participation of the largest carriers in the auctioned? >> guest: i think the fcc -- congress got it right when they authorize the fcc to create a competitive auction and now the fcc have to take that mandate and create a competitive auction. i believe that every carrier should be able to get into this auction large carriers and small carriers. at&t sprint all of them and we should be able to bid on that spec term auction with geographic size licenses so that the smallest carriers are not forced out of the auction because they can't afford huge blocks of spectrum. with that, we believe that every carrier should be able to bid. now right here at this table just a few weeks ago the commissioner said she believed one or -- no one or two characters should
8:13 pm
be able to walk away with the entire spectrum auction. i totally agree. i believe the fcc has the authority and has hopefully the willpower to ensure that not one or two carriers can walk away with the entire pie. the fact of the matter is that term is the lifeblood for the wireless carrier. if you are a small carrier in rural america and you don't spectrum to deploy a robust 4g lte technology then you are at an economic disadvantage and you won't be able to compete. one of the things that people have not focused on is that same act the middle class tax relief act of 2012 actually insured and there that the competition and preserving and promoting competition was one of the requirements of the fcc. so i hope they take it to heart and chairwoman clyburn and the new chairperson coming in
8:14 pm
district, wheeler -- they have a real challenge to create a framework for a competitive policy moving forward. >> host: use of the word hope twice when referencing this. are you skeptical and what makes you think that will happen the way you would like to see it happen? >> guest: well you know we just went through four years of pretty aggressive efforts to ensure that we return the 700 megahertz to interoperability and we are going to work in scituate sleep to make sure -- and i believe the framework we are talking about is critical if you are going to have multiple choices in the marketplace for the consumer. you know it's a tough road to hoe. making sure that we have access to spec them and making sure there is a fair responsible way to get access to the networks that is ip transition, i think
8:15 pm
commissioner sheep high in his confirmation hearing was quoted as saying there is no reason why the basic underlying concepts of connectivity should be changed just because of technology. and so we agree with that and the reason why i say hope is that there is at least two companies out there that have taken positions that are fairly disparate to the position we have taken on all of those issues. and you know we strive in a position that none of us really want over burdensome regulations but if you are going to enjoy the benefits of a competitive market then you have to at least have the referee on the field blowing the whistle when there is not a fair assessment of the
8:16 pm
public policy that ensures a competitive marketplace. >> host: talking about chairman clyburn. you think she will show a strong hand in this case as well? >> guest: i think she is very pro-consumer person at heart and before she was chairwoman and during and i'm sure after, she is going to continue to have the same convictions and i think the new chairman coming and tom wheeler is so inclined also. i was lucky enough to have the opportunity to work for him for six years when i ran the legislative shop for him in the trade association. i think he will be very proactive and i think on the policy side on the competition side, he is for competition in
8:17 pm
the marketplace. >> host: you're watching the communicators in our guest is steven berry. he serves as president and ceo in joining us for the discussion paul barbagallo. mr. barbagallo? >> guest: you mention competition. for the past decade we have seen the wireless industry and ago consolidation. we have seen smaller characters partner with other smaller characters -- carriers. we have seen secondary market spectrum transactions. do you see this trend of industry consolidation continuing? >> guest: that is a tough question. yes and no and the yes is you know one of the reasons most of the consolidation and one of the reasons it's occurring is the lack of spectrum availability. i mean it's been almost since 2006 since we have had the
8:18 pm
spectrum come to the marketplace. it will be a decade essentially before we have the last low band spectrum coming in. i think that puts a lot of asher on especially the leaders in the market to ensure they need to top off their tank. when they do that they seem to pick on some of the larger tier 2 carriers. if you look at the marketplace we have lost half a dozen dozen tier 2 carriers in the marketplace that have been value priced providers and have been innovators in the market. i mean the first 4g lte network was rolled out by metro dcs. the first all you can be packages were sprint. the innovative all you can talk on the weekends or flat prices were all innovative and it does disturb me that you know we have lost four or five tier 2
8:19 pm
carriers in the last 12 months. if you look back to the age or 10 years ago you had a very healthy tier two market and it wasn't this huge disparity between the size of the largest two carriers and the other carriers. for the smaller carriers that meant you had choices to rome with. you have partners that you could buy handsets with. you had access to the critical inputs needed to run a wireless business. and so yes, it concerns me greatly and you know we have to think about how far do you want this to go? if you look at the two wireless carriers controlling 70% of the market. the two largest automobile makers, they control 35%. the two largest banks control 20%.
8:20 pm
a huge difference in the market share and what will happen is in those areas that are the least profitable and in many instances that means it's the rural and regional markets there won't be a lot of incentive to build out that network and provide that service to the customers in rural america. we did a study a year or so ago that showed that in rural america if you were to build out high-speed broadband it would create 14 states that had less than 90% penetration over 100,000 jobs alone. the interesting thing was it to show that you would increase medium income -- median income in the state by 5%. 4.5 to 5% are only so what we are talking about a second, growth and we are talking about jobs and i would say that most of their carriers even the largest two of our carriers are
8:21 pm
small businesses. >> host: how are those tier 3 carriers changing their business plans to remain competitive? >> guest: well that's a good question and quite frankly we have to get to the 4g lte network because it's more efficient and almost five times more efficient. we have to get the spectrum. we have to get the 600 megahertz spectrum because the spectrum itself makes you more efficient. why? building out the same coverage in an area with 600 megahertz spectrum is almost one fourth as expensive as building out the same area at 1900 so this spectrum itself makes you a little more efficient. the technology, the 4g lte long-term evolution technology makes you more efficient so you have to get the 4g and you have to get there when the larger carriers are there because when everyone goes to voiceover
8:22 pm
voiceover then its digits. it's all data. it may be voice. if you're not there then you will not get in on it and that's a huge nut to crack because we haven't had interoperability until now and we hope that we will continue to press these procompetitive framework issues all the way through to completion. >> host: 10 smaller carriers survive without access to the household name devices the iphones in the samsung galaxy's >> guest: they can but with great sacrifice in the marketplace. we have seen it here in the 700 megahertz. the u.s. cellular and almost herculean efforts to operate on
8:23 pm
and 12. no one else has that ban at the time. it was a huge risk to roll out 4g knowing the device you are rolling out will not connect to any other large carrier. so that's a good example of what it takes to stay competitive. we have talked to apple on numerous occasions and said why is it that it took four years for apple to make its device available to other carriers. theretheir there are a lot of sl carriers that would love to have apple because it keeps them competitive in the market and the same thing with the galaxy and samsung products. you need at high-end android an apple product because we just do base survey and made it available on our show here and
8:24 pm
we just finished it two weeks ago. it showed that consumers are very fixated on the device. the majority of the consumers will look at the device as much as they look to the carrier that they would choose. the other thing we found out which was i think -- i thought was revealing and that is in rural area and even in areas where the relative income is low the consumer is willing to pay for the high and smartphone and it's interesting because in many of those households that handheld device is their access to the internet. >> host: is the price competitive compared to what verizon or at&t could offer for a small phone? >> guest: they can offer that it's a huge cost. the cost to acquisition for consumer and small markets could
8:25 pm
be much higher because of the handset differential in the subsidy. you have to get access to devices that are economically competitive and we are working on that. one of the things we do at cca in addition to being the advocacy voice we are also looking at is the solutions. one of the business solutions that we can help our characters -- carriers address these issues we created a handset buying consortium with the smallest of the small carriers that could not get gsm devices and pool their resources together in order devices in larger numbers so they could get that her prices. we would like to do that on the high-end apple phones. that's not an apple lexicon. they have their own unique way of selling the device but the bottom line is we are trying to find ways that we can make sure
8:26 pm
our carriers can compete. the other thing we kicked off probably one of its kind was a hub and we are getting our carriers together. we have sprint and t-mobile interested in helping us so we can connect to the smaller carriers through a data roaming hub i.e. data access so they can get fair and economic a sustainable prices for roaming and connectivity. that's the other big issue coming down the road which is ip and ip transition. >> host: we have time for one more question. >> guest: you mentioned working on business solutions. is there a need for government intervention in the device manufacturing? >> guest: i think it would be very healthy discussion if the fcc were to say why is this to knowledge he denial happening in the smaller markets and face it,
8:27 pm
it's the technology denial. like i said some of those low income minority households are using their smartphones and has access to the internet and it may be the only thing that they can afford. they may not be able to afford the computer and the fiber to the home. handsets and high-end handsets that operate on a 4g lte system which is much faster is a critical element to job creation and economic prosperity in the smaller markets and yes i think the fcc should take a look at why is it that we have a couple of oem's a couple of manufactures that dominate the handset market and quite frankly they tell in many instances they tell at&t and verizon what they will and will not do. it's a new issue that i think
8:28 pm
the fcc does have some authority to say let's take a look at that and it will be good thing for going. >> host: our guest has been steven berry with competitive carriers association to present ceo. mr. berry thank you and paul barbagallo from bloomberg bna thank you as well and thank you for watching "the communicators."
8:29 pm
8:30 pm
republican from wisconsin and in the senate we have washington democrat patty murray. the issues are going to be looking at relating to whether we can come up with some big plan hopefully you know the ideal is maybe a 10 year plan if we are going to a particularly ambitious looking for the replacement of the sequester to the blueprint for tax reform. and how we deal with raising taxes or not. how we drive down the deficit and there are all sorts of questions. house and senate democrats and republicans have very different visions for how we should be moving forward with their spending and budgeting and it's going to be interesting to watch and see where agreements are
8:31 pm
made and where they're not. >> host: on the hill what are people saying they're? do they have high hopes for the budget conference? >> guest: i think that everyone is being cautiously optimistic. i think the prospects for what we call a grand bargain may be somewhat elusive. the bottom line is it's going to be incredibly difficult to reconcile these differences. democrats want -- democrats want to raise taxes on the wealthy as a means of reducing the deficit and republicans have said that they do not want to put new or higher taxes on people. you know we have i believe seven house members and four are republicans and three democrats in the house going into these negotiations. we have the entire senate budget committee. each side gets one vote. they have to come to an agreement by december 13 so we
8:32 pm
are dealing with a narrow window here. >> host: another conference committee also wednesday, that one on the farm bill. what are the issues they're? >> guest: the issues they're? the senate passed a full farm bill reauthorization of the nation's farm programs for five years earlier this year. the most contentious issues would deal with -- it would cut the supplemental nutritional assistance program formerly known as food stamps by $4 billion. the house had more difficulty passing its farm bill. they had originally proposed cutting the food stamp program by about $20 billion which still wasn't enough for the more conservative house republicans. their first attempt to pass a full farm bill reauthorization with a 20 billion-dollar cut actually failed surprisingly on the house floor. what they will have to do in the
8:33 pm
house is to bring it back up into two sections of the house. one section dealing with only farm in agriculture programs and the other program dealing just with the nutrition title where we saw a 40 billion-dollar cut to the food stamp program. the house and the senate are coming together with an even larger acts between funding for that program so that's going to be something for them to reconcile. that's going to be the big focal point. >> host: hearings this week on the problems with healthcare.gov. which companies are involved and what do you think we will see coming out of those? >> guest: i think what we are all going to be looking for this week is kathleen sebelius' testimony before the energy and commerce committee. she is secretary of health and human services. she will be testifying relating to the rollout of the enrollment web site which has been having a lot of problems in terms of its functioning and it terms of
8:34 pm
getting people enrolled in the insurance exchanges as part of the individual mandate that we have heard so much about. it is likely to be a partisan panel. republicans who don't like the president's health law are absolutely using this as fodder for their own arguments against the law and as an example of how the implementation has gone badly as they predicted. democrats are the ones to watch because they support the health care law and don't want it dismantled or repealed and are in a tough spot because they have to acknowledge that the web site is not working and needs to be fixed and people should be held accountable so they probably want to be walking that fine line between asking the tough important questions but not throwing the administration under the proverbial bus. >> host: anna with "cq roll call" thanks so much. yeskel thank you for having me.
8:35 pm
>> when my grandfather visited independence which is 26 miles from where he lived at the time and grandview in 1910 he often stayed across across the street ethanol and house which is where his aunt and his two cousins lived. one afternoon he was over there with his cousins with the family and his aunt brought in a cake plate that my great-grandmother madge gates wallace had given her a cake and mrs. nolan had claimed the cake plate and was asking if anybody would take it back over. my grandfather moved with what my mother once described as approaching the speed of light and grabbed the cake plate and ran over there and rang the bell on the front door in the hope of course that my grandmother would answer the door and she did. she invited him in and that's the beginning of their formal courtship in 1910.
8:36 pm
secretary of state john kerry said that government shutdown dysfunction watching jen has hurt america's standing in the world paid his remarks came during the center for american progress tenth anniversary conference. it's 20 minutes. [inaudible conversations] >> the ladies and gentlemen please welcome the center for american progress president neera tanden. [applause] >> thank you very much. we have had a great afternoon. it is my great honor to introduce secretary kerry who i have to say just came from the plane literally just drove over from the plane because he has been in europe. obviously handling the countries
8:37 pm
greatest national security challenges. he has done an amazing and the whirlwind nine months he has been in office so we are thrilled to have him. he is rushing off after here to go to a meeting at the white house so we are really thrilled he was able to be here with us. he has been working at the center for american progress from a hole set of issues. we are thrilled to have him as my great honor to him -- welcome secretary kerry. [applause] >> thank you. neera thank you very much. it's wonderful for me to be here. neera and i come from the same part of the country. we share many the same values but none more important than our devotion to the american league champion boston red sox. yea math.
8:38 pm
no booing allowed. [laughter] anyway in her role obviously as caps john farrell the manager of the team guys. he got them there. she obviously has been extraordinary in her leadership at cap and this institution i think everybody knows has been strong and steady ever since she took that over. and frankly before neera and john podesta our fearless leader here opened cap's doors a decade ago which what is being celebrated here today everybody here knows that they did an extraordinary job in helping to steer president clinton's administration during a time of unprecedented prosperity at home and also importantly from my point of view today on a day-to-day basis, a period in which america enjoyed and learned huge respect around the
8:39 pm
world. president clinton understood very clearly the complex and changing world. our friends and our foes alike would be more impressed as he said that the power of our example than by the example of our power. and the person who president clinton said best exemplifies that particular principle in these times is president obama. i would say to you over the last five years that the power of our example has been strong, much stronger than some people may perceive in a world of 24/7 cacophony. but the fact is that whether in afghanistan where we are edging out a drawdown in a black -- bilateral security agreement or a whack where we did draw down and leave or the far east where we have eight repositioning and
8:40 pm
rebalancing or in the s.t.a.r.t. treaty or in our efforts the middle east today, our efforts to lead on syria and many other things. the president engagement i believe has underscored many times over how america plays an absolutely indispensable role in promoting peace, security and shared prosperity around the world. and i will tell you, i thought it had a pretty good sense of those things as the chairman of the foreign relations committee and a 28 year veteran of that committee but i will tell you that it has become far more clear to me in these many meetings and in these many journeys how absolutely true it is that we are indispensable and that if we are going to move in the directions we want to whether it's climate change that you were just talking about or a host of other challenges, we are going to do it with their
8:41 pm
leadership, with the highest standards. it is my privilege to serve as the president secretary of state every day i get to witness how much good, how much engagements we offer, how much our diplomats do around the world. and i remember an observation that my dad made who was a foreign service officer for it period of time, that he shared with me about diplomacy. he said good diplomacy comes from the ability to be able to see the world through someone else's eyes. through the eyes of the people in another country. but today it's become much clearer to me more than ever before, that it isn't just about how people in another part of the world see their own challenges. we also have to be far more conscious about how our leadership looks through a couple -- other people's eyes. now is neera mentioned a moment
8:42 pm
ago ,-com,-com ma i just literally landed. i just came back from the marathon session with my minister netanyahu with the london 11 syrian support group was sawed off eisele in saudi arabia and others in the past eight months over more than 100 days abroad in every corner of the world, i have seen how our allies and partners and those who wish to challenge this will do less harm. they are all sizing us up every day. they are taking our measure. and what we do a shinkman matters deeply to them. that is why a self-inflicted wound like a shutdown that we have just endured can never happen again. [applause] as president -- as president obama said the shutdown encouraged our enemies, emboldened our competitors and it depressed our friends who
8:43 pm
look to us for steady leadership i will tell you apart from the jokes that some of the summits i went to about whether because we weren't being paid, one country or another could buy our meals, there were real consequences to our not being there. and now that this recent moment of politics has passed and since i'm no longer in elected office myself i wanted just to come here this afternoon as you celebrated 10,000 -- anniversary and contemplate the progressive challenges ahead i wanted to reflect on the damage that events like the one we have just been through can do to the esteem in which the united states is held in the world, a key component of our national power. let me underscore that none of what occurred is irreparable or at your reversible and the strength of our principles and the strength of our people are still the envy of the world.
8:44 pm
but being a responsible democracy requires that we don't walk ourselves to the brink every opportunity we get -- that we don't play games with their credit rating or of credibility. during the shutdown i was attending the apec summit in indonesia that ozzie on summit in brunei and the will of entrepreneurship summit in malaysia. i spoke with our allies throughout asia throughout the asia-pacific region and that is a region that matters deeply to us. it matters to our economy that matters to our security and our economy and security are closely intertwined in this complex world we are living in today. the leaders in that region agreed the strength of our partnership is much greater than a moment in politics thank heavens but those politics also, i'm telling you, clearly weighed
8:45 pm
heavily on their minds. and it has entered into the calculation of leaders. as we negotiate with iran, as we negotiate with the middle east peace process in israel, we be counted on? will the congress come through? can the president make an agreement which will be held? believe me, the shutdown and the dysfunction in the simplistic dialogue became with it didn't impress anyone about the power of america's example. he didn't need to talk to an asian foreign minister in order to get a sense of that. just go on line and read any of the number of dailies of our allies papers. london's daily telegraph said quote the u.s. is recklessly throwing away its future. a major daily in seoul urged america to quote stop holding their citizens and the world economy hostage. the biggest business daily in
8:46 pm
germany purported quote the damage done is great and it has shaken america's reputation. notice how none of these assessments lamed one political party or another. they took no interest whatsoever in opinion polling hypothetical aleph world consequences who won the news cycle who would win the senate. none of it. they simply wanted to know will america be a credible partner tomorrow? i personally have every confidence that we can and that we are. but there's a link to need to see us steer a steady course in order to rebuild their confidence. in the days to come, if we let domestic differences overwhelmed diplomacy those differences will undermine our shared values and most importantly our shared interests. the question is no longer
8:47 pm
whether our politics stops at the water's edge but whether our politics stops us from providing the leadership that the world needs. the question is whether america will lead the 6 trillion-dollar global energy economy which is the solution to what the panel was talking about and does al gore i'm confident we'll will describe to you. energy policy is the solution to global climate change, a 6 million-dollar market. the market that made america rich in the 1990s was at 1 trillion-dollar market with 1 billion users. energy market is a 6 trillion-dollar market with about 5 billion users and is going to rise to 9 billion users over the next 20 or 30 years. so you want i know that if we make the right choices we can get there. the question is whether america is going to continue to be a global model for entrepreneurship and a the magnet for the world's brightest minds. you and i know if we take the
8:48 pm
steps to shore up our economic strength and continue to welcome foreign citizens who seek to fulfill their aspirations the united states we can get there. but we have to make that choice. the question is whether we are going to invest in education and r&d at home and ensure that the united states can't compete and win in this highly competitive global marketplace. you and i know that we can do that but we have to make this a priority at a time of enormous pressure to drastically cut government spending. i have to tell you when these questions are avoided altogether, when they are put on the back burner, when we tie one hand behind your backs whether through political stalemates or even shutting down the government, we are just getting in our own way. and we diminish our influence and they frustrate our own aspirations. the simple fact is the shutdown created temporary but real consequences in our ability to
8:49 pm
work with our partners and pursue our interests abroad. the shutdown didn't just shudder the world war ii memorial as unfortunate as that was ,-com,-com ma it stunted our ability to promote the principles and values that are veteran sacrifice for. the shutdown didn't just shudder the statue of liberty. it temporarily closed the doors to refugees and students who are seeking visas to learn here and to contribute to our economy. the shutdown delayed security aid to israel one of our closest allies obviously and a critical democracy in a region that's undergoing tremendous upheaval. why would an common sense ,-com,-com ma why would you want to do that? the shutdown sent hard-working public servants whom including officials whose job it is to enforce the sanctions against iran, sanctions that actually helped create the pressure that has brought us to this moment of cautious possibility in the region.
8:50 pm
the shutdown furloughed for nobel laureates who were working the federal government to put critical research funding on hold for nobel laureates of tomorrow. negotiations were also delayed on the transatlantic trade and investment partnership a trade deal president obama has championed to increase american exports around the world and to create jobs here at home and help europe, helped the far east began to create the jobs to come out of the economic doldrums. this political moment was far more than just symbolism, far more than just a local flight. it matters deeply to our power and to our example and while this chapter is temporarily over we got another date looming and the experience has to serve as a stern warning to all. it should force us to consider in the weeks and months ahead
8:51 pm
with the world would look like if america is less present and less credible. and make no mistake the greatest danger to america doesn't come from a rising rival. it comes from the damage we are capable of doing by our own dysfunction and the risks that will arise in the world if they see restrained or limited leadership as a result. that doesn't mean by any means that america ought to service the world's policeman. that is not what we are talking about. we remain the indispensable partner to anchor for global security and a catalyst for global prosperity. so as i have said before this is not the time to retreat or retrench. we need to be out there. me too being gauged with the world. why? every billion dollar in goods and services that we export we create 5000 jobs here at home.
8:52 pm
because only help other countries stand on their own 2 feet we create trading partners for our businesses. in fact 11 of our 15 biggest trading partners used to be the recipients of american aid. korea, the republic of korea is now a donor where 15 years ago it was the recipient of aid. know what the nations bring so many countries together in support of global standards, international norms, where we encourage a race to the top, not to the bottom. and looking ahead as we fulfill our moral responsibility to, climate change to improve global health to ensure that women have the same rights as men and to give those -- voice to those that have none, we are the ones who will get people around the world the courage to be able to speak up and the confidence to be able to work together. i have seen it. i know it. there's no arrogance in saying
8:53 pm
that. i know there are some americans who don't care how the world sees us that in an integrated world a genie that no politician can put back into any bottle, we have lost the luxury of looking only inward. today, isolationism is the enemy of economic prosperity and security at the same time. my friends the 21st century like the last one we are going to see competition between different ideals and different systems of governance. and as a model for a whole bunch of nations, i think we have a special responsibility to demonstrate that democracy does deliver for its citizens. when democracy appears dysfunctional, aspiring peoples are all the more likely settle for some other model. extremists and autocrats rushed to fill the vacuum. the bigger their platform around
8:54 pm
the world, the greater the danger to our security here at home. mike -- mark my words. it is connected. i have often said that america is not exceptional because we talk about ourselves as being exceptional and beat our chests and stand up and say we are exceptional. it's not because we say we are. it's because we do exceptional things. and we have always done that. we are the nation that defeated the axis of powers and then invested aliens of dollars in their recovery and we never asked to be paid back. that's exceptional. we are the nation has faced down the soviet union with the force of our ideals and alliances and without resorting to the force of arms. that's exceptional. we are the nation is so the human toll of aids spiraling out of control in africa. most people thinking we would never reign it in. we mustered the will and the resources to lead a global
8:55 pm
response that is now looking at the possibility of an aids free generation. that is exceptional. we have led the effort to reduce child mortality by 60% and afghanistan over the last decade and 3 million more in afghan girls are in school and raise life expectancy by 20 years for the average afghan citizen. my friends there are so many ways in so many examples where we have helped others with no request in return and they are all exceptional. so as we did all these things, of course our leaders confronted deep disagreements, didn't we? even as we did those things but guess what? those leaders shared an even deeper commitment to our responsibilities in the world. they understood that while our differences can be clear they cannot he crippling. the power of our example has never come from the purity of
8:56 pm
any one ideology. it's come from the principled action of all of us together as one nation. and as the aspirations that make america great go global, there are incredible opportunities for america to benefit and also to provide leadership. the work we do over there, the exports we sell, the democracies we support, the high standards that we set all of them can create jobs and opportunity right here at home. we cannot afford to cede the best possibilities of this young century to others who have decided to be more disciplined than we have. the world watches us, but i'm telling you i can feel it. i can hear it. the world will not wait for us. the shutdown is now behind us but the answers to many of the same questions still stare us in the face and await us.
8:57 pm
in the weeks and months to come, we need our conversation to be worthy of the confidence and trust of the american people and recognize it is part and parcel of the power of america's example in the world. in this time of challenge and opportunity we need to commit to reaching out across the aisle and across the world as americans stood before us, so that we can do the exceptional things that america has always done and that americans expect us as their leaders and as the government to do. that is how we meet our responsibilities to the nation. that's how we meet our responsibilities to the world and that's how we meet our responsibilities to the next generation. that is how they make up our power of our example even stronger today and in the years to come. thank you very much. [applause]
8:58 pm
..
8:59 pm
9:00 pm
>> bes truman is served as first lady on her own terms. >> host: goody evening welcomed to this series "first ladies: influence and image" the wife of the 303rd president of united states, bes truman. here to tell us more about here -- about her we have a
9:01 pm
white house historian his book called the imperial season in the cold is a history professor and author of the biography of harry truman. nice to meet you. where we left off last week was the death of franklin roosevelt. april 12, 1945 a call comes into harry truman where was he when he gets the message he is needed? >> he has a drink with his cronies. he thought politics was accomplished by relaxing having a somewhat more cordial atmosphere he received a phone call and he just knew and that he ran to get to his car. >> he was sworn in two years later -- two hours later at the white house. >> and they said to the
9:02 pm
press secretary when she got there but they do roosevelt was going. >> host: nobody expected so quickly. >> the question was when. he looked horrible through the last campaign and spoke to the congress sitting down and was ashen and in his inaugural address from the fourth term had to be given from the white house. he was dead up on the porch the audience was out front it was not a surprise to anyone i am not sure why it was to truman. >> host: at the camera room harry truman joined by his family to deal of the office by chief justice don't. house surprise was the nation? did they know who he retreated was? >> no.
9:03 pm
his state, a vice president, as some acclaim for the truman committee he was a very admired senator with the general public. who is harry truman grex even his own mother was nervous. >> host: what about bes truman? how did she get there so quickly? seven she is with him there. i don't know. but roosevelt he approved him for vice president and thought it was a good idea saw in washington he was well known but not a household word and roosevelt had known him for 13 years he was just a fixture so the idea of his declining and people did not understand that he could not walk. >> that was kept well hidden >> so the roosevelts in the white house 13 years the longest and the president
9:04 pm
has been there how does that happen? >> because of his condition and also mrs. roosevelt's nature as you saw the light to have everything around them all the time. they were tabled people and had tables in his things are in easy reach but just as thousands, pitchers, imagine what determines faced with the squares of the wall with the carcass taken up and the transition was they had a little apartment in town and they took the piano. >> host: did they move immediately? >> determines thought they could stay in their apartment they offered as mrs. roosevelt as much time as she needed. she took about two weeks but by then the germans realized security wise they could not
9:05 pm
stay so they lived in the warehouse so as eleanor roosevelt watched them pack up the last of her belongings she went to blair house to say goodbye issue born to bes watch out for the rats because they had seen one run across the terrace. >> the white house was full of rats. >> so they took a tour in they were appalled. >> she was thrust into the job did she have any guidance? >> her first problem was eleanor roosevelt probably meaning well, sets up a pass when dash share press conference for bes. bes truman went to the secretary of labor and said to i have to do that? is it okay to set my own town? she was assured she could do what she wanted and at the
9:06 pm
last minute she decided that was not what she would do and never did. >> but he death was the old times social secretary who was there with woodrow wilson in stayed all through the roosevelts and was admiral holmes wife. she knew everything to do and where the bodies were buried in and she knew everything. she handle the press conference. >> host: the other thing to establish early is that the germans got their support from one another got their partnership went to%. and escher said they read the closest it family they had seen over the years. talk about what you do about how they are interrelated
9:07 pm
with one another. >> they were together a lot they like to listen to music a and read things and discuss things and enjoy being together. favorite musical so they're like to listen to records. it was the same thing. intimate and personal was how they lived. >> host: we will go back in time to tell you a biography of this woman who served as first lady but first how you can be involved in the program so you know, what makes it special are your comments we will put the phone number of the screen you can dial throughout the program you can also tweet tests
9:08 pm
@firstladies or already have a discussion on the facebook page. think you for your participation. >> one thing you should know that house in independence misery how far away is that? >> 10 miles from kansas city and national site and has been closed to cameras for more then 30 years as a policy but there were willing to open it up to c-span for the series also with the encouragement of truman grandson in throughout the program he will seek to ours given that helps us to understand who his grandparents were we will begin withholding independence. >> rerun the back porch of my grandparents all this is the way we came in. the way family came to the kitchen door.
9:09 pm
we came into the kitchen i always headed back here to the pantry i don't see the tin but there is always one here a light brown one filled with brownies italy's major that was in here before with anywhere in the house. once a major the brownies were in the to the next top had to be the grandfather steady because he did not meet us at the airport when he got older but you had to stop here to say hi to grandpa. that is where i looked. my grandmother in to my mother often read it here with him.
9:10 pm
but my mother and grandmother would start fights and a grandfather would markets places and try to decide whether or not the fight is escalating a piece of the bathroom if it was okay he would read down then check again. this is the formal dining remains are we eight the evening meal every day. breakfast in the kitchen and acid which for lunch but this was all formal dinner meals. my grandmother sat at the end of the table. now we're at the center of the house and the biggest portrait is a the house is
9:11 pm
of my late mother and the only child than only conceive after two miscarriages. my grandmother was 39 so she was very precious and they were a very close to a unit. grandfather's spoiled her my grandmother was a disciplinarian but the three of them were very tight as a family. because she was an only child. this chair where my grandmother did her free after my grandfather passed away this is where she often sat. she loved murder mysteries. she had stacks on either side of the chair in the in stacking and the out a stack she would read it and then put them down to be donated or on the shelves but this is where she spent her time.
9:12 pm
she passed a lot of those to my mother who did the same thing then mom eventually became a mystery writer. >> host: you see the house that the trumans lived in throughout their married life but how did they beat? >> when they were five years old in sunday school. i am not sure if bes remembers it but a true man talks about the beautiful blue eyes and a long golden curls and he fell in love with her that day and he as far as we know he never did look at another woman. >> host: a very long love affair but they had very different backgrounds. tell us where bes came from. >> carries family owned a store in town and manufactured flower queen of
9:13 pm
the pantry flour and they were considered a little more upscale than of the trumans to form other people's land but to some of the way and they formed was the wallaces of bes mother. so there was that difference in that surfaced all during their lives. i will read you this letter written while he was president living in the blair house he is writing to bes 30 years and hope to make you a happy wife and happy mother. did i? i don't know i can only say i tried. no one in the world who could look down on you or your daughter that means much to me but i have never cared for social position or rank for myself but to see
9:14 pm
those dear to me were not made to suffer for my shortcomings. the president still feeling that way and it comes through his letters to her almost as an apology. >> never felt good enough? >> even when he writes this letter her mother is still living with them. that is her mother's house they never have their own home and then her mother lives in blair house or the white house with them a lot of the time since it is thought that was bes truman hesitation for harry truman because her mother did not approve. >> host: not even with president? >> apparently not. [laughter] but he wrote of lovely piece i don't understand mother-in-law jokes because i had such a great one. >> she died in the white house.
9:15 pm
>> sheikh -- he sent a note that mother wallace has died make arrangements for us to return to independence. >> host: we will learn more of how they met. >> when my grandfather visited independence's 26 miles from where he lived at the time in 1910 he stayed across the street at the golan house which is where his two cousins lived. he was over there with his cousin his aunt brought in a cake plate that my grandmother had given her a cake she had cleaned the cake plate asking if anyone would take over my grandfather moved with what my mother once described as the speed of light to grab that cake plate to run over here to ring the bell on the front door in the hope of course, that my grandfather
9:16 pm
would he answer the door and she did. she invited him in in that is the beginning of their formal court ship 1910. they first met in sunday school my grandmother was five my grandfather was six. weber baptist. , has put the first presbyterian church down the street had a very good sunday school so my great-grandmother truman was most interested in so she took groupon over there to talk to the reverend sows and disco was in session as my great-grandmother was talking, my grandfather noted this little girl sitting in sunday school class as a beautiful blue eyes and long golden curls and he fell in love with her right then and there. and never looked at another woman as far as we know. >> host: that is the story from the grandson that is the progeny.
9:17 pm
>> that architecture is great. >> accord ship was lost -- lasted many years. >> host: how long did it take? >> he unofficially proposed 1913 after a started in 1910. she did not write him a letter back but you can tell from his second letter if i bought you a ring would you wear it on your sect -- a left hand? no answer the key according then get close to a formal engagement but then world war i. >> host: what was his duty? >> great danger he carried her pitcher every day. >> to see how he ran the presidency he was a no-nonsense organized man and roosevelt was not.
9:18 pm
things ran this way and he got things in shape. he stayed in the reserve and he enjoyed the company of men. not that he sought out the company of women but he was a mason while he was of president went to race on the defense. then retained an interest in the military and military people that had a profound effect on his life. >> host: we will start with our caller in independence missouri. you live there so how has the form your opinion of them? [applause] >> caller: ferry highly i live just a couple doors down so everywhere we look we see truman i think just as much the american public would like to see as truman back in the white house we really appreciate him here. >> host: day you have a
9:19 pm
question? >> i know bes was so low profile as a first lady but how did the press respond to her after the heels of eleanor being very visible in did harry have concerns for her to be in the public more? >> i will take the first part at first they were clamoring to get more information there were very aggressive calling secretaries asking where she would go but then it is not that bes would not speak she would invite the newspaper with a man because in those -- the lady journalist would cover the first lady she would go to the luncheon but she would insist it was all off the record so they did get to know her a little bit she was not trying to do this out of spite the was a private person. >> host: we will wait for
9:20 pm
the second question until we get further into this story. did he go into private sector or public life? >> he runs a store in kansas city a men's clothing store with his friend eddie jacobson and for ever referred to as the haberdasher then he gets into debt and does eventually paid off. involved as a family farm tries to do all these things to make itself more and he does become interested in public life at that time. >> host: and living as a couple with mrs. wallace and spinach but also her brother's and their wives. >> what happened to mr. wallace? to make he committed suicide when bass was 18 it was a huge scandal a great state of the family, shattered her mother and this explains why
9:21 pm
bes was to keep her family life private and she was to shield her mother and her brother to bring the family history up again. >> it was a terrible thing. nobody ever understood wiper and she left right after the funeral with her children and came back one year later >> host: colorado is up next. >> caller: he were talking about the suicide of bes father it made me think of the reason why her partnership with harry truman is seemed like they have an equal partnership which was surely unusual in that day and time the day think the reason why was because she had realized her parents' marriage was
9:22 pm
lacking i think i had recalled that margaret truman said she went back and forth so that is the reason why they had such a close partnership but something else i dunno if you discuss this but the germans were the first to host the first integrated the inaugural ball in 1949. i was curious talking about women's rights what she thought about feminism because in the early '80s katy center in an article on the feminist movement whether she would have been for that era but also a bes opinion of civil-rights for black people. her husband also often used derogatory terms but he set the course for the modern civil-rights movement in
9:23 pm
1948. >> host: thank you. a lot to work wes. what about her views of feminism? >> she would not have called herself a feminist but she did believe her marriage was a partnership. she did once famously say all weiss job was to sit there and be quiet to make sure her hat was on straight but she would give him the dickens if he did not consult her on any major decision mike nato. >> host: question why did he call bes the boss? it seems like he did what he wanted and he did not --. >> i would not say he did what he wanted it was a partnership. >> that is instead is anything new that goes back for ever and ever.
9:24 pm
this is part of a marriage is all about. the mystery man grew up her father died and she was 18 in a very strong period the suffragettes period started then those different layers. >> one of her best friends was a well-known female journalist and best cheered her on every step of the way she is very supportive of margaret having a career it is just different. >> had she get been nicknamed the boss? >> we think harry started to call that in the mid-30s to is very organized with the senate office and she did not mind it intel he introduced her during the 40 campaign as the boss in margaret as the boss's boss she thought people would think margaret was spoiled.
9:25 pm
>> host: she worked in in his senate office because he paid her salary? >> the same way other people did it. bes did the working and they knew that people would try to stir up problems but it was okay. >> host: there first time in the white house she said you don't need to know why am i am not the president not to have a press conference but we have one of the few pieces of film available of bes truman as first lady and this is pretty famous. one of her first press events the christening of airplanes and army and navy airplane at national airport that is also interesting to see you can see how open it was at that time. that did not go as planned.
9:26 pm
>> it gives me great pleasure to chris in these to hospital airplanes who has been made possible by war bonds from the ladies of the club. resend with them our love eddie sincere desire the comfort derived from them from our fighting men wherever they are. >> at the national airport ambulances with wings one each for the army and navy ready to be christened by mrs. harry truman with her daughter margaret will do the honors but mrs. tremendous in for a surprise by an oversight that has not been properly prepared as she breaks the glass on impact now mrs. truman unaware is not
9:27 pm
prepared. [laughter] refusing to be rattled she joined dan. [laughter] let's see how her military takes over the crisis. [laughter] but to the nav here are intervenes a hammer.
9:28 pm
it even the hammer missives on the first try. [laughter] all's well that ends well despite this stubborn bottle she says of the hospital plans with her blessing. ♪ >> she was not happy about that. >> nobody was trying to set her up spinnaker was just very unfortunate. >> maybe that went with the time. >> but it did encourage her from doing more. >> absolutely. she didn't want people to laugh at her. >> she was no cultural backwater she was the senator's wife she was active in the congressional
9:29 pm
club active in things and when they got to the white house she knew what to do that bears discussion. among the most formal into tatters the white house ever had. >> host: next we have a call from pennsylvania. >> caller: hello. i want to mention i enjoy the series greatly. the best thing on television. a few years ago i read a book by margaret truman about bes it had a lot of the letters are those still put together or compiled in
9:30 pm
a book or what other information and we could read about bess and harry truman? >> was a book called the airbus -- der bes? >> no. this was written by margaret it was like a diary. before that i did not ever see anything in the library about bess truman. >> there is a lot of scholarly work we have the work of margaret and her grandson but we use those letters there in the truman library in independence available for people to do research in the book with harry truman will use those
9:31 pm
letters as a reference but why do we have the letters from bes? >> sheikh burned them into man came upon her he said don't do that think of history. she said i am. mrs. washington, and mrs. harding and mrs. truman were the 31st ladies to burn their letters and what the loss it was big she did not burn the letters from harry but she did not want her words recorded it was a partnership she was a silent partner. >> host: i am enjoying your books how does a gimmick for the presidency? >> he asks her before he pretty much did anything there is some controversy about dropping the atomic bomb and they said he did not consult us about that
9:32 pm
but he is sure they did about everything else he just did not function with as much vigor when she was not near. >> she was an independence i don't know it was such a scary thing into trouble at the thought. >> host: she spent quite a bit of time in independence. >> she was gone a lot of the time. >> host: and the the first lady's has been so much time away from the white house? >> i cannot. she was always there for the december through spring season with five or four offical white house dinners in she presided over those with great and i shoot all good reviews.
9:33 pm
>> host: we had a question how he thought about his life being in the public and i found one source it is the book on first ladies from carl anthony and i want to read to the audience about this to get the reaction. he writes harry was becoming frustrated u.s. perhaps the first president to take an active interest in the history that abigail adams would have made a better president than her husband and mary lincoln was not just unjustly criticized he said i hope somebody will evaluate the true role of the of wife of the president in the many burdens she asked to bear in the contributions she makes he would write her several months before fdr died he said mrs. r. was very timid in my not make any speeches then he said now she talks all the time it did not work.
9:34 pm
bes knew her first lady history. she said i am not elected and i have nothing to say to the public. she chose the obscure and extremely private elizabeth monroe who she identified with that follows the legendary dollied madison. >> do you disagree. >> no. i was looking at that myself the other day because he was strongly hinting he would like her to be a little more involved and she put her foot down. not that she did not want to be in his life for decisions but not so publicly. >> she did what she had to do. the parties and receptions for the military but the extra is she had a column which she would not do that. maybe she was more of a feminist. she would not do what she was told.
9:35 pm
>>, margaret truman wrote more and more she felt the up presidency had dissolve the political partnership that was at the heart of her relationship. >> i like how she explains that when harry was in the senate he a time to come home to talk things out that they could discuss over their old fashions in the evening but when he became president the decisions multiplied rapidly not he did not want to consult her but did not have time on every little thing in she was frustrated after a spurt of she came around. >> host: he had a lot of decisions to make we have a few highlights including the victory in new york day the end of world war ii and the dropping of the atomic bomb and the end of world war ii
9:36 pm
with japan. the cia was established israel was officially recognized integration of the military in the marshall plan some of the big decisions he had before him. >> this is some dispute idled the key had time to talk with her. bes knew of the creation but if he had time to get in touch with her before giving the order? probably not. he is not hall. his meeting with stolid across the world. >> host: here is some of what he wrote to her one time. deere bes you make me terribly homesick. stolen his coming to cbs 11:00 this morning. i like jim straightforward
9:37 pm
and well compromise and he can get it. there will be nothing to worry over and tell the end of that jap war. which we learn about treatment from that? >> a little bit of naivete. [laughter] he was taken into nothing by roosevelt he was en april ended july then drops the bomb in august. but still he says he tries to get the departments in order to read it that people ought to think he will sit down to tell them what he wants done he makes us straightforward attempt for our like him he does not spent two pages going on about politics but also this is one of the shorter letters he takes time to tell her what he discovered
9:38 pm
and fills three in on the important events. >> host: what to answer one question from twitter why does the chairman house is not open to the public? >> they do but has not been open to television cameras for preservation purposes. we can go as a private citizen but we had permission to bring in cameras for the first time and we appreciate their help. early on in the term of the preface this to people on facebook asking about the germans and their attitude toward race relation one of my favorite harry and bess stories i am sorry that is the wrong one. asking whether he integrated data military leader of your rights suggesting is several
9:39 pm
books i read they were very prejudiced. she had an issue early on that involved african-americans in the congressman paul tell us what your scholarship has led you to believe? >> he was upset because the daughters of the american revolution had invited bes to nt but they were offended because they would not let african-american musicians perform in constitution hall he thought bes truman should refuse to attend the tea by an organization who have that policy. bes truman wrote to a public letter saying i certainly don't approve of this racial prejudice i don't believe that should be in the arts but we cannot stop a private organization for making their own policies.
9:40 pm
i have the accepted the invitations libel night back out and clayton powell called her the last lady of the land and that did not sit well with the president. >> it is period did him because mary ann anderson, the senior the same thing had happened constitution hall would not take her the of course, now they take james brown so it was performed at the lincoln memorial. clayton powell even knew that in the issue was to get in the newspapers against the trumans' i am sure the president had some private words. >> paul was not allowed in the white house again. >> host: is that part of the larger of record of race relations? >> but the germans in context of their time and where they grew up to understand many people will talk about how truman used
9:41 pm
derogatory terms in his letters and that is true and that is not okay but that is help people spoke at the time. harry truman did a remarkable job to separate public and private and. he famously said he did not want margaret to marry an african-american but at the same time he desegregates the military even though it is not popular in anti-lynching to help establish israel he does not let his personal opinions affect his policy. >> before that era referring to that japanese as japs they like that term but she did nobody thought anything of it. not at this time the employer may have at the time that. >> host: on facebook, did
9:42 pm
bes have to do with integrating the military? to talk about the influence of roosevelt's wife but what about truman's? >> i don't think she was pushing him but she would not have objected she would have thought it was of right thing to do she was lonely when he was over in world war i and thought all should be treated equally. >> caller: i actually went to visit the museum in independence misery but after mr. truman died was bes there by herself for did margaret moved in with her? also i also worked for who dropped the bomb on hiroshima and he never
9:43 pm
wanted to talk about that much but he did it because he had to. antrim and have the same feeling. >> who wouldn't? to kill hundreds of thousands of people? he had to stop the war it was a military decision any president would have done the same thing because the president can defend losing more american lives. >> and it would nonstop. it would not stop the japanese part. that is how we would answer that. >> there is a great clap harry truman spent a lot of time in his library after he moved out it was speak to groups of schoolchildren that was often one of the questions that kids wanted to know he would forcefully defend his decision to explain it to elementary
9:44 pm
school children. >> nobody blames him. >> host: did bes whole social functions in misery? you talk about the social season in washington but that is significant because it ended during the war. >> no formal entertaining at the white house. >> host: that does not seem to be in their style. >> one of the most interesting things is he identified the president has something different from him and bigger than him that he was representing. nobody better insults' the office. when the social services and one dash social season was revived they were sticklers for just as it had been white tie, black tie, evening clothes and the dinners the chief usher in his memoirs said the white
9:45 pm
house had never been so formal and devoted to diplomatic precedent which determines everything was done exactly as it had been before the roosevelts. >> host: but they only got one social season. >> they did entertain at the mayflower time to time but they had to move out. >> host: almost every president has done renovation but nothing like that but we will tell that story later. one thing that they did to is the addition of the balcony. today referred to as the truman balcony. talk about the concept and how hard it was to get through. >> it was done basically out of spite. he had the west wing prepared to hold a big staff. even though roosevelt doubled the west wing they
9:46 pm
wanted to build the 17th street along addition with a large auditorium for press conferences. it passed through congress then congress rescinded if he was as mad as he could be because the city was defacing the white house so he got in his head to build a porch where there was no upstairs' access and did it on his own out of the household budget he did get it architect that he respected and they built that balcony in it is the truman balcony. >> host: how do they use it? >> all the time like a patio and practically every president after words said i am glad you added that balcony because it was so great. they like to sit on it.
9:47 pm
it is off the oval room that they now call the yellow room upstairs. >> what is the view? >> stunning. jefferson memorial, where washington monument in washington at your feet it is just dead carpet. the film footage of the centennial shows the view from that is just beautiful with queen elizabeth. >> host: what can you tell them about their private life? >> they did not get much time to relax. it is very busy and bes does spend a lot of time traveling back and forth to independence not just being spiteful she feels she has to be the caretaker for the two mothers chairman's mother even they have family
9:48 pm
business. when they are in the white house the do the same things like get home they reid, enjoy an evening cocktail, listen to music and chat with margaret talk about the truman balcony views of the same way back the use the porch in independence to spend time to gather the. >> host: we often talk about the first lady and their image how fair influenced we see this more the american style and culture. >> she did not dress for the oregon fashionably she was not locked. jackie kennedy really sets the tone before her we don't think of them having this wonderful fashion sense but bes was a fashionable lady and her friends say she knew the latest fashions in she
9:49 pm
like to go shopping. >> she looks like a lady here age ought to look. >> host: we will revisit the presidential library to learn more about bes fashion style. >> we're at the truman library going into the collection and storage space where we have artifacts and hats and jewelry related to mrs. truman stein in the white house. bes always had an excellent sense of style even as a young woman her friends noted she wore clothes more stylishly the and her friends did. if this is an hat made by one of her favorite designers in washington d.c.. of brownie brett feather she wore this hat when princess elizabeth and her husband
9:50 pm
prince philip came to united states in 1951. that is one of the nice things here in the library we have a lot of artifacts and photos and documents that you can put it together to tell the story which goes along with the hat that we have over here. three did not originally know very much about it or even to she might have worn it to. , is quite as fast as through the papers we located a letter a handwritten draft she would have given to her secretary to type. i am delighted with my hat exclamation point it is the most attractive when i have seen and i am happy it is mine. i am wearing it when queen juliana was year and had many pleasant things to say about it.
9:51 pm
so when we read that a letter we have photos of that event so we look back to know what hat she wore we found one a good one and then we took the photo to compare it to the hats in the collection and then we have this hat so it is nice to connect the photo to a the document to the artefact to pull this jury together. another interesting part is she was a very private person. this is a dress that demonstrates that fact. she wore in 1952 said dinner where president truman officially announced he would not run for president in 1952. he had the opportunity but chose not to sweat was signalling she would not be living in washington d.c.
9:52 pm
and would get to come home to independence. we have a number of photos of her wearing this dress. we did not have the stress originally she donated it to her church bazaar and someone bought it and realize what it was then turned around to donate it to the library so that signals to people hall she felt about her time in the white house but it was not something that defines her and she could give things away spinet that gender was two days after they moved back into the white house. with the president was a nasty nazi. [laughter] >> haberdasher. >> gorgeous clause. >> he was a trim man and he walked like a madman stand
9:53 pm
and he wore double coverage shoes and looking prestige and find. >> i think natty natty is the excellent way to describe him. >> to the first lady have any women friends? >> absolutely one of her highlights of the early days she invited her entire bridge club to spend a long weekend and this is the type of things that bes was doing for herself and for her friends to have a good time but it played well in the press because her women friends were so excited to be there she showed them the town and took them to musicals and shopping peso and joined the white house. her women friends were very, very dear to her if she kept many french ships throughout their lives.
9:54 pm
>> caller: we had the pleasure to go to independence through the back door just like the family and seeing that presidential library but fed chairman's financial circumstances when you said schubert dip the scented -- as an office and was controversial but she was paid they needed the money and certainly the president was the reason congress has established a pension for the retiring president's. did their financial circumstances might have led them not to do as much entertaining has previous presidents? >> absolutely financial reasons is why he puts bes on the payroll. margaret describes her
9:55 pm
mother as a penny pincher but a good thing she did the finances were often very tight and somewhat ironic for truman's second term no one expected of the democrats to win and a pesky congress approved a bill to double the president's salary so would imagine their dismay it went from 50,000 about one had to thousand which is a huge leap imagine harry truman keeps that not spent they did not have a pension before trimming they were just put out they did not even have security. >> host: another call from philadelphia. >> caller: good evening. the assassination attempt on president truman how did that affect the family and what was his political opinion on the border we can question?
9:56 pm
>> he definitely favored independence for p.r. he made two important speeches favoring the independence of puerto rico these were two killers who came along to a salted and attempting to run into the blair house in this tangled up in the screen door than the shooting started with the secret service man is killed and the germans were both there and on their way to arlington cemetery. getting dressed to go to a dedication of the general in english general who died is requested to be buried in arlington. mr. mann said according to margaret, harry, they're shooting at our policemen he
9:57 pm
said.down. get down. it was pretty messy the assassin who survived was sent to prison and president carter release him from prison after 40 years. >> host: this is the second term. >> and he expressed no regrets. >> the 1948 election did bes truman want him to run again? >> she did not stop him. she does not want to continue to be first lady but it is a partnership she may have persuaded him but she noted in his heart that is what he believed was best for the country. she supported him. >> host: so many people would remember the headline
9:58 pm
said everyone was expecting do we to win so give us the flavor of the issues and so much expectations. >> truman was not popular. the economy was not reconverting as fast as it could have. >> he was liberal. people were tired. >> not liberal enough. he could do very little rights even his party it was not one had to present certain he would even get the nomination. so he campaigns on the recalcitrant congress and campaigns on foreign policy. but that the marshall plan and one of everyone's favorite driven stories comes out the vice-presidential nominee tells him on the train go out there and give them hell harry and the reporter hears
9:59 pm
that and then that is what people yelled at him. give them hell harry. . . >> they stopped pulling before the election took place.
10:00 pm
that's why the numbers were so off. >> did beth campaign with him >> >> yes, they were on the train, exhausted. >> >> we didn't talk about key west, and they saw the white out, and i wonder if they visited key west. how? >> well, he used it to go fishing and swimming, and one of the secret servicemen who used to go with him or exscout had a trick he liked to do, hold you under the water until you were almost dead, but it was mostly men and men things. he liked the company of men, all that stuff, and ms. truman didn't go many times, but she would go. margaret had a public persona. she was kind of easy with the press and things like that. people liked her. >> watching some what's calledded footage withou

59 Views

info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on