in this area of wisconsin. to some degree, he wanted his house to be camouflaged as nature, sort of an event in nature. so this became in the opinion of many architectural critics, the first natural house in the sense that it was conforming to nature around it and welcoming it and be built and also this house really was first built above local materials. it was stone. it is quarried nearby. it was actually handcarried up from the river next to the borders with david outlook survey. september was local. this is kind of a piece of i want to say locally sourced architecture at the time. and it is also green architecture.
i think the projects in this studio would've included the famous kootenai playhouse in riverside, illinois, which you may remember the kind of balloon and confetti windows. it was supposed to be like a parade for children's school, a private school. he also did the designs for this huge and very successful, while it lasted, midway gardens, which was a big, big garden and conserve card that took up a whole city block in chicago and had indoor and outdoor entertainment and no person in the summer of 1914 just before it was burned down. in fact, he was working on the final details of it when he got the news. those plans would have been done here as well.
there was a number of pretty famous places. he also did the early drawings for the imperial hotel here in the little house -- it was not a little house, the little house in minnesota matcher powhatan museum. it was salvaged and replaced very. they can at the studios. >> one of the main themes was that he was always trying to get americans and created an architecture that was america to -- those all-american and stop trying to imitate german castles and french château's and things like that an built in american architecture that spoke about american character.
really believed that the future of architecture was going to be in the midwest and the west because the east coast was hope list. he was so enamored with the europe they would never give up. they continue to build european styles and historical styles and seven adventurous modern americans. he was always trying to follow the natural way of the land which was horizontally not so much vertical. and also to have along with his partners in crime that the great landscaper in chicago. instead of having the gardens with oriental and where's best bands around the world, you really should use local plants and trees and flowers that speak to your local area who.
really wanted to be a truthful architect. he wanted to tell the truth. he wanted the materials and the landscape to be authentic. having said that, you will see that frank lloyd wright edited every square inch. and imagine how it was built because it is still just taliesin. here for the abolition of people. we are here at the wonderful panoramic view and the wisconsin river and beyond. a very passionate man, first
married to a crow who was still a teenager and they quickly had six children. they are together for a lot of decades. but catherine became more domesticated and he became less domesticated and felt the need to spread his wings and the person was a college-educated woman with a masters degree she had literary aspirations. and they fell in love and declared their intentions and her husband was willing to give her a divorce, but frank's wife
catherine wouldn't until about more than a decade later. this is a time when a lot of personal relations were going through philosophical questions. it wasn't so much a matter of free love that right was not willing to be bowed by legalities and technicalities about who he lived with. but catherine said no, he said i'm going to live my life anyway. and they designed this place is a hideaway for themselves and also way to create this week that they had together in the hills of us confident they had a and were really preparing to have a new life in japan in 1914 because he got the contract for the new hotel and she was
looking forward to that and in japan. he had made a comeback and everything was destroyed here in the summer of 1914. what happened was august 151914, the two children were for lunch at a porsche that was somewhat right in the vicinity. a group of people at the other end of the room in their address them waverers another 13-year-old child and so they were all kind of unaware and defeated and separated and they suddenly attacked with a shingling hatch. clobbered him. range of the other man of the
house. he backed him and by the end of it there were nine adults and he was able with only two of them survived and shortly afterwards from combinations of injury and burn. and the killer had come here because wife gertrude from chicago. they were african-american. they had worked as a catering couple for well-known people in chicago and everything seems to be cool with them. if something have been too unsettled julienned and getting him to really start to be paranoid according to his wife. he was really being picked on.
and so he kept his knife next to the bag. the day that was to be their last day, they were supposed to take the train back to chicago. this was the day they decided to end it all for everybody. that might have been one person in mind, a draftsman who we had some run-ins with. everybody else might've been collateral damage. wright himself was in chicago at the time with his son from his first marriage, john lloyd wright, who was working on the details of the midway gardens. and he got a call, now we know is from one of the two survivors called him from taliesin from a farmhouse across street and gave him the news. and so they took a slow train up to and back to taliesin and came here in the evening and found a
scene of terrible devastation with bodies strewn everywhere, with the place burned down. right was kind of reeling. you can only imagine sense of loss. he found a wonderful woman and they suffered a lot together, including scandals of the press. he responded to a condolence letter from one moment in december 1914 and it was needful that he did this because she turned out to be basically bad news for him as his next wife. she was actually able to marry him after part of the relationship. towards the end they were together for nine years. this is miriam noel. she was quite unstable, a drug addict. she was kind of artistic and a flamboyant kind of way that he likes.
and then that the real next woman in his life was in the life of h. his wife became insanely jealous they called the sheriff to the gates of taliesin. huge sites over the mortgage here. so what was -- he was responsible in the sense he had chosen her, but she was also kind of out of control in here dirty now choices and. they were about to get divorced when it became clear there was another woman and she was pregnant. at that point, all bets were off and there was huge public fight. finally, there was a settlement and miriam went away and at the beginning of the depression they created the fellowship. the creative taliesin last.
they were a wonderful couple. it was a very good lap this time in his life. but they finally settled into a very placid and really regal time of his life in the last decades when he was being called on to design all kinds of things all over the country and in fact all over the world. they had quite a fine life and some criticize them at the time for being almost kind of grandees. they had this kind of flippant group of slaves called apprentices serving at their beck and call of cooking their meals because these fellows were not just going to school studying architecture. they were working in the field than cutting the wood and cooking the meals and getting critiques on the cooking of the meals and also being required to give formal concerts in black
tie every week. they like to. it was part of the style of bringing civilization and the good life and high taste into the countryside. he always said he may be god disapproved of his life but approved of his work. >> we are at the ninth memorial library, special collection the university of wisconsin madison middle of an exhibit called 1914 -- "world war i 1914: then came armageddon" to commemorate the 100 year anniversary of the outbreak of the work by highlighting the collection the university of wisconsin madison as well as the wisconsin historical society at different
artifacts related to not only wisconsin's role of the war, but also what was happening in each combatant country when the conflict began in the summer of 1914. the war broke out in the summer of 1914 after the archduke and heir to the hungarian throne was assassinated in theory a vote by a member of the serbian military group called the black hand whose goal was to bring all served together in one country independent of hungarian control. after the assassination of the heir to the throne about austria put pressure on serbia to allow them to connect in assassination austria acquiesced on all of serbia acquiesced on all of austria's demand except that austria was able to use their own police and serbian territory.
this led to a stand off and eventually confrontation when austria mobilized into serbia, russia declared they would help defend the serbs and germany asked russia to stop demobilization process and threaten a fresh immobilize they would declare war. russia would not back down and germany declared war on them there sort of a cascading effect, and which france stepped in in support of russia and when germany invaded france by way of belgium, britain to clear forward in order to defend lj neutrality. which is opus on the western front are largely practical reasons. that is why the holdings at the university of wisconsin are. a lot of material in germany's role as well as what was happening in belgium and france. we wanted to bring resources and sort of focus on the western
combat. the focus on the outbreak of the war in different countries. here is what we are calling germany mobilizes the war and within that case you can see different images, here for examples, crowds assembled in berlin to receive news that germany was declaring war on russia in right here the kaiser is creating a crowd from the royal palace and the kaiser is sitting on a source. some of the more interesting aspects of what we have for this exhibit is a material called share objects that andy stanko has donated. but in this case we have two different than that were passed around the germany during the war. these include a pain, not germans not to forget their colonies. this was a reminder chairman is fighting not just for territory in europe, but also to show
solidarity. a pin of the german home a to signify their loyalty to the war. one scene that was heavily represented in the uw madison collection with anti-german propaganda. a lot of this in the u.s. focused on the german invasion of france by way of belgium. in this case where once again the way german is reflected in the theme plays in which a bloody knife assessing through the german treaty, but also we have a couple of images. for example, this image from reality in which the church is a step in our bombing on a country road and calling that military
necessity and then this pamphlet given out in new york, thousands of little children in france crying to save them from german cyclamen. here again, germany is committing crimes against civilians but they are not conducting an honorable war. in conjunction with that, there are lots of hooks put out against germany that claim to be their tele- street about what germany is doing in belgium, tell the truth about the german war purchase the highlight the different atrocities germany is committing civilian population throughout the friends. so there is germany versus civilization. here the idea of being germany is not fit to stand among the members of western europe in this book i really like conquest couture is about how their something flawed within german culture that led him to start this war into a gauge unjust
conflict. the first world war is so advanced that even in putting together this exhibit, we were sort of spending and sources. it's not the first time propaganda is used, this certainly a treasure trove of propaganda. unlike the propaganda in this case and the belgian case is aimed at trying to get americans to put pressure on the civilian government to join the war. america's mutual operates in 1917 and these materials are trying to show that america needs to fight because it is an unjust conflict. there is a clear case of people represented by germany that needs to be stopped before further damage is done to the belgian and french civilian population. all of these cases have overstated. it is true that germany would
commit reprisals against civilian populations for example if there was a sharpshooter in a belgian village in order to sharpshooter word shoot unarmed civilians in reprisal. that plus of stories. the most famous is the idea germany if they had not been babies and that is not true. what is interesting in the secular world wars this leaves the allies to downplay stories of german atrocities being committed in eastern europe because the case they are overstated the first world war. in each of the outbreak cases come what try to capture card is the mood of the country beginning of the conflict to get out the message of all the different sources remake teen 14. for example, in the case of france it is overwhelming for instance to fight me a defensive war in a sack by germany and
needs to rise up and defined. so when this case, you have a french soldier saying no one shall pass, the idea of being germany taken part of france and they will not gain any more territory. in these images here, actually french soldiers bred out of paris to go and confront germany in the western front. there were about his memoirs written about the combat experience of the first world war and one of the most popular and france was under fire in which your account his combat experience. he praises the combat experience of the heroic time admit to the heroic. much more on the trauma of
combat about the ways in which it is not glorious and how it is dramatic for the combatants. what is interesting is that they come after the war, but that the combat experience is not widely circulated during the war. what the french case, with the german case, with the crowds gathered, there is a sense of political differences need to be set aside. france calls this the sacred union and germany they no longer see political parties. all i see are germans. the idea of being that united we can conquer them quickly. what is interesting about the first world war if some of the countries have a territorial stake on any of the other
countries. the war that for example of germany had in mind when they decided to engage france and russia have a no-frills legal costs after declaring war on russia was the word 1870, 1871 and west germany won quickly against the french army and this idea that we would be home by christmas that all sides share. they would force the treaty, maybe take a little more territory than the conflict would be over. when that is two armies met with the two stalemate. it is previously unknown but then that's sad but a sense of foreboding, a sense of knowledge that this is going to be
cataclysmic just in the first weeks after the combat began. on the western front as they are not effective, sipping that the repeater rifle, a really good for holding a position, but not necessarily useful for breaking through. as the war developed from each side attempted to find that new offensive weapon in order to do the counters a very strong defensive positions that were opposite them in the western front. this took a number of developments in these included james with poison gas, the flamethrower, the tank, putting guns on airplanes, all of which were aimed at trying to get over the trenches in some way. in this case we try to highlight these different rewards ologies. so we have a map of what it was
like to be in the interior tank and you can see if you look closely at this tank required six months and they were in very, very cramped conditions in the tank. the technology took a lot of different terms. there were also ski events set up in the alps and then had to learn to fire allons skeets. skis. one of the biggest changes in warfare and neither side is willing to back down, but trying to make the sacrifice worth, to come up with some reason so many young men have given their lives in a sense of something, that admits that they unless also helping to come up with wonder why. a new technologies that will
finish off in order to lead to the east. and they would have no choice but to surrender. both sides were surprised by the number of casualties of this anxiety that it wouldn't actually be a quick fight, but that this would he send cerda earthed gene gene events that would shift the balance of power of europe, but also shifted away in which european society is structured. the command is realized they were going to collapse. they were not actually going to kill up to stop the western front bankamerica joined to form in exile, which is part of
wilson's demand for an unconditional surrender. the treaty of first i had to pay a war indemnity, so reimbursed for the cost of the water. they also lost all of their colonies. they lost the european territories, which is partially perfect world war one of hitler's campaign needs. he's promising that he will change his trudy, which germans viewed as unfair, but they didn't see themselves as solely responsible. >> in our tour of madison wisconsin, the university of wisconsin police chief, susan riseling recalls how difficult it was to balance civil rights in the in 2011.
[cheers and applause] denied governor scout walker introduced the bill in which he was trying to fill a gap in the budget at the same time he proposed collective bargaining for public employees in the state of then. the right of employees to unionize and get together and speak with one voice when it comes to bargaining for benefits, for pay come over conditions, work shifts, all those types of things. wisconsin was the first state in the united states to allow public and louise to collectively bargain for those things. so this was particularly difficult for the unions to agree with, essentially calling for the dissolution and employees having to speak with individual voices and this was met with resistance from the collect to arcanine units and
people came to the capital on a 30 day period in january in 2011. [chanting] i just thought it was a really interesting story, especially because it was not violate, especially because they were so few people arrested. especially because of the way the system is supposed to work. we don't have a lot of examples of that often in our country that people can gather how their voices heard in something really, really bad doesn't have to happen. that's a really good thing. i thought it was just unique. so i was here one day and turn to somebody that nobody would leave behind the scenes of what
is really going on here, i had to write a book in the person said yet, you should. i thought i would give it a try. as it began, the budget repair bill was introduced and then there is the weekend, saturday and sunday and attacked saturday and sunday to organize on monday, february 14, the students from the university of wisconsin marched on the capital from the camp is eight blocks away and they were about to keep those students and they came up and delivered about 8000 valentines for the governor and they weren't exactly heartfelt valentines. the public asks at the front of his office and by tuesday about week, february 15, unions had organized at a rally where they expected somewhere between 10,020,000 people and they came in the square was shut down and they came around of me when inside the building about their voices be heard. at the next day the crowds grew
even more. the madison teachers around the state started to go with a massive walkout call in sick. with the school shut down they really began to swell and by that we can rewrap into the high 60s, low 70s. somewhere around 70,000 people descended upon the capitol square in the cab building from there on the following weekend we had about 100,000 people in the square and the following weekend to continue to grow and we had over 100,000 on the square. off the weekdays in between, every day there were tens of thousands of protesters here both inside and outside the building. our tradition has been constant as go around the square counterclockwise. the entire square is filled with people. the people are close to traffic filled with people and they would walk him to carry their signs and banners in on the
capital counterclockwise. then on the grassy areas of the capital that was full of people who would watch people walk by. periodically we had tracked hers come through. we had hurley davidson motorcycles come through. very large buses come through my dropped people off, pick people out. i matter where you though, there it says dozens of people bundled up for the weather, but still out here. the first three days there is no limit to how many people could come inside the building. we had somewhere between 22,000 to 26,000 people inside the building and the building is not built for that. after doing measuring, we figured it was about 9000 people and they held to 9000 people inside the building at any one time. the daily turnover. it was at like thousand women stagnant. other thousands would come in throughout the day. sundays are counted as as many
as 47,000 people that would come through the doors, be inside the building for a period of time and move back out and go around the square and the protest march. there is a stage set out in state street is closed to vehicle traffic or pedestrians and bicyclists. it's a natural kind of place where we sat stage for protest because the state street entrance is a little bit on the hill and the hill goes down toward state street. so it's a natural way to look up and see a speaker on a stage or listen to them music act in here for long distance because of the geography. people would gather the stages and they would have systems and save their speeches so people like michael moore. our federal representatives, senators came and spoke here on
state street. they spoke on the king street side entrance and they also would set up and vilification and have a crowd. the biggest crowd was 2000 people is thousand people as opposed to the side of the building, which was 100,000 people. i've been in law enforcement for 32 years and 22 years ago an incident with the clouds on the university we got into a lot of crashing of people that were too small an area for the earth people. after that, i began to try to develop an expertise and how political crowds that differently than sports crowd and how people who are being facilitated and what they are trying to do react differently than the police being confronted
by the police. so i've been the police chief at the university of wisconsin in madison or the last 23 years. at the time of the process i've been police chief or 20, 21 years. so i had all this background. we deal with crowds on a regular basis at the university fraught different types of settings. ..
>> the third was to ensure that the government which was democratically elected function and was allowed to function and could continue to function. when you have a democratically elected government, since they were legitimately elected, and that's the way our democracy works. we have to keep that government functioning or else you end up with anarchy. those were my priorities every day that i started the day with and that when it all of our decisions based on those three. is it safe is ensuring the question of rights of a protected? is the government continuing to function? not to say that work hiccups in all three categories because they were. safety, too many people in the building and had to get a handle on at and cut down the number.
the constitutional rights of free speech of her expression was all well and good but there are limits to that. you can go into a crowded building and yell fire. there are certain things you can limit when it comes to free speech. the third was a government functions and they still continued to have hearings and hold hearings and they still continue to have their meetings. we wear our same uniforms every day. so we don't get into that heavy gear that you see unless there's a reason to do that. most days you just come to work looking like you would any other time as a police offers on the street. there was this sense of putting on a helmet, there wasn't a sense of taking out a baton and stand with your baton out. there was no need for any of that. we didn't escalate in that way. there was no need to escalate in that way. we could do everything through dialogue. you were tense moments, moments where there was some pushing and shoving.
but again you try to meet it and isolate it and make sure the dialogue begins right away about how did we get here and how can we deescalate this and keep attention down as much as possible. also believe that ethically it's right with you with a big crowd to always give fair warning. if you do think suddenly as a police agency to a big crowd, the first 50 people in the crowd me know what caused it, but the people beyond them don't know. all they know is the cops are moving or the cops are doing this or that, the police are acting. as a response they then get all tense and they start their thing but their 50 people deep in the people in the front may be calm the people 50 feet deep are no longer calm and didn't get pushing and shoving and bottles being thrown for rocks being thrown or whatever. onone of the things we wanted to do was communicate and give time, whatever that was, communicate and give a day,
communicate and give today's. at one point when we were scaling things down we gave five days warning. we were going to close the building in five days. the next day, four days, three days, two days. every day we kept closing and closing and closing different portions. everyday announcing at a time what we're going to do the next day so that there weren't any surprises. the end result was the collective bargaining for public employees came to an end, and the unions had to actually take a vote among their membership to see if they would still be in existence. union dues that normally were taken out of paychecks as an automatic stopped, and employees could then decide whether or not they want to give money to the unions. there's a whole series of things. the budget gap got field so that there was no longer a budget gap. so the budget repair was done and was completed.
from there i believe it was nine senators and the governor faced recall. that took about a year to have all come through, and some senators were recalled. the governor was not recall. other senators were not recall. they went through the process and help their seats. then we just move forward from that point. but i think in many ways the wisconsin story in this regard is an american story. it's a story about people coming together and exercising their first amendment rights to let a democratic government know that there is displeased and a peaceful way that is completely legal and on both sides. the process actually work. we didn't have mass arrests. in the course of 30 days we arrested only 13 people, ma and only for those people were arrested while i was in charge.
and nine were arrested before when he disrupted the galleries on the first couple days of the protest. it really shows that democracy works because it tells the story of how the police can be used as political fodder, or can be used as a political tool in your not careful. it's not our job to be used politically. it's our job to ensure safety, ensure the government functions. and ensure that the constitutional rights are for all americans. ♪ ♪ ♪
>> while in madison we sat down with "washington post" editor and author david maraniss. he lives and writes in his hometown for half a year and to talk to us about his latest book, "once in a great city." it will be published in 2015. >> david maraniss, thank you for being with us today. >> thank you. >> can you tell us about what you are working on? >> i just finished literally writing the last lines of the last chapter of a book on detroit spent what's the name of the book? >> that name is going to be "once in a great city." >> why did you write the book? can you give us a background as to what the book is about? >> i'll tell you this story about how the idea came to be because it's a little unusual. it was in february of 2011 and is watching the super bowl which the green bay packers were in and as my football team and had written a book about vince lombardi, their coach.
i was in new york city at a bar watching the packers win, and at half-time a commercial came on television the i wasn't paying attention. i was more anxious about other things and then i saw a sign that said detroit on the commercial. and then i saw the joe louis of this and the mural and all of these icons of detroit, abandoned warehouses, gates of warehouses that were abandoned, and both the beauty and promise a detroit. this incredible be came on. it was eminem, driving through the city and this was talk about how this is it. city for the windy city or the emerald city. and eminem comes out of his car and walks into the fox theatre, this grand old theater and there's this black gospel choir rising in song. eminem says -- >> this is the motor city. this is what we do.
>> something about it made me choke up. my wife later said well, you know, you sucker, they're just selling cars and this is a commercial. it made me think about something deeper. i was born in detroit. i lived there until i was six. i'm identified with washington and madison, wisconsin, where we are now but detroit was really my primordial place. i said if it meant that much to me i should write about it. i thought the collapse of detroit is very important because a lot of because a lot of economics writer to write much better than i can. what can i contribute? i wanted to capture detroit when he was growing and show america what detroit gave us which his enormous amount. this book is about music, motown, which i love, cars, civil rights, labor in the middle class. when you think about what detroit contribute to america i think it gives a deeper
appreciation of what it's going through. there's shadows of collapse onto this book in the takes place 50 years ago. >> can you talk a little bit about the collapse of detroit and how you chose those topics and take us through that a little bit? >> as i was reporting this book, detroit was in the news almost every day. at one point that bankruptcy was filed. it's been struggling for many years. so that was the backdrop to my book, but it wasn't the book. you could see 50 years ago all a lot of these elements of the troubles that were to come. the economy was, then and always, to based on course, although the political leaders and 1963 which is the heart of the book understood they had to change the. they were trying to get technologies and other modern technologies and it didn't happen. the out of industry was essentially leaving detroit.
which is a long slow process. detroit suffered from its own success in so many different ways. it's this huge geographical city, 20 miles across. it's unlike a lot of other big cities, mostly single-family homes. it was built on the prosperous working middle-class that the auto industry offered it. and so when the industry suffered in last, and the jobs are gone, you had all of these swaths of neighborhoods. i would drive through the area were i lived when i was a little boy. and probably three out of every eight houses were gone, either levels or burned or abandoned. this difficult of all of this lost land and property, and the hollowness that it gives to people who still try to survive
there. >> how did he change? when did it start changing? >> it changed over very long period of time. and i found it very interesting, a document as i was researching the book. the tendency is to say detroit's collapse was caused by a series of events, including the riots of 1967, a white flight that resulted from the. the rust belt infirmities that many cities have like detroit. it's dependent entirely on automobiles. civic corruption which became more of a factor or more reported on in the last 15 yea years. and hard labor contracts that burdened the city. to some degree those are true and false, but they are irrelevant almost the this study
in 1950 showed that detroit had already lost 600,000 population by 1962, from the 1950s. this trend was continuing and by the end of the 1960s he would lose another 500,000 people. they predicted all the way to where it is today which is 700,000 people. it was because of the larger forces. beyond the civic corruption or the labor unions or any of that, beyond the riots. it was the disintegration of the institutional model of detroit, of these huge industries, the factories being there. it was the and away from cities in general towards the suburbs. and so these sociologists said detroit will be left with -- they weren't trying to say in a pejorative way, but basically
productive people were leaving, nonproductive people would stay. that's the fate of detroit. all of those other things i mentioned certainly didn't help turn it around but it was happening already. >> how did you do the research for the book? >> my first motto always is to go there, wherever there is. i didn't move to detroit by spent a lot of time there. nine visits over the course of appeared i was working on the book. found a wonderful little bed and breakfast near the detroit institute of arts, two blogs from the library of labor and urban affairs which had great archival material for me of both walter reuther was a major character of the book because he was the head of the united auto workers then come and then dearborn with henry ford and henry for the second, the grandson of the original founder is also major character in the
book. the archives of the mayor then, jerome cavanaugh who is a young irish catholic kennedy acolyte right as kennedy was rising. his papers are at the library. the detroit public library, this grand old edifice is also a block away. not always open because of the financial struggles of detroit, and the institute of arts is right there. so i could stay at a bed and breakfast an and walked everyple i do my research for some striving for an interview someplace. is dead and breakfast was right off woodward avenue, the main corridor of detroit which separates east detroit from west detroit which everybody identifies themselves as either east detroit or west detroit. you go off woodward avenue, hang a left at west end of boulevard, go down a mile and there's motown. is a series of houses that is now a museum because motown
abandoned detroit as everything else at some point. that's out i did most of the research, doing a lot of archival research. there's for lex to table. one leg is the observation of being there. understanding the cultural geography of the place. the second leg is the archival research, finding contemporary documents for the period i'm writing about. the third leg is the interviews, and i found as many of the people as they could from that era. i had to kabul to other places as well. barry gordy, the founder of motown now lives in a mansion high on the health of both bell and los angeles. i went to see that a lot of people around the country. the fourth leg is looking for what's not there. there's always the conventional wisdom about something. try and find other ways to explore the reality. >> interesting interview that you had.
imaging barry gordy. can you tell us about that? what did you learn? >> he is 83 or probably 84 by now. he was 33 when the book is at its heart in 1963. what i learned sort of essentially synonymous with motown. it was his idea. he created, brought the artists here and i learned two important things about motown that he helped me shape, but go beyond him. one is taking from this incredible family with four older sisters really don't get as much credit as they really deserve. and who were part of motown and we were much more organized. he was the creative force but the creative force put in a book i could give you more credit to his older sisters. and to his parents are there's a
family like so many african-american families, came up from the south to detroit and they were part of, the booker t. washington sensibility of self-help. they formed a grocery store first and then all these other little enterprises. so he came out of sort of the small arch when ownership concept. he started motown with -- argued ownership concept. very senior, his mother and them had its own little fund that the family would vote on whether help one of their siblings with financial help. so he got his first loan from his family. why did it happen in detroit?
been the book explores that in a lot of detail which i won't get into now, but the essence is that geography made it possible, because there were single-family homes. pianos in those homes, all throughout working-class detroit. great public school teachers in that era. music teachers in all of the schools. almost every musician i can you talk about, remembered the music teachers from elementary school, junior high and high school, which i don't think you can find today, sadly, in some ways. then the migration from the south, bringing the oral tradition of singing up to detroit. the great jazz that was sort of the root of what turned into motown in so many ways. most of the studio musicians came out of that jazz movement. all of that combined in a sense of freedom, which happens in
certain cities in certain times and it happened to detroit in that area. >> did you find any connection between motown and the political leadership of detroit? >> motown connects everything. motown, one of the criticisms of motown and barry gordy was that it was an assembly line. he would take an unfinished product, diane ross, not diana ross, diane ross when she came to motown and turned her into this incredible world-class, world known diva singer. she starts at age 17, and by 24 as a brain knows, and there was a certain style of music through motown. so where does that come from? first of all i think it's partly false, but the notion can because barry gordy worked on an assembly alignment. he worked in the lincoln-mercury assembly-line in detroit, and
from that sort of watched the process, how to develop something into this beautiful thing. he consciously thought about that as he was developing motown. ♪ ♪ ♪ >> barry gordy was not this very political come in a direct sense, but during the course of the 18 months i write about, he started making records out of political speeches. the most important political speech of the 20th century by most standards is martin luther king's "i have a dream" speech. he gave that speech in detroit two months before he delivered it in washington, and there was a march down woodward avenue a 125,000 people, and barry gordy
recorded. he was just about to sell it on august 28. the first date of sale was august 28, 1963. the date team gave a speech in washington rendering for speech irrelevant to the also recorded the cyclone and recorded langston hughes and many other african-american figures -- langston hughes. so it was pappas in a way policy at the time but he wasn't directly political. >> you mentioned some of the characters, ford, walter, mayor cavanaugh. can you tell us a little bit about why you chose them and what you found? >> they emerged from my reporting. i didn't start by saying i'm going to write, there are many characters in my book but it didn't start by saying these are the key people. i thought these are the key ideas and how do i enrich those? and so henry ford to second, i
chose commute to write about gm afford us much more interesting but always has been from the start of the original henry ford and his notions of december line, anti-semitism. he was a brilliant, studious man. but yet all these contradictions. he brought african-americans to detroit and hired them. so he had shadows and light in his life and a lot of interesting ways. and his grandson, henry ford ii, was sort of a larger-than-life figure, very colorful. sort of come user friendly with lbj. into my book you see at the end there's a climaxed in with lbj and henry ford ii. the deuce was his nickname. he was dealing with everything that was going on at that time, political, economic relationship
with walter reuther was fascinating because his grandfather during that era had tried to beat all the unions physically, and henry ford ii had to do with sort of the combinations of that. walter was one of the great underappreciated figures of the 20th century. the uaw really helped play a key role in the whole civil rights movement. the summer of 63 was the summer when birmingham happened and martin luther king wrote his letter from the birmingham jail. many of the people who were supporting team who were jailed in birmingham were bailed out the uaw money. they came down with all the
money to get everyone out of jail. they were the sponsors of the civil rights movement in so many ways. walter was very progressive on civil rights. ahead of vijay and kennedy, pushing them harder. is hard as martin luther king but for a white labour leader he was the center. and yet think about what happened in michigan and detroit and all of the auto workers went to detroit to the suburbs and becoming leading democrat in response to some approach the civil rights of the air. so just so much to walter reuther the cavanaugh and his police chief or progressive liberals trying to change the racial climate in detroit. they made a lot of dramatic changes. they were succeeding in some ways against all the odds. but that success led to four years later a riot, not success
but four years later detroit and 67 had one of the worst race riots in history, and everything was up in smoke. all of their efforts were decimated by the. so he is a tragic figure. another figure i have mentioned it is aretha franklin's father who was the boisterous flamboyant incredible speaker about the baptist in detroit. he organized to bring more to the king to detroit. he's another one of the figures in the book. >> if you could summarize the story you're trying to tell, what did you learn throughout? >> i learned how central detroit was for america in so many ways, helping create the middle-class, helping bring this wonderful music. the mustang is another part of
the boat. lee iacocca was at fort hood then and the mustang was being developed which became sort of a symbol of some kind of freedom and sexual freedom and all these, i mean there was contrived in a sense of trying to sell a car that way but the mustang represented a lot of that. so detroit, detroit was at the center of things. even though it's in the midwest and not in new york or l.a. and it had so many flaws, it was really a very important part of all of at least several generations of how we come to think of ourselves in america. but detroit, detroit because of its marriott is also great promise. if your 25 years old and wanted to have freedom, you can go to detroit. the property is cheaper more kids are coming there. there's sort of a boom of
artists and tech people and activists. it's got to some degree that sensibility of anything can happen that motown had when it was just starting. but parts of it might never come back because of the geography of it and the loss of jobs. >> when will it be published and who is publishing it because it will be published next september, 2015 and simon & schuster has been the publisher of everyone of my books. i've had the same editor for all of my books. i've worked at the "washington post" for 38 years some kind of loyal to certain institutions. >> david, thank you so much. >> thank you. >> you are watching booktv.
as we can with it in madison, wisconsin, talking to local authors. up next a discussion of influence of money on politics with the off of "dollarocracy," john nichols. >> the inflow of huge amounts of money to our politics has changed almost everything about our politics for the worst. not for the better. the truth of the matter is that historically in american political campaign the dominant force, the center of the campaign was your human level engagement with people. that has been blown apart. they are often defined as the state level by flying around the state in a jet landing at an airport, having an appearance before a couple of cameras getting back in the plane and flying off. certain that's the case at the national level. what we've ended up with is a politics that is very much
delink from all those human level interactions, and candidates tell me they want to you, they have in many cases the huge portion of their data is to be spent interacting with the citizens used to be spent on the grassroots human level of campaigning are now devoted to running out a list of names of rich people, calling them and asking them for money. sometimes candidates have told me they will spend as much as eight hours a day making campaigns to ask for money. that's seven or eight hours out of every campaign data is taken away from your constituents, taken away from your community, taken away from the political process and put into a scrambling, a desperate search for money. it's hard to imagine something more unhealthy for the democratic process. one of the things we talk about in the book is a critical juncture in american history that occurred in the late
1960s, early 1970s. the best way to understand it is that democracy was winning. we had a series of developments from the 1950s, maybe from the end of world war ii on that of a much expanded american democracy. events in the civil rights movement of course which had made the promise of voting rights we'll with the voting rights act. ..
>> the movement became very strong and it was so powerful that you can imagine that a conservative republican president, richard nixon, then to the demands and signed into law the clean water act, the clean air act, and the environmental protection agency. the strength of these movements and environmental consumer protection, voting rights and the light started to create a lot of discomfort among very powerful people who have had power for a long time. in the early 1970s we started to see the development of the response to that. a corporate lawyer wrote a memo in which he told rations that they needed to get more involved and start to develop their own think tanks. they had to start to try to
influence state and local. they had to lobby a lot more than they had to influence elections the best that they could begin to push back this great mass of people. it was hugely popular with corporations. when you look at powells notes and his papers, you can see letter's from corporate ceos and other saying, please send a copy of your memo because really excited to learn more and powell had turned down opportunities to be the richard nixon appointee to the supreme court several times. but after he wrote his memo he was approached again and he said yes, i will do this and he became a supreme court justice. on the supreme court in a number of rulings, he was a strong
supporter of decisions that opened up the process and begin to open up the process for the money of very wealthy people. intriguingly he was with william ring west we start to knock down barriers for campaign money flowing in with all of these special interest and wealthy interests, and we could end up in a situation where money dominates politics. and so you have this great title in the 1970s and 1980s and even into the 1990s and the reality is that the majority is a powell majority in that majority has decided again and again to knock down barriers to corporate money in politics.
and so you really see the vision and the triumph of the democratic process. it has totally dominated politics at the local space and national level. >> it was used in the first amendment. no law abridging the freedom of speech. >> what is a person, do you worry at all -- i know you don't great but the person worries that there's too much money in politics. >> you know, i really don't. i think we spend less on our presidential campaigns each year when there is a presidential election in the country spends on cosmetics. >> bad series of rulings commentated in many things in 2010. that ruling effectively said
that corporations can spend what they want to influence politics in combination with a series of rulings before and since it freed up very wealthy people to spend as they chose and politics. then we were suddenly in a campaign that used across a few hundred dollars now costs thousands and even millions of dollars. so we have seen a radical transformation of politics. >> with all due deference to separation of powers, the sprinkler reverse a century of law that i believe will open the floodgates. including foreign corporation. [applause] [cheers] [applause] [applause] >> i don't think american elections should be bankrolled by america's powerful interests
or by foreign entities. they should be decided by the american people. >> there was this construction of corporations having certain human rights. that was extended by the supreme court when they came to power and it said if an individual has a right to give money in politics, a corporation has the right to do so. this is a big leap that went against all the things that federal officials had operated on for many years and it went against values that republicans and democratic presidents and governors and legislators have embraced. essentially it did knock down the huge amount of our existing campaign-finance law. a lot of people said well, corporations are not really going to go and do that. you're not going to see all of this money really flow in. but the reality is since the
citizens united ruling we have seen a massive uptake in spending and we are going from eckerd bubble spendings to record level of saying that each new election cycle we hit a new piece of this. the growth of the amount of money has been asked potential. that is an important thing to understand. it has also come from very wealthy individuals, leaders who are now giving immense amounts of money and what we really should understand is that citizens united is not in and of itself the ruling for the time. it's become a catchphrase for a series of rulings coming back to the 1970s and some of them coming after citizens united. but all of them as a whole knocking down the existing campaign-finance laws and creating a circumstance where
it's incredibly easy for money to flow where ever it wants. there's a fantasy that says that money is just given to political players because you like where they stand. but the reality is that many decisions in politics are not about partisanship or even an ideology. they are about an advantage for a particular corporation or a particular individual. people are saying, why in campaign after campaign we keep hearing candidates say, oh, we want to get rid of tax breaks or shipping jobs overseas, that's something that every candidate says and yet it never happens. why doesn't it happen? well, because there's an awful lot of interesting people, individuals and corporations that don't want that change.
similarly, we often hear people on the left and the right say, why do we spend so much on the military when it is so inefficient we need a strong military and a strong defense, and when we have all of these contractors getting incredible amounts of money, constantly wasting and going over budget. yes, they keep getting all this money. the reality is that the military contractors and people tied to them have an immense amount of money to influence politics through campaign donations and also through lobbying. most people don't see all that spending in any kind of coherent way because the money flows in so many different directions and it comes in not merely through campaigns and political parties as it once did, but now also in independent groups and super pacs and operations.
at the end of the day we have a very un- transparent and big-money process where people don't know who is dominating discussion. but they should clearly recognize that it is being dominated by someone other than that. so this has a profound impact on our policy in a way that is a throwback to what lewis powell is hoping for. and that is a situation where corporations are able to shape the discourse and that shaping the discourse is very damaging. we see good ideas and dysfunctional ideas raised up that are dominant in our politics. and really our debate itself is shaped. and one of the things that we do
is have that happen. some people might start to think of this as natural or normal and it's not. it's not natural or formal and not the way that the politics historically were in the country and it's certainly shouldn't be the sort of politics that we seek or we anticipate the future. because our future it is defined by dollars, if it says corporations are people and citizens are spectators in this great battle between big-money interests, i think it diminishes our democracy in profound ways. paul simon said that when you get elected to congress in the u.s. senate, you come out of this process. no matter how good of a person you are, after you've had a long day and you've been debating for three or four hours and running through committee sessions, when you come back to your office if
you have a call from an individual citizen in your state or from somebody who is one of the biggest campaign donors, which called the think i would return at 9:00 p.m. tonight? was a decent man and he was speaking a truth that many will not admit. the fact of the matter is that when you are campaigning in your campaigning is dominated by money, you respond to money. and that makes our politics incredibly unhealthy because the fact of the matter is that money often has very different interests than the great mass of citizens. the history of america is really the history [inaudible] and we should never assume that these problems were fixed in 1887 or in 1865 or 1965.
we should recognize that new problems occur and new challenges arise and when those new challenges come our way, we have to meet them as the founders intended by writing elements of the constitution that will respond to the moment in which we live and solve those problems to make real the tenets of democracy. so we have to do it again. we need to look at the audacious goal, especially to the people who have already started doing a tremendous amount of work. we have to say, go for it. don't be overwhelmed. it was overwhelming and impossible to get votes for women, it was overwhelming and impossible to get rid of jim crow and segregation and make real the promise of not justified in the civil war but the civil rights movement. it was possible to say that 18 to 21-year-olds who could be
sent off to die in a war also should have a say about whether we ought to go to war. and yet we achieved every one of them. there is simply no reason to believe that we cannot achieve a real democracy in which money is not due to speech, corporations are not due to people and our elections are organized and the vote matters more than the dollar. we can do it. it is a doable task and we know it's doable because the people of this country pays equal challenges in the past and they can overcome them. now it is our generation's time to take on the challenges and overcome them. >> during the recent visit to madison, wisconsin, we spoke with erika janik about the early history and politics of the city. >> i decided to write a book that covered all of the history of madison.
i'm not from madison, i grew up in a suburb of seattle and i moved here not knowing a lot about the place i was living in. i started learning more about the history as i spent more time here and i really wanted to write a book for someone like me who maybe didn't grow up here and wasn't familiar with its history as well as people who maybe have lived here their whole lives and had no idea what the story was. i think one of the things that was the most exciting to me about learning about the history of of madison was how hard they had to hang on to being the capital of wisconsin. madison was in constant jeopardy of losing its status. and i think that in part that has something to do with how it began. they really began as an idea on a pc of paper. and they became a territory or capital and then a state capital. there was a guy who was to land
speculator who had invested in this land. the only people who were living here are those that had can along the lake shores and fur traders and so dodi comes through and he says this can be a great town and he presented the boundaries of the town and said it should be the capital of this territory and again, there is nobody living here at this time. so i think that has a lot to do with how they had to hang on to their status. there were larger industries, a lot of people living here. the process for selecting a state or territorial capital is really just about convincing
other legislators including convincing people as to why they should be the capital of the state. at the time, the major center of population was in the southwest part of the state where it led mining had occurred. some suggested that for the capital should be because that's where the people are. and there were also read a number of people in the green bay area. a lot of fur traders along the great lakes. heavy concentration of people there as well. and one of the arguments of dodi is that it was centrally located in madison. it was easy for people all over to get there if they needed to be in touch with their government. so it's mostly just a marketing job he selected as the territorial capital. so when he went to the legislature to present his idea that it should be the capital, of course it wasn't the only city in line to be the new
capital. pretty much the only thing they needed to do is to pick a capital city. so they met in the southwest part of the state. and so he brings this extravagant plan and he is a little bit manipulative and he has a financial stake in madison. he names it out after the president gave service after he had just died. so he also did this after the signers of the constitution try to show that this could be a patriotic place. he brings it over where the territorial legislation is meeting and presented 19 other cities competing to be the capital. and the building they were meeting in was a little bit different. you find lots of people
complaining about the poor quality of the building and how cool they are. so he knows this and is very smart. he brings with him has planned for madison rolled up as well as a bunch of buffalo robes that he starts to hand out to the legislators saying here you go, are you cold? here is a buffalo robe. then he starts to offer to sell these legislators went for a discounted price. so it does go through quite a number of votes before he is successful. but the word carries a lot of weight because he's been in this for quite some time he was probably the only person that had actually been to all of the cities that were under consideration. so he had come to wisconsin in the 1820s. he's a prominent figure. so people were bound to listen to him and they did end up selecting madison as the capital and surprisingly dodi made a
mint off of the decision. so he was experiencing a lot of immigration and there were people from new york and new england, those were the two streams. and then they have enough people to qualify for state headed and they had way more than that in wisconsin. so there were various groups trying to push forward move wisconsin toward statehood. so this action took a while to move to the point where we can move forward without drafting the state constitution. so the democrats are trying to do this in 1846 and they go to work and they think it will be a pretty easy endeavor just getting to the point where we can even consider statehood took so long that nobody thought that the constitution would be problematic.
but it turns out that the constitution was a little too radical for the people that were living here at the time. they have such controversial things as allowing african-americans to vote. they also outlawed all danes. people were distrustful of drinks at the time and so they thought might outlaw and them that they wouldn't have to worry about fraudulent activity among banking employees. and in another controversial measure that they took is that they allowed married women to own property. pretty much every other state, that was not the case. these were radical provisions that were included in this draft constitution and it was debated all over the state about how they were going to move forward and could they even stand for this. eventually it was overturned, we just couldn't agree on this radical constitution. so we sent the legislators back to the drawing board and they took a new constitution that was finally approved and got rid of
controversial measures that were in the original constitution and one that one was finally passed so wisconsin could become a state inmate 1848. by the time we get to the early 20s century, there's a man that is a landscape architect and city planner and his name is john nolan and he decides to come up with a plan for the city of madison. he kind of delivers this shocking message to the residence and he says that madison has the potential to become a world-class eddie and he calls it a model city and he's not sparing in their criticism of the city as well. but he also sees and present very specific brands for what the city can do to become something wonderful like paris and new york. for the first time they were mined at that they have this
potential and that someone from the outside saw them as is really fantastic place filled with possibilities. that is where the subtitle comes from in this. he called it a model city and a lot of the things that he set out to decades to develop and some have never come to fruition. but in a lot of ways a lot of the things he suggested in 1911 came true throughout the 20th century. and i think that that helped the city build up confidence. one of the things he suggested in his plan for the city was that there should be an arboretum. he thought there should be more green space in the city. when he initially suggested that we have an arboretum, we didn't end up getting it until couple of decades later. and he also was successful in the main street that it should be a close pedestrian mall and he thought that that needed to be a place where people could gather together and that not happen until the 80s.
today it's open and is mostly a pedestrian freeway. but that was part of his vision for the city and he also suggested that the buildings downtown should not be taller than a capitol dome. he thought that this was the centerpiece of the community and that's really something that is also helpful ever since then. he proposed that all parts that he thought were about this. one thing that is fascinating is that we are completely surrounded by water but up until fairly recently it was hard to actually enjoy it and there is a shocking amount of restaurants and they have always kind of turned back on the lake. and he said no, we need to pay attention, these are beautiful, we need to make parks and protect them. i think that that's something that's definitely become much more important to the city ever since then and i wanted people
reading my book to understand how the history of madison has really connected to the history list option is wilted history of our country area i think that so often local history is really diminished and that people say it is not being very important, being kind of parochial. knowing the history of your corner of the world tells you a lot about the world. so i really wanted to go through and help people to understand that part of it. something also was a important was the way we got today and how we got to be the way we are today. >> checkout the many other cities visited by her local content vehicles. go to c-span.org/global content. >> many of the people who became infected in this outbreak could remember making any mistakes at all.
they thought the decontamination was good and precise and a everything was fine, but they got the ebola virus anyway. one day the doctor didn't come to work and they found out that he was keeping himself at home. he had isolated himself and he was feeling sick. they noticed a few days previously that he had been taking himself off alone am i sitting in a chair smoking and looking off into space. he never smoked in the wards, but he was now. later they thought that he knew that he was coming down with ebola. and he wanted to protect us that. when they sent somebody to his house, they took a blood sample and he was positive for ebola and at that point he decided that he needed to give himself away because his presence would
be to do more allies in for the remaining staff. he climbed into in england which took him for five hours over these terrible dirt roads to another clinic where he became sicker and sicker in isolation. now, it in this treatment place, there was a freezer with one human corpse with an experimental drug that had never been tested in humans called z-mapp. the sierra leone government regarded his illness as a national crisis and they called in international experts asking for help. experts became aware of the fact that the drug was better in the freezer 25 feet away from the doctor.
they debated for three days whether to give him the job or not. and the considerations were very difficult to work their way through. this was an experimental drug and he was an african doctor, he was a national hero. he was given the drug and if he died, then he would be an african doctor who had been killed by an experimental drug ministered by doctors from the developed world. in the drug might have no effect on him, but if he died, he would be blamed on the drug. on the other hand, the drug might save his life. then it would be if he got the drug, why can't anyone else have the drug. they went back and forth and back and forth. meanwhile, he didn't seem to be that sick. he seemed to be hanging in there. there was hope that he would at least have a good chance of at least coming through naturally.
i discovered at the very moment that kent brantly was apparently being saved by the drug was the moment that the burial detail finish digging the grave and bearing the doctor in sierra leone. >> you can watch this and other programs online at booktv.org. >> up next, "after words" with guest host professional commentator marc lamont hill. jeff chang and his latest book "who we be: the colorization of america." the author examines the idea of racial progress and discusses how race is you today in an increase we diverseri