tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN July 10, 2014 12:00am-2:01am EDT
thank -- say it are 10 years off base in terms of doing now. obviously they haven't shown me the deal but i would bet you in the deal they have done with china the bank of china has probably reserved the right to revoke lines of credit if russian companies can't access credit or can't access the technology because a the broader western sanctions. ..
why not just put that in place in writing now so that it's clear what the consequences will be for them to continue in the course there on. >> thank you for that. let me say that we have been absolutely clear and not diplomatic conversation and quite specific including at the level of the president and his conversations with president putin about the kinds of additional sanctions we're considering including in the high-technology area. as i said before you came in, we are also working intensively with europe on these kinds of measures because it is not just american companies but so the european companies. remove in the direction of those kinds of sanctions it will be stronger and more effective.
it is very much on the docket and in the conversations with russians and the european union as the kind of thing that we are looking at moving toward. >> two aspects. will we see in terms of other countries in the region. >> on the one and if we deny u.s. companies, only an effective sanction. >> and i understand. is there concern that we act alone and just put this legislation alone without working with him that it would somehow make them less likely to join us in that endeavor? >> as i made clear to the chairman and ranking member, as an administration we are open to working with you on a bipartisan
piece of legislation, but we need to make sure that if we go in this direction that whenever we the ford is and lamentable and does not disadvantage u.s. companies and will be effective. if we -- >> that sells like you're saying we're not -- we don't want to sell the technology, but if other people are we-will make some money on it. >> my point is, if we were to move forward with some kind of work together on bipartisan sanction legislation we would want to make sure that whenever we have in that bill we could implement together and norwood not put ourselves in the position of hurting the american economy without hurting the russian. >> i would just close by saying that my view, and i hope i can convince others, when the u.s. specifically put out in legislation, if we specifically
make clear this is what will happen if you continue to do this then it is no longer just secretary carry on the 26 the june saying you should disarm separates this or else. it is in place. that sort of lead will, in fact, bring us closer to the kind of unity we see from our allies. >> senator. >> thank you, mr. chairman and to the witnesses. one of the events in 2013 that was a precipitate air of the massive street protests was the unwillingness to sign the you association agreements, political and economic agreements. we have not yet gotten into this in the march political association agreement was signed an engine the economic association agreement was signed between the new ukrainian government and the you which suggests some cooperation and
the effect of this election toward greater associations. what is the significance of the signing of those association agreements and the reaction in russia to those signatures after they were parked at at the end of 2013? >> overwhelming support needless to say. in ukraine it was one of the major tenants that made the president of popular an overwhelming canada. europe has offered for visa-free travel for all citizens but also virtually free entry. so it is a real economic, political, and people to people biggest of will require a good amount of hard work to prepare implementation. the russians throughout this
process express some concern that because they have the tariff-free trade with ukraine that there would be an unintended impact on their economic situation. they pushed very hard for consultations on the implementation of the agreement, and the european union and ukraine have agreed to those. i think tomorrow there will be trilateral discussions among the eu, ukraine and russia on how to implement the agreement in a way that has least market disruption across the region and potentially might benefit russia as well so that it might begin to see this. >> about the same time as the chair an agreement was being signed, surely there after nato met and announced that no new nations would be coming anytime soon. in particular what it has the reaction been in the ukraine to this? was that sort of understood
among all parties that this is a time where we move toward further your opinion integration of the economic and political front, however we can to put nato side. is that generally understood by the ukrainians? >> senator, and since the president has made clear that for his administration the question of closer integration between the two is not on the table. so it has not been a demand of the ukrainian side. the alliance respects that. as you know, this has to be a matter of choice for all nations >> i'm going to associate myself with some of the comments made. i think that the virtues of more exploration of energy and technology related sanctions and live for to continuing those discussions, but it is important as we way sanctions and particularly if we have to do sanctions unilaterally if we
consider doing them ahead of europe that does have affects on american companies. we had a hearing on this matter. i hypothesize naively what a potential economic effect financial sanctions could have on u.s. credit card companies, especially the big two that covered about 90% of credit-card transactions and russia. after just blithely hypothesizing i got a call the next day from one of the american companies saying that actually as a result of the sanctions that have been done thus far the russian government is now pursuing the creation of its own credit card infrastructure in putting laws in place that will really punish and hurt the business of the two major american-based credit-card companies. i was wondering if you could talk about that. unilateral sanctions do pose significant risks if not done carefully. >> well, that is absolutely
correct, mr. senator. i would say that some of the retaliatory countermeasures that russia takes to protect itself from sanctions really are just examples of russia imposing sanctions on itself, pulling itself out of the international financial system, isolating itself from the international economy which is the exact opposite of what russia needs to be doing in order to address the fundamental economic difficulties. that said, we are aware that the actions we take could have impact on american business and companies and is something we take quite seriously. think american business and companies understand what is at stake and that it is not business as usual. they understand what we're trying to accomplish in terms of the future. so they understand these are important matters. i think as always go we are prepared to move forward if we need to. again, it should go without
saying, but i think it bears repeating, it will always be more effective politically, practically, and in terms of fairness if we can move for multilaterally which is why i think it's time well spent to try to achieve that. >> let me make sure, do i have my facts right to mecca was just about the size. and instead that the u.s. financial sanctions have led russia to do legal reforms that would essentially make it year impossible for visa and mastercard which now cover 90% of credit-card transactions and russia. the effect of our sanctions has been for russia to move forward with legal measures that will make it virtually impossible to put them to operate in that country. >> well, one of the things that russia has done as a result of this overall situation certainly to includes u.s. unilateral sanctions that we have imposed has been to move forward on
ideas that, frankly, have been circulating for quite some time in terms of a variety of measures that would require credit card companies or other types of financial entities to locate within russia. yes, that would create serious problems for companies like visa and mastercard. >> i was watching the interaction between the senator and secretary on this. in up of the senator was asking a question to all why is it hard to do these things? i don't think the answer is that hard. unilateral sanctions without the human could have some effect on russia, but it also has significant effects on us. if it opens up opportunities for european businesses to take the business, and we at least have to grapple with that cost-benefit equation. the best sanctions are ones we are together. that does not mean we should not do unilateral sanctions, but is not only affected the european
economy but had a significant effect on some fairly important american businesses. we just have to balance that out >> senator. >> thank you, mr. chairman. thank you for holding this very important hearing. two weeks ago i along with some of my colleagues on this committee sent a letter to the president urging him to make energy security the centerpiece of our engagement with the new leaders in the ukraine. this is urgent, and i am concerned that there are two threads that may be more powerful than russian troops when it comes to the challenges facing the new ukrainian government, and they are both related to energy. first, russia has shut off the natural gas biggest to ukraine. that is half of ukraine supply gone. when winter arrives the natural gas demand will spike. this could become a crisis. second, ukraine has begun
eliminating their energy subsidies. energy subsidies provided by the ukrainian government are mess and, amounting to a 8% of the country's entire gdp. this $17 billion loan package approved by the imf to stabilize the ukrainian economy includes requirements the ukraine gradually eliminate the subsidies. as a result, retail natural gas rates in ukraine will rise by 56 percent this year, another 40% next year, and another 20% in 201617. that is a potential new source of instability. ukrainian subsidies make energy markets opaque, and efficient, and susceptible to corrosion. but there are also extremely popular. they keep energy affordable.
now we're talking about a brand new government coming in and ushering in a doubling of energy prices. this is, of course, music to the years of putin. he was nothing more than the ukrainians us the will of their government and looking for alternatives. ukraine needs and apollo project like effort to become more energy-efficient and increase production within their borders in order to get off of russian gas. and like the apollo project the earlier is not an option. chests they're is a narrow window -- there is a narrow window of time. ambassador, are you concerned about the reaction from animal and low income people who in energy bills skyrocket 56% or
after the new government takes control. >> senator, thank you for your commitment. it is also a priority of the ukrainian government and a priority of the assistance efforts we have going. as you know, i think, these were part of the imf requirement for ukraine to get healthy to which is why when we came to the congress to ask you for the billion dollars of the loan guarantee wheat earmarked in coordination with the ukrainian government the vast majority of the tub and select the most vulnerable. kinds of adjustments, particularly in a household energy prices. we have already made a huge down payment. when you get a congressional ratification of the remaining 59 million to me you will see a large chunk for the whole complex of energy issues from
energy efficiency to restructuring the sector to diversification. you yourself said in previous hearings accurately that ukraine place a third of its energy. we are also working aggressively with european allies and partners on reverse flow. good success. gas into ukraine from bulgaria. we will continue those efforts. >> thirty-five ukrainian mare's sent a letter urgently requesting assistance and increasing the energy efficiency of their buildings and district heating systems. we're talking about inefficient soviet-era boilers, buildings without thermostats, and slated to steam pipes, the lowest of all low hanging fruit all right there. are you finding in appetite within in the ukraine?
and have additional u.s. assistance to help with this project? ultimately we need to have some kind of bills that the government is establishing. perhaps you could give us some sense of what you believe is a reasonable before ukraine to reach in terms of increased energy efficiency perhaps of the next two years of the next five years. >> senator, we will get to the energy department assessment of how quickly they can move, but they are making this a priority. they have to change the tax base , the incentive structure for ukrainian industries in particular to reform. interestingly in the conversations we have had with the ukrainian government about the challenges of revitalizing and recovering if they can bring peace and security back, one of
the focuses a shot of to what requests that we've made. and we the enterprise fund for microprocessors in the east. >> the thing that's an excellent request. increased attention to this area and obviously with a 56% increase natural gas prices somewhat khnum buildings and boilers and that's a big appetite to make a big change. help them to move very quickly.
again, that is of will keep forbid sleepless of that. when again i urge you to have a a program of that nature and the several bills. we're going to be helping them with new technologies we should have a telescope time friend that we create we should set benchmarks and in. that is the real threat that country will feel a lot better to cope with this thread that is almost primarily mean energy related. next time we have a hearing him africa have the concrete goals.
the message being sent to my that will counter the propaganda of will, as to the suffering that is unnecessarily being inflicted by the ukrainian government on its own people. i think we need to counter messes that is concrete. thank you, mr. chairman. >> thank you. i appreciate your ideas. think we will take them and try to move them forward here in committee. i appreciate the thoughtful remarks. as we close this panel allowed to go to our distinguished panel before the 12:00 vote, and that next. and the stand that there are no ever simple choices in these matters. but time is on his side. i say that because he certainly believes he can wait out the united states and maintain
enough instability in the ukraine to damage its economy, frustrated public and the context of energy, and to undermine the government's political cohesion. in short, putin does not have to win today. the only means to generate a frozen conflict that he can exploit when the world has moved on. and that has been standard operating procedure for years. russia has used it in georgia. they used it in moldova. where russian troops continued occupied territory and back separatists. by giving the world the appearance of responsibility and reasonable of the by asking the parliament to withdraw law authorizing the use of military force in the ukraine. putin successfully gave those who wish to avoid the sanctions ammunition to argue against
action at the time. so we have seen this before. of the has been successful. as a still commands the of said to others who come to visit with us, the european union into our own government, if real seen this movie with for we know how it plays out. we should be able love to have the movie. self. and that is really my concern. kaduna csn this point and time changing the course of events away that this will play out. no one even talks about army anymore. >> sixty-four your testimony. we look forward to continuing to an agency. call up our next panel.
two very distinguished former national security as pfizer's. stephen hadley of former national security advisor to president bush counselor and trustee, the sector for strategic and international studies, the author of cal the spokes. we are incredibly pleased to welcome both of these children back to the committee. we look forward to your testimony. i would the -- pocket and my friends in the press. ermines earful statement will be included in the record.
i like to take advantage of your expertise. so with that call we will start with you and then go to mr. hanley. and just push the button. >> thank you. since i know your time is limited and don't think of going to read my statement in another it's actually fairly short. i'm merely summarize some of three key points. $9 in fact the what putin tried to do. once ago in regards to crimea is not the same thing as he is trying to do in regards to you crying. at the time it generated enormous enthusiasm in russia
and in fact a session of the russian parliament. but relied a jamboree on the subject of chauvinism, rushes world role, the unity of all russian speakers and the role of russia as our global civilization. since then i think realism has begun to enter it more directly, namely that ukraine would not fall quickly to the ukraine is not resigned to being simply a member of our renamed version of the soviet union and that there is a rising well in the ukraine to deal with the legacies of wasted 20 years of ukrainian independence and major reforms are necessary but also acts of well-designed to show the granny and determination to be an independent nation. this is the context.
think putin has to realize by now that he asked to think alternative choices. al learned more fully in my statement, but the first as an accommodation with the west. tried to outline in my statement what might be the principal features of such big and one which does not meet the max will check to us of those in the last but certainly does love me the maximum objectives of russia would like to see the context of the eurasian union and hidden in a sense is strikes me as a possible of remark for an accommodation. he has the option of continuing more directly to destabilize the ukraine. he had done this recent. he could attend to it on a larger scale, but if he does to
my rather expect it from what one of us specifically of the chancellor that acts of and more over and drastic type of a larger scale would precipitate the kinds of sanctions that have been planned and which the united states and like to see implemented center revelator. there are there. initial sanctions have since ominous signals. the third alternative is a complete shutdown militarily on the model perhaps of crimea but overlooking the reality that all of ukraine is far more complicated than a relatively small peninsula. the object of his sudden and unexpected attack. is quite clear that if there
were to be a larger russian intervention ukrainians would resist on a protracted bases and especially the risk of urban warfare for taking ukraine over would entail the necessity of occupying large cities. it is something the and no russian leader can contemplate. could become a protracted, bloody, costly, and the result would be a disaster. so the sources are not easy, but there are there, and reflect the fact that i think it is becoming increasingly clear to him that he should not confuse the brief triumph in which he exulted a few months ago in gremmie in with the large drolen of ukraine and the long-range relationship are rushing to the global community.
russia's international position has deteriorated. it is certainly no longer a serious partner with the united states. there are more and more questions bulrushes role of the world and europe and in so far as china is concerned it is increasingly evident that if there is any relationship between russia and china that has any degree of depth to it it is an asymmetrical relationship in which turner by far is the senior partner. insisting on terms for ruble as was the case in recent energy agreement. and russia is a junior partner geographically, culturally and otherwise vulnerable to chinese pressure. acting to a -- think you, mr. mr. chair. >> in queue.
>> in queue for the opportunity to be with you this morning. i have a statement which i have submitted the talks about what putin is up to, how far he with like to press his current actions, what should be our objectives and strategy for dealing with the. the bottom line i try to make is, we have seen in the past that putin objectives escalate, as he succeeds and he is not met with resistance or counterpressure. therefore think it is important that we be putting together the elements of a strategy that will put in that counterpressure. from what i might do is try and answer some of the questions they raise in the first session and give you my answers for what it's worth. why the of nasturtium call -- >> take the microphone a pretty closer to you.
>> why is the a administration reluctant on sanctions? at think it is partly a want to have unity and with europeans because it did not want to let putin drive a wedge between the united states and europe. second, i think it is an effective this point. if you look at foreign direct investment, 75 percent of foreign direct investment in russia comes from the e you. the united states only has about 10 billion per year. reactant in terms of for a bus with. if you look at trading relations , we are that of export partner, the fifth import partner. we don't have the economic clout. if you really want to be effective, you want to have the europeans along. that is where the investment and trade relations are. think there are reluctant because sometimes sanctions are more effective in the
anticipation and the execution. i think that explains the reluctance. i think as i say in a statement, we have telegraphing this so often without delivering it, i think it raises the question of credibility and therefore i think in response to your point, of the europeans don't act on july 16th that they will be forced to go ahead unilaterally, but i would hope of we would do it in the following way to having worked with the chancellor was an understanding that we will go first and she will do our best. the europeans will follow. some believe the legislation that he talked about. a kind of road map. i think that can be of very useful tool, but i would hope it would not only have bipartisan support in the congress but is something we would have worked
with the europeans so that it becomes a road map where will we and the europeans will do together if russia and kate to persist. that does not mean that it has to be unilaterally. many times we have to know the the europeans. an understanding that we will end up on the same page. last two points. cassava, article in the post this morning, and of thought and was a good statement. i have one small quibble with the we ought to be strengthening ukrainian capacity to defend itself and other states that are of risk. the issue of nato enlargement is not on the table. ukrainians have not asked for them to join nato would be a long process, years in the
future. it is not on the table. would not explicitly taken off the table and said that the doors closed. i would not like to reward putin for his pressure. think we need to stick to the principle that countries should be free to select the alliances they choose free of coercion, pressure, or the use of force. finally, as i say in my statement, while i think there are elements of policies the would need to put in place, they're probably more important for sanctions over the long term and what to do with in a way that does not close the door on russia. it does not say that if you come you have to sever your historical economic ties with russia. i felt intense market. i think we need to leave the door open for russia that will change its policies and come
back to the post cold war consensus and want to move west. we should do that to to keep vigilant those people in russia that hope for a more democratic and western oriented future for the country. thank you. >> well, thank you for your tremendous insight very instructive. in no, my concern -- by here the whole question of unilateral. and always prefer multilateral sanctions. upper not to have to have sanctions diplomatic discourse to lead us to a point where we can negotiate in the acceptable agreement. but looking at russia's history here with george checkable
moldova, and now ukraine, at some point -- i think he may have alluded to this. we may have to go first. some point if there is to be no significant farming of the ukrainian military so that the challenges and the russians tried to take them on our further exacerbated. they will fight tooth and nail. that would be a concept that no russian leader could fathom doing a. this would enhance that possibility. also, at the end of the day via not to pursue sanctions because the europeans are not willing to what is it to stop putin from continuing on a course of destabilization, and an invasion, but destabilization, and what is it that's in some
messes that the next place that he picks, he is free to do so because at the end of the day will it combination and no other consequences of. [inaudible] >> let me briefly make one comment on your observation regarding the nato issue. i think there's a misunderstanding. and make it very clear that nato can be forsaken. the ukrainians are asking for it. a large proportion of the people don't want to be in it, and if it were to transpire, i think in that context it would be possible to negotiate with the ukrainians not being promised
one can understand the russian concerns. it beta brush it would just a large, large new area deep into what has traditionally been the russians and create a new geopolitical situation which i can see the russians ever accepting unless they're is a significant accommodation. that's all i have in mind. on the question of arms, my view is that we should be open about it and not secretive. if the ukrainians need arms or their defense we should be willing to provide them. although in a manner which does not provide for a capacity of the ukrainians to undertake offensive actions the transfer of arms.
a very deliberate. their attempts to occupy prohibitively expensive. that will have political consequences to think there would make any rational russian government thinks twice on that option. >> mr. chairman, i think sanctions are an important element of a comprehensive policy debate at some point we may have to go ahead and lead by example as a way to bring this along. but i think we must focus equally on the other elements of a comprehensive strategy that will for the long term the more
important in reducing the leverage and ability to pursue these kinds of activities. completing the negotiations has been talked about. developing a joint transatlantic energy strategy there reduces the eu dependence. resuming an open door to succession to the european union. the united states recommiting to the security of europe and some of our deployments and exercises, revitalizing the nato alliance coming getting europeans to make more of a commitment and really focus on the core mission of preserving and protecting the security of europe subject to russian pressure to build self-defense forces and finally helping ukraine succeed as a democratic, prosperous country able to provide security and prosperity for its people.
those long-term commitments are what are really going to eliminate the opportunities for putin to make mischief in the future. >> i appreciate that. from the end of the cold war assumes a been made to draw russia into the community of nations as a stable, prosperous, and democratic partner. but given his high level of domestic support in recent polls i guess there is some zero or a month portions of an empire, power over other countries is being attractive and. could we have done things differently that would have changed the course of events, or was putin russia inevitable? what kind of policies would you advocate that the u.s. and
international community fog to encourage aggressive to forsake imperial aspirations the national order which they have upended by virtue of their invasion and what they're doing. >> both of you. i would like to hear from which basically ethical have to maintain the policy that we have adopted in the wake of the collapse of the soviet union which is to create opportunities for russia is closer association with the west, without compromising our fundamental principles and while of entertaining the hope is that over time internal change in russia will contribute to the gradual democratization of russia itself. there is some of us to indicate that this in the long run is not only possible but probable. there is developing a russian
middle-class which increasingly fights on essentially adopting as much as possible of the western lifestyle and connectivity. it says this children to the west, travels to the west, says its money to the west and perhaps that is most. basically a processes taking place which is devastated by the scale of social opposition, the demonstrations, the increasing number of commentators picking up openly on this issue. that is part of the process of change in my judgment a retrogressive connected with his personality, previous institutional collections and in particular with the instruments of compulsion.
megalomania and a personal level . appeals and a basis to elements of russian society which feel themselves vulnerable which are susceptible. end that is manifesting itself in the wake of the seemingly very easy so-called triumph and caribbean. but the crisis of ukraine, take away is beginning to send signals, particularly the more intelligent parts of the russian elite that russia is being drawn into something that could prove overly debilitating. this is way in the long run i anticipate there will be submitted to finish to experiment : check out, investigate the possibility of some are been accommodation. once the door is not only of the russian elite the policy of
violence is in along warren the unsuccess but the guarantee of russia as a basket case. >> i agree very much. putin views himself as a strong leader who wants to return to russian greatness, but he has a definition of russian greatness i would say that his 19th century. we have to show him that whatever is short term tactical success involve a long-term strategic loss. the real future for russia as a secure and prosperous state is going to be not on 19th century principles but 21st century principles. and we need to therefore determine -- deter him from his 19th century agenda voile and
leave the door open. >> think you, mr. chairman. >> accommodations to russia, the thinking of elite permeates the rest of society. what kind of accommodation would that be? >> well, specifically ukraine or more generally? >> specifically relevant to ukraine. >> this seems to me that increasingly it is a fact and no longer speculation that the ukraine as an independent state is going to be moving toward the west.
that is the predominant predisposition. i think the regime that has now emerged is democratic, determined to correct the errors of the last 20 years. of said the sale of the last 40 years it has been governed badly. i think that it is evidence that their regimes that have dominated the political scene or self-serving, self enriching, and not dedicated to the ukrainian well-being. this is now changing. the use of force was a stunning experience. historically they have not been martian, but over the last 20 years they have started to enjoy the fruits of independence. especially with the younger generation. again regeneration asserted itself. i think that increasingly
defines ukraine today. the russians will have to come to terms with that in reality but otherwise there will embroil of cells in a prolonged adventure so i am on beholden optimist. believe an accommodation is possible because the cost of imposing a unilateral solution is simply a disproportionately high to the benefits that could be achieved. the beginnings, there was this exaltation. liberation car reunification. what is the reality three months later? prices have risen three times. tourists are not coming. they come every year. a great many from abroad. they are not showing up. difficulty in getting there. investments a difficult to make. the moment we involved in the
international deal because the international community does not recognized which means it will be endless legal suits connected with any kind of development, tourism, exploration for energy. in brief what seemed like a great success during months ago is now becoming increasingly as source of concern. from few more. i frustrated that we have not adopted the sexes that we should paid out like to see the europeans act more decisively. by and large we're goingthe right direction and is becoming more clear that putin is pointed in the wrong direction. >> if i could, i know the want of ask some questions. one of the things that was most poignant to me on a recent trip was a comment i may refer to in my opening comments.
that was a national security adviser in eastern europe referring to the fact that if we allow russia to continue with this behavior without the sanctions that both of you have alluded to we, in essence, will accommodate a better piece. in other words, we return to business as usual. nothing is really done about what is happening. just since both of you have to think for the long haul within different administrations, what are the risks they're from your perspective over a longer all? the bitter peace with russia where actions have never been captured and we just had a faster in eastern europe. >> you know, one of the things we're tripping over is the word accommodation. i would rather talk in terms of of comes.
i think it is very important that russia be seen and not to be able to succeed with what it is doing. as i say, putin sees that -- and the russian people see it as 19th century national stickpins is not working. the outcome might think we want is a ukraine that if it decides to move west, join the eu and western institution and is able to do so if a man out come where ukraine is prosperous and secure, and not come when the russian people within ukraine can enjoy that security and prosperity in which it is -- the russians see that ukraine is not against russia but is allowed to maintain its historical economic and ties with russia. and i think that if that happens the russian people and some point are going to decide that
maybe ukraine is a better model for their future then this kind of nationalistic and neil russian empire. that is the outcome i think we ought to be striving for here. >> thank you, mr. chairman. thank you for your service to our country. i appreciate your presence. this service to our country is well documented. we watch quite often in the morning. i wanted to ask you, in the previous panel and i know it was kind of simplistic. i don't think it's inconsistent with anything you were saying, but in my mind the 5,000-foot view of what putin is trying to pull off is to reach a point where he has resorted influence
over kiev foreign policy views of the its relationship to russia. as i described, that involves a combination of support for separatists and the threat from military engagement in in the sort of things he's doing calling for cease-fires and so forth to make himself appear as a reasonable conciliator juxtaposed against the image he is trying to create. and i said that i thought -- and this is where i'll. set will be helpful. within the people making these decisions i would venture to guess and i'm pretty certain that they themselves are looking at this dynamic. there are two opposing schools of thought. one group pushing for more aggressive action and another group saying the sanctions are going to hurt our pocketbook and our ability to do things. we should not underestimate how important their asian markets are going to be for russia's future short-term ability to
export energy. in fact, the estimates are that asia will become the leading export market. today that they have to have capacity. they're going to struggle in the east and siberia because some of these gas deposits have high amounts of helium which requires extensive work. they need access the just the financing but technology. it leads me to as we view this dynamic having this debate, worried about sanctions but have these groups pushing for more. and despite all the assistance they're getting some of these feel like moscow is not doing enough. given all these pressures it is my view that the best way to a budget or influence in the direction we would like to see it had is not simply to thread things would make clear what those sanctions would look like so that it is not a guessing game about what will happen. they know what would happen in nine of the ideal scenario is that if we do it others who
joined us. my sense of it is that the best way to ensure that is through american leaders. the american congress is willing to drastically spell-out what the specific consequences will be to specific actions automatically, know what the president may decide to do. i think in your testimony you said we may be getting closer to that point anyway. that was the question i asked. i was hoping they would expand and if time permits an issue related to russia but not directly to the ukraine. it may seem like it's out of left field, but i'm curious, what do you think the response would be given the events in iraq if the syrians ask the russians to conduct air strikes to back out of it would they be to that sort of measure? and that's a separate question. really want to focus on this
question, whether specific sanctions by congress would for the direction of decision making in moscow. >> i would make three points. i think your description of his strategy is accurate and very, very important that it be seen to fail. if it succeeds he will do it again elsewhere. he went into doing it in 2008. today georgia, tomorrow crimea. the day after the baltics. he is two-thirds of the way there. i think it would be usable, as i said in my opening comment, but to have that kind of road map. if he takes these activities or fails to stop what he's doing, these a the kind of sanctions he would face. i think that would be a useful thing. i would hope we as much as possible could coordinate it
with the europeans so that the german chancellor would be leading the europeans so they would follow our road map. does my say we don't do it without them, but it will be more effective if we can bring them along. >> and probably in a good mood. >> they may be even better after the finals. i will go back to what i said before. this is not only about sanctions, but if we're going to be effective whitney the other six are seven items that i outlined in my statement that are elements of a comprehensive, long-term approach to this problem. that is what we need. sanctions, but take a look at the other things and let's be moving out of the other elements of a comprehensive policy. >> i agree very much. >> what is your view?
>> well, the first question that would come to my mind is where would this stage it? in no, they have the capability for air operations. it would have to be done in some fashion from russian territory. >> or syrian territory. >> what facilities are rarely available? >> then they will facility. >> it would have to be secure. then, would they be tempted? have rather suspect not. i think the russians want to avoid entanglement with a whole host of issues that are being at least in the middle east. they much prefer us to become more entangled. this is one of the reasons why i have been urging restraint on our part because it seems to me that these very issues that are not likely to be solved entirely by the use of force. certainly we have already learned from both afghanistan
and iraq that the use of force in these very complex ethnic or religious national circumstances is very, very costly and unpredictable. >> it is a marked the area. press reports say that russian as you tatoos are flying strikes that is pressure parts. it is unclear if they're flown by iraqi pilots to buy russian pilots fell or iranian pilots. this is a murky in a confused situation. >> well, thank you both for your insights and expertise. it is always a tremendous value to the committee. this hearing will remain open until close of business on friday. this hearing is adjourned. [inaudible conversations] ..
lebron might -- remind you also that moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue. [applause] senator goldwater's acceptance speech at the 1964 republican national convention this weekend on american history tvs real america sunday at 4:00 p.m. eastern on c-span3. former swedish diplomat raoul wallenberg was the more did the
gold medal was famously for his humanitarian efforts are in world war ii. he is credited with saving the lives of nearly 100,000 hungarian jewish during the holocaust. mr. wallenberg died in 1947 while imprisoned by communist authorities. we will hear from congressional leaders during this one-hour ceremony. >> ladies and gentlemen please welcome our honored guests members of the nicest house of representatives members of united states senate and the speaker of the united states house of representatives. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen the speaker of the united states house of representatives the honorable john boehner.
[applause] >> ladies and gentlemen good afternoon and welcome to the united states capitol. we are honored to be joined today by members of the diplomatic corps former ambassadors, representatives from the state department and the u.s. mint and leaders of the jewish community throughout our country. shortly before christmas, in 1944, raoul wallenberg did something many of us have had to do. he told his mother he wouldn't be home for christmas or home for the holidays. i will send you my best wishes for christmas by this means he wrote. i hope the peace you so long for is not so far away. at the bottom of the note he added lots of kisses to nina and her little girl.
well, she of course was raoul's sister who is with us today as are several members of the family. thank you all for being here. [applause] by the time he sent that letter raoul wallenberg had saved more lives than we could count. he had done much of the work on his own and his bearing was so dumbfounded that the nazis aimed their guns above his head. they were perpetrating what churchill called the most horrible crime ever committed in the whole of history. but before this man you could say he was like a comet across the dark sky sky the ec wants our lifetime yet we know he burns on which is why we are all here today.
in america's history only seven individuals have been made honorary citizens. the first was churchill. wallenberg was the second. to his honor we add the congressional gold medal a tradition that began with george washington himself. this metal is a tribute to a citizen of the world but it is really more than that. it's a commitment to honor his family and his memory and to tell his story and to always. >> the truth. this is not too much to do. in fact it's the least we could do. for his deeds may be beyond our capacity but his lessons are not. the answer to fear is always courage. none of gods children,, not one is alone.
>> ladies and gentlemen please remain standing as the chaplain of united states senate dr. barry black gives the invocation. >> let us pray. lord god almighty, judge of all the earth, you are the sovereign lord of history. as we meet today, to honor with a congressional gold medal and in comparable humanitarian, raoul wallenberg, we praise you oh god for using him as an instrument of your mercy.
we are grateful that you equipped him with the requisite skills and talents to become the right person in the right place at the right time. thank you for using him to organize and negotiate in order to save 100,000 jewish from nazi extermination. today, as we celebrate the contributions of a man who became a captive so that people could live free make us fit to become a liberating force in your world. lord save us from the slavery of negativity and from the bondage
of selfishness. pure by our hearts and guide our purpose that your will may become our will. we pray in your sovereign name, amen. >> ladies and gentlemen united states representative from the fifth district of new york, the honorable gregory meeks. >> mr. speaker, leader reid, distinguished members of the dais my colleagues, all distinguished guests, i am delighted to join with all of you this afternoon for the congressional gold medal ceremony honoring the life of
raoul wallenberg. it is my distinct honor to have played a role in the recognition of one of history's most unhealthy rows. i offer my deepest gratitude to address free lander at the international raoul wallenberg foundation and the many individuals and organizations as well as my congressional colleagues especially nan hayworth like co-sponsor of this bill who supported the legislation to bestow the congressional gold medal on raoul wallenberg. i did not learn of the remarkable acts of raoul wallenberg in my elementary school or middle school or high school or college or even law school for that matter. it was through entities like the international raoul wallenberg foundation, the american jewish
joint distribution committee and other institutions and individuals that i became aware of the courage, resourcefulness and of this great man. the more i learned about raoul wallenberg the more i was convinced that congress needed to acknowledge his legacy in an enduring way. in such a way that we can inspire future generations of americans by what wallenberg accomplished. the overwhelming bipartisan passage of the legislation reflects the undeniable interest of congress to keep his legacy alive. i have had many moments of quiet reflection on the wallenberg story. as we look to tackle complex and unthinkable oppression around the world today i am reminded that even in the midst of the most grotesque acts of
inhumanity one person can make a difference. regardless of any differences that distinguishes us from each other at the moral courage of one person is sometimes enough to make all the difference for all of humankind. today raoul wallenberg's voice still echoes across generations. his actions reverberate the time summoning us to muster the moral courage to do in our time what he and his colleagues did in their time. raoul wallenberg's legacy challenges us to come together to collaborate, to cooperate for humanity's sake in human dignity, human rights and human life. i'm honored to be one of the sponsors, the lead sponsor to honor this great human man.
thank you and god bless you. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen united states senator from new senator from new york the honorable kristin gillibrand. [applause] >> today we are proud to honor raoul wallenberg with the nation's highest civilian award, the congressional gold medal of honor. during world war ii, raoul wallenberg chose to leave his life of te's in sweden for diplomatic assignment in hungary which was then ally nazi germany. the assignment was the result of a recruitment effort by the united states war refugee board in the office of churchy chick services to try to save the remaining hungarian from the
holocaust. in this effort mr. wallenberg succeeded beyond any reasonable expectation. he provided swedish passports 2000 of jews which literally made the difference between life and death. mr. wallenberg will win 232 buildings in budapest to raise the swedish flag and declare them protected by diplomatic immunity. within these buildings he howls protected and saved almost 10,000 precious lives. mr. wallenberg's bravery and his will to act are an example to all of us. according to an eyewitness mr. wallenberg once climbed onto the roof of the train with jews departing for out risk -- auschwitz and he marched dozens of those to safety in the
diplomatic convoy as the nazi front was collapsing and adolf eichmann moved to kill all the remaining jews in budapest mr. wallenberg helped thwart the plan by threatening on gary and leaders with a promise of hanging for war crimes if they carried out the plot. sadly and selflessly mr. wallenberg was taken prisoner when the soviet army liberated and was presumed to have died in a moscow prison. women look up the word hero the dictionary tells us a person who was admired for great acts of bravery or fine qualities, and legendary figure often have the fine dissent and great strength and illustrious warrior who shows great courage. while the word hero is sometimes used gratuitously raoul wallenberg truly profound -- personifies it. his willingness to risk his own lives and others exemplifies his
own spirit dedication to manatee and the responsibility for all of us to speak out against atrocities. his enduring legacy lives on in the countless descendents of those he saved. i want to just close by reflecting on dr. barry black's prayer over this ceremony. raoul wallenberg was placed there for a time such as this. all of us are placed where we are in our lives for a time such as this. we should never forget it. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen mr. ben olander.
now with glory to his name. ♪ became our gleam of hope. ♪ in a world of guilt and shame. ♪ like a cliff in churning water. ♪ he would lead the way in. ♪ so that no one could. ♪ from jurist go far away. ♪ salvaging the deserted. ♪ he took his last stand. ♪ no shield upon his arm. ♪ no sword in his hand. ♪ his words bit like steel. ♪
and with cunning tricks. ♪ he snatched the victims out of their bounding ties. ♪ this solitary man amongst us. ♪ with glory to his name. ♪ he became our gleam of hope. ♪ and a world of guilt and shame. ♪ like a cliff in churning water. ♪ he stood firm to lead the way in. ♪ so that no one could deny. ♪ or from jurist go far astray in. ♪ ♪ when the light poured in. ♪
and freedoms sacred name. ♪ the twin headed dragon. ♪ he was stolen without shame. ♪ [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen the democratic whip of the united states house of representatives steny hoyer. [applause] >> as you have noticed i am not nancy pelosi. she is out of the state and she wanted me to give you her very best and her great respect. mr. mr. speaker, leader reid, leader mcconnell, my dear friend the majority leader of the house of representatives eric cantor, kirsten gillibrand gregory meeks who has sponsored
this legislation, foreign minister speaker westerberg and members of the raoul wallenberg foundation, ladies and gentlemen, i am pleased to be here. unfortunately as i have said leader pelosi could not be with us this afternoon. she asked me to convey her greetings to all of you and to express her gratitude nay to you and the entire wallenberg family along with her congratulations on the presentation of this gold medal. but, teaches and i quote whipper destroys a single soul, it is considered as if he destroyed an entire world. and whoever saves a life it is considered as if he saved an entire world. raoul wallenberg saved 100,000
worlds and the descendents of those whose lives were spared because of his courage and conviction number like the stars. today's gold-medal ceremony is not only a moment to reflect on his heroism and his role as one of the most consequential righteous among the nations, it is also an opportunity for all of us here to remember the lesson he taught us all through his example. a lesson as applicable today as it was amid the horrors of the second world war and the holocaust. and that lesson is for us never to be indifferent. never to be a bystander in the face of injustice. never to say someone else will do the right thing. so i don't have to.
like his countrymen in sweden and those who have paid tribute to him in israel in hungary and around the world americans honor raoul wallenberg because we seen the man and in his incredible act of resistance a reminder of the same bodies that led our nation to fight for the liberation of europe during the second world war and support movements for human rights, self-determination and democracy ever since. congress honored him by making him an irish citizen in 1981 as the speaker has pointed out and accepting a bust of his likeness that now greets visitors and emancipation hall area today we continue the work of celebrating his life and his heroism for which millions continue to give thanks and on a personal level i am grateful to your brother.
raoul wallenberg for making possible leaders of close friendship i was so very fortunate to share with an extraordinary american, an extraordinary hungarian, tom lantos and still today with the net. all americans are indebted to him to making possible tom sera possible service to this country is that member of congress and immoral voiced his support for human rights around the world. as a result of the many survivors like tom and an ad to combat the forces of bloodshed and intolerance that marred their early years raoul wallenberg works of saving lives continues to this day and will we pray continue for generations to come. tom once said that the near of
civilization is paperthin. we are the guardians and we can never rest. we must never rest. we must never forget. we must never forget the tragedy that felled the victims and the determination of the survivors and certainly as we do today the unbelievable courage of those who resisted and risked their lives to save others. today we present the gold medal. a gold medal in remembrance of someone who is the gold standard for the proposition that we are our brothers keepers. [applause] ladies and gentlemen the majority leaders of the united states house of representatives, the honorable eric cantor.
[applause] mr. speaker, leader reid and to my colleagues it is an honor to join you today to recognize one of history's gentle heroes and their remarkable man raoul wallenberg. history has taught us that war and an overzealous quest for power can bring out the worst of mankind. throughout world war ii we saw the advancement of tyranny and terror along with the destruction of cities across the globe. we also witnessed the greatest tragedy of modern times, the holocaust. like so many of you i have visited and walked among the
ruins and ashes of the death camps of auschwitz. while there i was dumbfounded by how evil can overtake human ki kind. the scale of horror was undeniable, which is why history demands that we are here and proclaim never again. the same history has taught us that through suffering and sorrow we can find the best of mankind, the one man who we honor here today raoul wallenberg provided strength and showed fearlessness was saving the lives of thousands of innocent people. he would eventually give his life to prevent men, women and children from entering the nazi
death camps. does he saved were people he had met and people he had never known. in the jewish faith, we believe that god works through messengers. i truly believe raoul wallenberg was one of history's great messengers for freedom and pea peace. in the spirit of redemption, it is written in isaiah, the people that walked in darkness have seen a great light. to those who were rescued by raoul wallenberg, he was their light that shines in their darkness. his gifts to mankind and for the peace of the world will continue to be immeasurable and the united states of america will remain forever grateful. thank you.
[applause] >> ladies and gentlemen the republican leader of the united states senate, the honorable mitch mcconnell. [applause] >> as a young architecture student in michigan, raoul wallenberg once wrote the following to his grandfather back in sweden. i feel so at home in my little ann arbor that i'm beginning to have a hard time imagining my leaving it. just over a decade later, raoul wallenberg would vanish never to be heard from again. but in a few short years in
between, he found a different calling far from ann arbor. and for as long as the story of world war ii was told, people will marvel at the good this man did. between raoul wallenberg's youthful dreams of a wasn't life in america, and his eventual disappearance, he would fully and completely embrace the role that faith had handed him and through countless acts of courage and daring, he would not only earn a place in our hearts, he would earn a permanent place in the pantheon of history's great men. he would become a hero for our
times and for all times. the context of wallenberg's actions as well mom. in early 1944 nazi troops in hungary began to accelerate their wicked plan to eradicate hungary's jewish population. president roosevelt became aware of the situation and was determined to act. he quickly sent a representative of the american war refugee board to neutral sweden to find someone who could lead a rescue mission for hungary's remaining jews. it was one of the great headhunting successes in history. raoul wallenberg was clearly the man for the job. his tools were few.
with little more than a swedish diplomatic passport, american support and unswerving belief in his mission, and immense, and men's personal courage, this remarkable man would go on to say 100,000 men, women and children. in one, six month. mackey is said to have worked around-the-clock at times without eating or sleeping. one fellow member of the swedish legation explained wallenberg's success as a diplomat for a neutral country, this is the way he put it, he began his mission with one source of power and unfaltering faith in himself but trust by the justice of his
cause. with no army behind him, his passion and his coming would have to suffice. one worker on raoul wallenberg's staff were called for 800 american jews were being deported on foot to a concentration camp in austria, wallenberg caught up with them at the frontier and on the basis of no earthly authority whatsoever issued a stern dema demand. who of you has a swedish protective passport? raise your hand. at this he ran between the columns and quietly told people to raise their hands whether they had a passport or not. as berg remembered at wallenberg took command of all who had
raised their hands with such confidence that none of the guards opposed it. given the virtual impossibility of his task we remain amazed today at raoul wallenberg's achievements. when he arrived in hungary in and early july of 1944, he had few contacts of any influence reduced knowledge of the language was limited. he had no official experience as a diplomat. but a fire burned within him. and he found a way. whether it was the creation of thousands of special swedish passports or the housing of tens of thousands upon gary and choose and the dozens of buildings he bought for the purpose, he found a way.
and when the russians finally sees budapest so many houses were flying the familiar blue and yellow flag of sweden that marshall himself was said to have remarked that he must be in the swedish city instead of a hungarian one. one man, one man did all of this and today we honor him. we honor him for his kurd, his heroism, and his extraordinary example. may the memory of raoul wallenberg always inspire us to be our best selves for others. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen the majority leader of the united states senate, the honorable harry reid. [applause]
>> ben olander, i'm i am familiar with your musical instrument. that was made popular in america by johnny cash's mother-in-law, april carter and your music, instrumental music and your wonderful voice and the music chosen was a perfect setting for this wonderful event. thank you very much. [applause] as we look around this wonderful work on the br gathered quite literally in the hall of heroes. surrounding us, all around us
are the statues and busts that great men and women whose courage we praise. the hard work that adorns these walls, the beautiful freeze all remind us of their contributions. i'm confident even in such iconic figures the heroism of a young swedish diplomat's raoul wallenberg is remarkable. unlike some of the heroes enshrined here in the rotunda wallenberg's heroism was not facilitated with weapons or physical power. instead of raoul wallenberg's heroism was born of his audacity and his kurd. not his physical courage but his moral courage. facing hitler's nazi war machine and its butchering wallenberg bought for thousands upon thousands of hungarian jews. his predetermined faith this good man refused to accept it. it was his audacity, his courage
which led him to the swedish protective passport that wallenberg and his team dispersed to choose throughout budapest. while wallenberg had the audacity encouraged to purchase safe house for refugees labeling the buildings a swedish territory and draping the windows as senator mcconnell has said with swedish flags. the wallenberg have the audacity and the courage to do dress young blonde jewish hungarian to nazi uniforms staging them outside of protective shelters effectively marking houses off-limits to the germans and their sympathizers. wallenberg was so audacious and so courageous that he even confronted adolf eichmann. there are many stories about this. wallenberg truly save
generations. some of those who owed their lives to this bold swedish diplomat are here with us today. i make mention of one as my friend steny hoyer did. a survivor who is no longer with us. i can see in my mind's eye this slender, perfect posture, white hair and a great speaking voice and hungarian accent, tom lantos. i was fortunate to travel to budapest on a coat l.. dare we joined our friend the late congressman tom lantos for a two-hour tour of that state -- city. as we walked through some of
those streets, those related to his vivid experiences. these were personal experiences. these experiences were living as a young jewish boy in jewish occupied budapest. he was arrested twice by the nazis that managed to escape twice. but he was determined not to be caught a third time and fortunately for tom raoul wallenberg was there to his rescue. and of course tom had to tell the story. his life's companion as little kids he and anne that were little kids together and raoul wallenberg saved both of them and allow them to lead a happy life. having an america to children
and 17 grandchildren. for the rest of the war, tom lantos lived with his hands aunt in a safe house established by raoul wallenberg. tom refused to sit stay in hiding. here witnessed wallenberg's bold example and even though he was a teenage boy he soon followed in the steps of this young swedish diplomat working as a courier and messenger. tom lantos with his blond hair and blue eyes just in a stolen nazi ss uniform managed to navigate his way through the city relating critical information to budapest jews. the young man was saved by raoul wallenberg's audacity to scourge and work to save others. tom lantos daughter katrina is here with us today. she has called the raoul wallenberg the moses of the north to hungarian jews.
that's fitting for this man. wallenberg's miraculous work saved many of the jews of budapest. today we honor this good man's raoul wallenberg. may we never forget his kurd and audacity to do good. as we have heard, one man encourage can make a difference. he made a difference. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen the speaker of the united states house of representatives the honorable john boehner. [applause] >> correct me thank my congressional colleagues for their testimonials and in a few moments we will have the presentation of the gold medal but first we are honored to have with us a great friend of this institution. please join me in welcoming the
rabbi. [applause] >> mr. speaker, leaders, members, guests let me please offer the following prayer. almighty god our father in heaven please grace this capitol rotunda of the centerpiece of our nation as we gather to bestow the congressional gold model our nation's highest civilian honor upon that great hero raoul wallenberg. as we remember and indeed resolve never to forget 6 million of our sacred brothers and sisters over 1 million of them children who were killed in the senseless slaughter during the holocaust by the nazi butchers and as we pray for the survivors who so -- in the
twilight of their their days let us resolve never to forget. raoul wallenberg, a great light and that terrible darkness. you almighty god command us to cherish and preserve all life. raoul wallenberg did this even at the risk of his own and today some 100,000 people, those he saved and their descendents live and breathe and work to make your world better as a result of his ultimate sacrifice. as one of those words engraved on the medal he lives on forever through those he saved. from this special and historic place and in the presence of our leaders on behalf of 300 million of my fellow americans, we beseech you. then tell when, how much more
senseless taking of innocent life dear god? how many more rivers of tears shed by your children was broke and hearts and shattered lives who will never again see their loved ones because someone evil felt the need to prove that point. when will you finally send us the ultimate redemption and heal the wounds of your people israel and all the world? when oh when will there finally ceased to be conflict so we merit the air of love peace and understanding to be upon us as your prophets have promised us in your holy name. he passed away 20 years ago this month and was the first to receive the congressional gold
medal for spiritual leadership. he emphasized even in the heavy darkness to light if just one candle can be seen far and wide. indeed raoul wallenberg was a candle, a luminary for all humanity in his time and ours. a warm glowing lights in the bitter darkness. despite incessant efforts perhaps you alone know his faith and where his body now lies but his soul was surely in the loftiest of your heavenly chambers for he has truly reflected you and your spirit in his lifetime here on earth and we are grateful that our leaders have chosen to honor him in this way. so, dear god please allow we pray that from this august rotunda in the chambers of the
united states house and senate might go for a flight into the darkness a message of reconciliation hope for a better tomorrow. help our great nation and the dedicated men and women defending us here and abroad is one nation under you strong with liberty and justice for all that we bring healing where there is sorrow, comfort where there are suffering, peace where there is conflict, leadership where there is not an warm loving hope where there is despair across their whole land and around the world, your world, aching and desperate for your hand. those who concur, please say amen. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen the presentation of the congressional gold medal.
he has played a role which was immense. and he has saved hundreds of thousands of men women and children. and how many are there now? i have four children so four times come you imagine how many there are and how much they could do now today and every d day. we honor him for what he did but we must honor him for what we can do for him after all these
years of detention and prison, imprisonment in the soviet uni union. there must be a way for all of us to come together and get the truth. that is what we want. it can't be difficult. you must all agree that it's possible and all join, everybo everybody, to do something. you are also important in this capitol and you have so much might behind you. please, we have lived with this for so many years and know what
raoul has suffered but he could get to the truth. thank you very much. [applause] [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen please stand as the chaplain of the united states house of representatives father patrick conroy gives the benediction. >> let us pray. god has power, god of justice, from holy scriptures we know of your concern for the powerless and our world, the widow, the
orphan, the foreigner. today we gather in this hollow at temple of representative government dedicated to the enjoyment of freedom and legal protections for all its citizens to honor raoul wallenberg one of only seven honorary american citizens and a right just man among the nations. during an era when systematic brutal power was used for the eradication of those considered expendable, your chosen people, he used his place in history, his position of authority for those most in need, those who were powerless even at the risk of his own death.
we thank you that we have the ability to gather to remember him. may each of us and all of us be inspired by his courageous heroism to answer the call of history and from positions of authority belonging to us, to find you present in the least of these in our own time. as we leave this place may we hear as you do the cries of the poor and respond with the generosity befitting a people with many blessings. dear god, bless the poor among us, bless raoul wallenberg and his memory and bless the united states of america.
amen. [applause] >> please be seated. ladies and gentlemen please remain at your seats for the departure of the official party and then tell your row is invited to depart by a visitor services representative. ladies and gentlemen please remain as your seats until your row is departed by a visitor services representative. thank you. ♪ ♪ ♪