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tv   Book Discussion on Its What I do  CSPAN  April 12, 2015 8:00am-8:46am EDT

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>> it's a great thrill to be introducing a personal hero of mine lynsey addario for riveting new memoir it's what i do. lynsey is one of the most respected photographers working today. her fearless work in "the new york times" national geographic time and other publications has borne witness to the struggle of more violence all over the world world. in "it's what i do" she takes us along for passing right through wars on the battlefields but she steps back to examine the
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personal toll of a life committed to bearing witness and is a special complexities exist for her as a woman and then as a mother working and life-and-death circumstances. ladies and gentlemen, please help me welcome lynsey addario. [applause] >> hi. i'm very short. thank you all for coming tonight. i have been working as a photographer for about 20 years it has been the last 15 primarily in conflict zones. should i just advance? everyone always asks me how does a girl from connecticut become a war photographer, editor really have an answer for that i will start. this is me and my family when i was very little in connecticut where i grew up and i was raised by a hairdresser. very often on the weekends in the summer we would have these
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crazy pool parties and the men would dress up as women and they would have mock weddings, very unconventional childhood. but my parents always fostered my creativity and a we said all your dreams and do what you're passionate about. so i decided to become a photographer. in the late '90s i moved to new york and was freelancing for "the associated press" in new york, and i spent about three years covering daily news and covering anything that they would assign me. i was desperate for work and desperate to learn. finally, in 1999 they came to me and said we have a story that we think you would be perfect to cover, because it will require a lot of hanging around. i was in my early '20s and i had all the time in the world. it was a story on a series of murders in the transgender prostitution community. and so i had to figure out how
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to get access to these transgender prostitutes and it was in the meatpacking district in new york. i would go down pretty much every night for about 10 days without my camera, or i would have been in my bag. i never took at my cameras. and, finally one of the women said, why don't you come to my house in the projects in the bronx? it was a test. she said show up at 1 a.m. and you can hang out. that's what i started taking my first pictures. and i spent months photographing the community and really spend time in their homes and on the street with them, and that was my first story that introduced me to the world of photojournalism and the need for a photographer to really get in deep with subjects and to gain their trust. in 2003 i wanted to cover the war in iraq. everyone knew that we are building up to this moment. and i went to northern iraq with a group of journalists and
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hoped to cover the followed saddam hussein and make my way down to baghdad from the north. in early april i entered iraq in late february and in early april said the bill. so i cover the initial moments of euphoria, and people, i would ride around and the troops would be pulled out american troops would be pulled out of their humvees. people would kiss them throw flowers. it was an incredibly happy time in iraq. very quickly that moment ended and the insurgency started. and i started doing embeds with the troops to see what was happening on that side because as a journalist i have a responsibility to cover all sides of the story if i can get access to it. so i went on many night raids with the american troops and would go into homes. they had intelligence that often they didn't share with us ahead
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of time for security reasons and we would go in in the middle of the night and they would round up many of the men in these homes, and the families would be put aside and what alternate homes in the middle of the night or in the day and just, for anyone who's money with the middle east it is it's not an easy thing to walk into a muslim household where there are women present and often i was with the troops and we would go in and it was a difficult time because as a journalist i had learned to understand the do's and don'ts in the middle east. and many of the troops have not been schooled in the. it wasn't their fault that they were not given that sort of training before we went into iraq. and then i started covering one of the groups in the insurgency. and as a journalist they allowed us to come in and spend time with them and photographed them. and all my birthday,
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november 13, 2004, i was working with "life" magazine and much of my work throughout my great been for "the new york times" but this particular store was for "life" magazine. the correspondent i was working with, his father and grandfather were both involved as medics in the military and so he was given access to photograph the injured troops coming out of fallujah. and i was assigned to photograph the. and i had never in iraq for two years at that point and i had never really seen injured soldiers. and so the military was incredible. they gave us full access. the only condition that they gave to us was that we had to get permission from the troops and a signed document which make perfect sense. and i remember there was a c-17 cargo aircraft on the tarmac end of a red lights because we were being shelled. and i went in and the entire cargo aircraft had been cleaned out and it was full of wounded
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soldiers come out of the battle of fallujah. this is another image of a wounded soldier, in these sorts of scenes i really hadn't seen before. they made a deep impression on me and i got home from the assignment and i filed the pictures to "life" magazine in november of 2004. and they never ran and they held them through december and january, and in february i got a call from my editor at "life" magazine and she said, you know i hate to write this e-mail but we will never run these photos because the editor has decided that they're too strong for the american public to see. so i called "the new york times" and a random right away. [laughter] that's why we love "the new york times." in 2006 i have been working in darfur for two years. i started covering darfur and
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august 2004 because i need a break from iraq and i went into darfur. in 2006 i was working with lydia pulled green who is an incredible correspondent for the new times and we're trying to get into darfur so we went to chad because of the sudanese government wouldn't give visas easily to journalists. they didn't want journalists seeing what was happening. so we went to chad and while we were there we heard that there's been a massacre of sudanese government soldiers, many of whom were conscripted from south sudan. in order to report on it we had to actually see what had happened. so we went to a group of rebels, we went to the border we're in chad and we said can you take us across the border? they said well there are russian aircraft flying overhead and it's possible the government will bomb if they see people going over to the site.
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we said we have to go to if we want to report on what happened. president bashir the sudanese president was denying that same athlete no soldiers were killed. so we decided to go in the back of trucks with the rebels and we went there. there were bodies everywhere as far as one could see. there were dozens and dozens of bodies. it was an incredible site. that picture appeared on the front page of the new times and it was impossible for bashir to deny what was happening. to me it was a perfect example of the power of photography. and the power of documenting and the been there. in 2008 i got a call from dexter was a very well-known war correspondent and he was a very good friend and we have worked together for extensively in iraq and afghanistan. and he called me up and he said hey, man -- and he talks at length with the exact same tone
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whether it's the taliban, me his girlfriend doesn't matter. he calls me up and he says hey man, i've got quite a summit. he said it's on the talibanization of pakistan. i remember my husband was not yet my husband was sitting next to me and he just rolled his eyes and he's like you're not going to be the taliban. i didn't answer. so dexter went. i learned not to answer. so dexter went to pakistan and he spent months trying to line up access. the thing about south asia and the thing about pashtun tribal culture is when they invite you and you meet them they will protect you with their life. so we knew that if dexter was able to line is seven invite us in we would be relatively safe. the one thing which we but is that or to reach the command he was negotiating with we had to cross through to the commanders territories. so we got the permission, and the night before we were to
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leave a got a phone call from the commanders guys and they said you were welcome to come tomorrow but the one thing you cannot do is bring a woman. and the decks and a look at each other and we said we're not separating, there's no way. so our translator who had close ties to the taliban he said, you know, what are we going to do? they said don't bring a woman. we said you had figured out because i'm going. and so an explanation of the very early and he said i know we will say you are mr. dexter's wife and he can't leave his wife alone in a strange city and you must come, and we said okay, fine. so we dressed all up and i was completely covered. you couldn't see an ounce of my skin. we got in the car and to go there. and when we arrive at a house the men go inside and ask permission from you to come and. it's very awkward to bring a woman into this situation because most of these men have never even spoken to or met with
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a woman who was not either their wife or a blood relative. and so i was given permission and i sort of stumbled in. i could barely see. it was a very small room full of about 20 15 to 20 taliban fighters and they all had their guns and rockets and weapons and they're just sort of lounging around. and i sat down, and dexter said thank you for letting my wife come. this is my wife. by the way my wife has a camera, do you mind if you take some photos? [laughter] i couldn't leave they fell for. and he said sure. he wouldn't even look at me. he kept his eyes down. about a half-hour into the interview, everyone became the gtn i thought now they're going to kill us come here we go. we waited too long and we've been really stupid. so one of the men came over to me. he said madam, we would like to
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serve you tea as part of our hospitality, but we don't know how you can drink tea through your veil. so i said i was sort of didn't say anything and then finally i know you can stand in the court and face the wall and lift your veil and drink your tea and come back and join us. and so that's what i did. they were very worried about hospitality. in late 2009 i was doing in bed with the medevac team they go in and pick up injured soldiers and i was in southern afghanistan, and we got a call for an alpha which means the most gravely wounded type of soldier. and so we jumped in the helicopter and we went, and one never knows what to expect. and as a photographer using night vision goggles it's hard to see anything and it's stressful. everything happen quickly and you don't want to be disrespectful because you know that someone has been wounded. so they loaded this young man to the car into the blackout, and
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we went back to the first aid from hospital a small field hospital. and immediately the doctors and nurses came and started treating him, and they were incredible. and for 20 minutes he tried to resuscitate him and he lost eight or nine pints of blood which was essentially almost all of his blood. eventually he passed away and in the middle of by photographing passing come and make them up to become one of the officers can you said hey, stop photographing. i put my camera down and i said i have permission. i did want to create a scene. it was a very sensitive moment so i sort of stopped for a moment and all of the soldiers around him said hey let her shoot. she needs to be. i don't think that ever would've happened in 2003 or 2001. i think it was years of our country being at war that the troops actually wanted was there to document those.
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in november of 2000 as photographing a story for "national geographic magazine" and it was a big profile of women in afghanistan. and part of that story i wanted to cover but until. and women who die in childbirth. because afghanistan is one of the highest rates of women dying in childbirth in the world, i went to a remote province and one of the reasons women died in childbirth is because they can make it to a hospital in time. so we woman who was in labor and lives in a village often has to walk for 12 hours get on the back of a donkey and try to make her way to some medical facility but if she has a competition she will often die. so i spent two weeks in the villages doing outreach clinics and photographing in these remote areas. and on the way back i saw these two women on the side of the mountain. my translator who was an afghan who would been educated in new
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zealand, she was working with united nations population fund. we both realized that it was a strange sight to see two women with document because in afghanistan most women are accompanied by me. so we stopped the car and we ran up the hill and said, what's going on? what are you doing? they said the woman on the right was pregnant and her water had just broken and she was in labor. her husband's first wife had died in childbirth and he was so determined to not let his second wife died in childbirth that he rented a car which was a huge amount of money for any afghan villager, but that car broke down and so when we found them a restricted. and i said, just get in my car, i will take you to the hospital. they said we can't, we need permission from her husband. i said go find the husband so she said okay. luckily there was one road that went through the entire profits
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so she took our car and she found a husband and began back in the whole family got in my car and truck them to the hospital. everyone asked me if i photographed the delivery, and i did not because it's a point at which i met them and at the point at which i interjected myself and put them in my car i changed the story picks i didn't think it was ethical to keep shooting. in 2011 i decided to cover the arab spring in the uprising in libya. and i snuck in to libya, eastern libya through egypt like all journalists covering the uprising in eastern libya. and i moved very quickly to the frontline and i spent about two weeks covering the frontline. and wanted to show just some pictures not necessarily the most dramatic pictures but informational pictures on what the frontline look like. and the fact this was the frontline. this was a group of very untrained fighters.
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they were doctors teachers, engineers and i decide to pick up on to try to fight it off these troops. it was literally one road that cut through the desert. every so often we would here a plane and we knew a bomb would drop or an attack helicopter would come in and the fact they did stupid very low and drop bombs all around us. often they landed 100, 200 feet away and there was no telling when the bombs would fall. so i stayed on the frontline for about two weeks, and on march 15 i industry colleagues of the new times were kidnapped by adopt the troops. the frontline shifted to very quickly and get off the troops set up a checkpoint as we were fleeing east and were held for about a week -- gadhafi. this exactly as we are kidnapped. i just wanted to show it. basically happened was the fighting was moving quickly and it were for journalists and one car and we were deciding how
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long we should stay. and journalists always want to stay a little longer because we always feel like the story might change after we leave or maybe we haven't got the best reporting. eventually when we decided to leave, gadhafi troops that flank the desert. they came around the desert and they set up a checkpoint and we literally, where those gentlemen are standing is actually where the photographer who took this picture two weeks after we were taken, basically what his name is and where our car was stopped. we are pulled out of the car and in that moment the rebels opened fire on gadhafi troops and we were caught in the crossfire. and so it all ran for cover behind a cement building and we were told to lie face down and they're going to execute us. they were deciding whether or not to execute us.
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fortunately, we pleaded for her life and decided not to. a committee came over and said you can't kill them, they are america's. eventually they tied us up in places and vehicles in the middle of the front lines and we couldn't move for several hours. as artillery and bullets rained around us. that went on for six days. two weeks later a colleague of mine for "the new york times" went back because our driver disappeared and we think he was killed either in the crossfire or he was executed in a moment we were taken. so he went back to help the families look for the body and just look at the scene. when he went back he found my shoe on the side of the road and it taken out my laces to tie me up. and that's it. [applause] >> we will take questions.
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>> thank you. that was wonderful. a fascinating point you raised about the moment in the pregnancy story that you felt you were part of it and therefore, you have to stop shooting. could you expand on that about other professional journalists around the world in crisis situations and how you do that line of demarcation? >> i think everyone has their own line, and i think that's a line that people become comfortable with overtime period for me and for most journalists with integrity that i work with and that i look back and we try not to interject ourselves in the story but if you've been covering the war for 15 years and you see some of his life you can save and it's not a combatant, not someone with a weapon, and that is a distinct line that i draw and many of my colleagues draw because you never want to be drawn into the
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battle, if it's a civilian i will try and help, especially if it's just a matter of getting a ride. but i generally will not photograph after that point. or if i did photograph i will say i am the person who drove this person to the hospital. >> i read through the first few chapters and i totally relate to the. i was in afghanistan 2011 2000 it went outside the white house will times. a lot of action in there too. what would you say to someone like me still in the old boys club, still trying to get out in the field in the military side? because i feel like veterans, it still our story to tell. >> i'm not in the military so
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it's a different but i certainly work in a profession where it is primarily men, and i just don't i try not to pay that much attention to that and just follow what they need to do and try and be professional and hold my ground. and also try and capitalize on places were i have access that the men don't. and i think that's important particularly because i work in the muslim world about and some it's a society that is segregated. and so for me i will focus a lot on women in the muslim world because i'm male colleagues generally don't and can't. >> thank you. this is really wonderful. >> thank you. >> given how and when you're in iraq and thinking about some of the current controversy, i would be interested in hearing what your reaction is to the movie the american sniper. >> so actually live in london and i've missed a lot of the
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controversy. i finally did see the movie on friday last friday. and it was interesting for me to say because i always sort of cringe when going to see a movie on one of these words because i feel like it's never very accurate, and i do feel like the movie did a good job of conveying what it's like in some of the situations. i was in the first siege of fallujah and a lot of those scenes seemed pretty accurate. especially the depiction of his what it's like after. it's very hard to explain because so much is coming at you at once and it's very hard to make this judgment calls. i of course have never carried a weapon and i'm just there as a journalist but i've seen and spoken to the troops about these things. i don't know if there's a specific question you want to ask about some of the controversy, i just am not -- >> not so much the controversy and spend what you saw and what
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your thoughts are about how it portrayed the relationships between the people in the film -- the relationships of the people, about the military who were portrayed in the film and their relationships with one another. >> what was interesting to me is it would seem like it was one of the first movies to talk about ptsd and the fact that these veterans are facing a really tough time when the ghetto because i think that's something we should all be very aware of and we should all make an effort as a society to help these veterans. because they have gone to war for our country. and so i didn't want to hear about the suicide rates of veterans and the hard time navigating work, it's tragic to me because it's something that we can't just turn our back and i do feel like that move has brought the conversation to the table in a way that maybe journalism doesn't or hasn't been able to do so effectively.
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so if hollywood could do something that i can't, great. >> thank you. >> i'll take it. >> i had a couple of questions about to what extent have you worked with local journalists and media practitioners and some of the high threat environments in war zones you have been in? what challenges do you think are unique and what do you think u.s. and western news organizations can do to empower local journalists? >> i always work with local journalists. to the fixers, translators, drivers i work with our local journalists and their the only reasons i can do my job. i also think never could get the ax as i could get. i could never do anything i do, any of the stories i do without them. so i think that they are people who are not celebrated enough and they don't get as much recognition because often they are in the country and they don't get the opportunity to come here.
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i think, sorry, what was the second part of the question? they face many more threats we do particularly because they stayed and they have local communities and they are often the ones who are killed, drivers, translators. two of my drivers have died. and so that is something that i as a journalisjournalis t and as a woman live with but also i think they are unaware of the risks and i think it's a horrible thing that is usually the local person who gets killed killed. >> when you are traveling and your caring your own care, particularly when you're far away in the mountains, what specifically can you not live without? what do you carry with you? >> well, i can tell you, coffee. i always carry, now i carry starbucks because it's the easiest thing. i have protein bars, a headlamp,
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hiking boots i usually carry my running shoes. we always carry water, and their water purifying tablets just in case we can't get water. those are some of the main things to obviously my dear, cameras, batteries, a car endured because often we can get electricity so you have to charge off a car battery. i have the kit and the specialist doing a lot of lj embeds are working on front lines where you don't if you're going to get to a hotel or you have to be very self sufficient in a car so we will just pack a car as if it were a hotel room and put cans of tuna bread water, all of the basics in the back of the car and go. >> thank you. >> i enjoyed it very very much. i have one really i guess sort of minor question. from the very early parts of of of
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your presentation at another i guess the bigger question from the latter part. the first one was just the transition from "life" magazine over to "the new york times." that was something you had control over or did life begin relinquishing something? second spent do you mean with that particular body of work? >> exactly. and the second question has to do with your time spent with well, extending from the taliban, you were comfortable enough going and and they were obviously receptive and even helpful, protective perhaps, as he moved towards the more extreme ends of islam and so forth, where would you now draw the line? would you go, well, obviously into iraq or syria under isis control, which you go into yemen
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and go under sunni folks in yemen? and it sounded like he did spend some time in kind of the iran backed parts of iraq. so can you contrast any of those and your feelings about the different islamic groups? >> the first question with any body of work i photographed on assignment, the publication that since the integers that access has first rights to publish that work. so until they say we will not publish this and you're free to send it elsewhere, my hands are tied. they can hold it as long as they want. >> will they say we will not publish it and you are free? >> i think maybe they could but not respected publication would be the. i think once they make the decision not to publish they will generally let me send it elsewhere. so that is the part of the question.
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i think what i did in the past are not sure i would do now because the nature of the worst have changed and chose to become a target in the way we were before. isis has really changed the boundaries completely. so journalists used to be respected, and that obviously we see my colleagues being beheaded and killed all the time, and so i think you know come in 2008 i went to meet the taliban. i don't know if i would do that anymore because i think there used to be a sort of code of honor and there used to be some sort of trust that if you make an agreement with a certain commander, he will protect you. that is actually held true for many years, and i don't know if that would happen anymore. i just wouldn't trust the people to honor that because there's so much money involved now. so in terms of ransom, and so many journalists are kidnapped for ransom or four ponds and
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trades as political prisoners. that's another issue. i would not go into syria right now. i think one has to take precautions even going near the border with syria because isis is not only in syria, they are all around the border. a memo was just sent around a journalist recently saying the careful in turkey because they're coming into turkey to kidnap journalists and taken back into syria get. i think while people have to be very aware of what they're covering when they go into these war zones and they have to understand they have to do their homework before they go anywhere near a war zone now and it's not just in syria. the lines are not so black and white. >> thank you for getting at the essence of the question. >> sure. >> i don't know if this is completely relevant but -- >> doesn't matter your.
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>> the troops, the american society and the muslim society wouldn't it be better if the troops were trained more properly for like -- >> that's a great question. i think we would not have the situation we are in in iraq if the troops have been trained before they went to iraq. just a little bit on islam and the tenets of how not to offend people. because it wasn't the troops fault. these were young kids why would they know anything about islam, that they were sent into these places and completely disrespected people in a way that created an insurgent. and i think had they been taught before they were sent in, we wouldn't be in this situation. >> and the second one is obvious to you been out in the field with the troops. and how fun it isn't spent it is a fun. >> dirt and -- >> it's a dirty and you're
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eating whatever you can find and not sleeping very much and doing a lot of patrols and jumping over irrigation ditches, but, you know, it's an incredible privilege to be on the front lines of those wars and to document, to create a document of history for everyone back home. >> the last one, real quick do you think they should be like in vietnam they can virtually say anything they wanted to. now seems like you can't say much of anything and it seems like a lot of it is suppressed. >> about is suppressed. in fact, if i witnessed a soldier being killed or dying i need permission from the next of kin to publish anything. and if i'm photographing the wounded i need to get permission and that didn't happen in vietnam, and i think that's what images were so much more graphic. i can count on one hand the amount of times that i've been able to photograph and published a soldier dying in combat.
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and that's in 14 years of war. >> and then the last thing, do you think it's appropriate you should have that much freedom to do that? >> i do know. i mean i'm a mother and so when i think of what if lucas went to war and he died, what i want pictures of him all over? but then i think if i send my son to what that's part of the game. that is the highest price that that is what you will pay, and they think the american public does need to see that and i think it's our tax dollars paying for those wars. we need to see the consequences of those wars. >> thanks. >> i just want to ask you about the time when you're held in captivity, seems like was different then for you then recent journalists that have been -- >> very different.
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>> kidnapped by isis. and i wonder what your sense is why, and is it just -- >> sure. first of all we were taken by gadhafi's forces so was technically a government army. and it was not isis. and i think we were very lucky compared to what journalists now our enduring. we are very cognizant of that. obviously i have my head and it's on my shoulders, so i think obviously we feel incredibly fortunate because most journalists now are not being treated with any sort of respect and they are, you know, their executions are being filled and sent around and that's unbelievable to me. especially for the families, you know. site think when you ask how was it into debt, well, it's never fun being kidnapped. i was threatened with execution
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very much every hour for six days and tied up and beaten up and punched in the face. you know, groped by every man in libya, but i think i am alive. that is at the end of the day i am grateful for that. i didn't endure anything i couldn't handle. so i think it's all relative, you know. i think now in retrospect i see of people are being treated and i feel like we got off very easy easy. >> at the time did you have an extra tension that -- expectation that you would be held by our government? >> we had no idea. when you're in captivity you are not privy to any information so you don't know what's happening on the outside. we had no idea what was going on. >> you talked about ptsd among
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soldiers. obviously journalists face that possibility of ptsd as well. and so i'm just wondering how you cope with that and whether your employer has any input or requires you to participate in any sort of training either pre- or post. >> so, i work in war zones primarily for "the new york times," and so they always offer the opportunity to go speak to someone when i come out of a war zone particularly a dramatic situation. for me, i come from a big italian-american family and we talk about everything ad nauseam. i mean, and i've been raised in a very communicative family. so for me why -- my way of getting about is to talk about and talk about it openly and to process it through that conversation. and so i've never felt it useful
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to go seek therapy, but i do not bottle things inside. i am very actively talking with my colleagues, people have been through similar trauma and talking to my relatives, to my husband. site think that it's something that i'm very aware. but everyone has their own system. some of my colleagues have finally sought help with conflict therapists. and the center for trauma center for trauma does amazingly. there are organizations out there tailoring to journalists covering the war. >> if i made about a self compartmentalize your own profession to give chosen visual journalism but we learned tonight you are a world-class communicator. >> thank you. >> you are probably a very good writer. >> thank you. by the book last night.
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>> is it easy for you to stay in joke apartment? >> to stay in my professional government? i have a lot of compartments in my head and i keep and organize i don't like things when things cost over. >> but to be a writer and to be a speaker. >> i do a lot of public speaking so that is something i started doing the last few years i don't like doing it at the expense of not being able to shoot very often. so i try and limit it so i can still be in the field a lot. in terms of writing, the book just sort of came about after libya. i was approached by several later agency said the art many women were photographers, and are you interested in writing a book because you've just been through this experience? frankly initial i was not interested in trying to write a book on and i've never done a photo book and i'm a photographer, and so i thought maybe i should do a photo book first. so i was actually meeting with people at that picture the
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publisher -- aperture, in the meeting i found to my colleagues have been killed in libya, and immediately i had a complete breakdown. it was only a month after we were released from libya and so it was sort of all of the residual, that they had not dealt with kidney thing. and in that moment i thought, you know, i do want to do a photo book. i don't want to spend the next year looking at nashville photos and i'm going to write. so i went back to my journals and letters and e-mails, and that's how it came about. and then i had an incredible agent and she put me in touch with penguin and had a great editor and got off to really brought me, she helped you know home my vision. >> any more questions? thank you so much lynsey. this was wonderful.
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lynsey addario. >> thanks. [applause] >> what is really interesting about this particular line of of 18 athletes who took multiple paper classes in the early 1990s is you probably can't see them, but if you study carefully the gpas they earn in regular courses, which you'll
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find here other courses 194 152, 175, 171, 169, et cetera you see a lot of these guys have gpas under 2.0 or in peril at least come in danger of following -- falling below 2.0. but if you look at how they were helped by the multiple cores they took over in the blue column come you can see that they're all in the height to use and low threes. especially in the early '90s they tended to stay away from a's and 80 minus as. -- a. what happens when you combine a bunch of low performing courses with the high-performance courses is that it evens out okay in the end. you get your gpa above the
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threshold where it needs to be. so in the end, even i can't see this very well i think, write so here we have other gpas and other courses outside. anyway, you can see how the courses functioned. what's so striking about this group of 18 the first 18 players who were sent to julius on more than one occasion. in other words academic counselors realize that he was handing out gifts and they sent these players to him time and again to get those gifts. those gifts elevated the gpa to where they need to be. >> you can watch this and other programs online at booktv.org.
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>> you are watching booktv. next, harvard university's joseph nye argues while there is a lot of talk about china replacing the united states as the supreme global power in the near future america's military economic and soft power spermaceti will continue for decades to come. >> thank you. well it's nice to be back at csis. it's an organization i deeply admire, only exceeded by but admiration for john hamre who i worked for as one of his trustees but also the policy board. i appreciate your being our host, john. let me say a few things about the argument of the book but i don't want to go on for

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