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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  June 6, 2015 6:00am-8:01am EDT

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l.a. go to bed at night thinking about their kids and wake-up worried about their jobs and spend the day working hard trying to get a better life. their values and concerns that up pretty much with what an e-mail and the street would want with their lives. they want to prosper, take care of their kids make sure when they get old somebody's going to be there for them. we reviewed for this project our
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polling over the last 15 years and basically what i can say is to some degree people are confounded in the region about the changes taking place and how to respond and also conflicted. in particular conflict about the united states. after 9/11 there was a notion why do they hate as? they hate our values. we polled in the region and we found they actually like our values and they like our freedom and democracy, they like our education system, our television programs etc.. fig don't like l.a. we treat them. they reacted to that when asked how do you feel about america we don't like america because one guy said in an interview post polling i feel like a jilted lover. i like america but i don't think america likes me. look at what they do to us. forward to 2009, we did a survey of obstacles in their region.
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what did people think were the biggest problems they face? the israel/palestine conflict in u.s. interference in the region issues of democracy and economic inequality even strife caused by religion didn't factor much at all. at the end of that year into the beginning of 2010 we did a poll we do very often. we asked abc's of even issues and asked people to rank them in terms of priority. the top issues were health care and employment and education and a couple of issues, terrorism ranks of bit high in some, corruption and nepotism in others but those three, health care, education and unemployment are top priorities almost everywhere and is real/palestine factors in, and existential question. interesting but questions dealing with a mock garcia and reform of government didn't make it into the talks here at all.
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wasn't a priority issue for the people we hold in every country. we asked them about what they wanted america to do what they thought america could be helpful with and again it was employment, education and health care and israel and palestine. issues of democracy and reform of government weren't there not unlike if you were to ask americans during the gun-control debate whether we thought it would be a good idea to bring the brits over to help us figure out or bring the canadian sense leads in to help us with health care reform people didn't want people meddling in their internal affairs. 2014 we asked the same questions, top priorities a you can see again israel/, a u.s. interference with the two issues people thought were the most destabilizing in the region. and yet given back, let me go to
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this first. the top issues were resolving the arab-israeli conflict in 2014 and syria. almost scant mention about iran and the nuclear program but when we asked people how important was the challenge versus how effective was the u.s. response this is what they said about is real/palestine. this is what they said about ending the conflict in syria. really important u.s. response limited. the nuclear program with iran not a factor at all and yet that is how effective we were. we were good at doing what they didn't really care much about and not good at doing what they cared most about. important to maintain good relations with the u.s. very important in almost every country we polled. how effective is the u.s. that maintaining good relations? we get credit for trying, not
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very effective but we are trying which is not a bad sign, better than the other way. let's look at a couple individual issues. syria for example. what are the policies of the u.s. should pursue in syria? humanitarian aid for refugees, pursuing negotiations and leaving syria alone. look at the blue, leaving syria alone atop the issue. what they didn't want us to do was airstrikes, direct involvement and the opposition, this is what i mean by at but the conflict and unfounded issue. syria is important. they want syria involved, they want the u.s. involved to provide leadership on it. what they don't want us to do any of those things because they don't trust the judgment that we make given our past experience in the region. conflict in syria contributed to an increase in sectarian, yes, very dramatically so.
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impact cerium refugees very dramatic in every country, security and the country's economy. in the conflict in syria who did they side with? it is interesting to note in every country every arab country is with the opposition except in lebanon where there is a division and in iran, turkey, and the other hand was interesting because it was the one country where the syrian opposition groups did very well and also in iraq it was the same. let's see area what would be the worst outcome in almost every country? the worst outcome matted together was the country being partitioned or fragmenting and/or bashar al-assad staying in power. iraq the best outcome for the
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future most of iraq's neighbors want iraq to stay whole and do not want iraq to fragment. is isis eighth read your country? a very grave threat in most of the neighboring countries where we polled but do they support the western led military intervention to combat isis? only in turkey where there was a significant majority and in iraq where opinion was divided but still a slight majority in favor and every other country opposition to that. they know what they want, they don't know how to get there. conflicted and unfounded is how i conclude until little lacking in confidence as well. >> thank you very much. i will change it up and stand
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over here a little bit. thanks yes of much for including us, to be part of this initiative. i took a different approach from doctors saudi. he had interesting topical information. i figured i would take a more longitudinal approach. to give you a contrast of what gallup has learned from polling in this region in 2005 on some topical issues that pulling the entire world, looking at the comparisons comparisons. i will tell you a little bit about our poll in response to an off-the-cuff remark by donald rumsfeld in 2001 about the inability to poll afghans on the afghan invasion with our ceo was watching the press conference and fought why can't we start pulling afghans? in 2001 we started a process of working with stakeholders' starting to build our capacity globally, running several pilot
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projects in the region, finalizing our surveys. in 2005, a lot of the data i will be sharing with you lot of what i mentioned that i may not have slides for come from. the first important lesson we learned that started after the arab spring, this is the metric we have been gathering leaders are following the wrong metric or not following enough of the right one. hi will give you an example in the second but what we ask that god and an important question is asking people how their own lives are doing on a scale from zero to 10 where you tell them to evaluate their current life can evaluate where they think their life will be in five years from today. if they respond with 7 or higher for today and 8 or higher in five years, gala places them in the sliding category. if a great airlines at 4 today
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and in five years they're placed in to the suffering category. what i will be showing you is the rate of those who fall into the thriving category in several countries but back to following the right metrics, egypt, gdp per capita very promising at the time of 2010, 2009, getting over the 2011 world economic forum giving egypt and tunisia recognition, bumping them up in rankings, competitiveness in doing business is improving. a lot a macroeconomic indicators and some economic reforms started take place, things looked very positive. when you ask the egyptians how they felt about what was going on in egypt this is what you found and this was a trend incoherent or cognitive dissonance between gdp per capita and a lot of other
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macroeconomic metrics and how people are actually reading their lives. we saw a similar graph in to nietzsche, bahrain, syria and egypt. you actually noticed the first budget is not the arab spring. the first budget is this making wheat prices in 2008-2009. when we come around the arab spring egyptians are registering something is going very wrong in their world their economy, their expectations but not a lot of people were picking up on it. to show you is that it is not just the middle east phenomenon, several high hitting countries in terms of instability throughout the region and what we saw look at ukraine at that at atlantic council, gdp per capita in ukraine, look how ukrainians had been raiding their lives. so you see there is certainly something there. i am not claiming this is a
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predictor for instability or that there is any causal relationship between stability or the variables just the something is going on and there are a lot more metrics we have learned to follow very closely beyond top line gdp or other rankings we're used to. to give you a positive example on the positive side, columbia, the desired outcome for most countries, much more healthy relationship between the macro economic reality and how people are evaluating their lives. egypt leading up to 2011 the only people who like evaluation scores were improving were the top 10% in income which is not a surprise to many of us who are familiar with the country so i want to look at life evaluation from a different perspective and examine the acute conflicts we have unfolding in the region. instead of showing u.s. sliding rate percentage done to show you the average american tour from
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zero to 10 both today and in five years. let's look at sea area. let's is how see rinse have been meeting their lives. i should mention in 2015 due to the security situation we have to exclude homes and governance, that reduced our sample to represent king 9% to 10% of the population so putting it more simply, in addition we had to substitute a quarter of our p s u with in the same areas the different locations based on the security situation but nonetheless easy later today in syria continues to be horribly rated and declining. interesting hope seems to be holding on. we did do a series of topical polls about when they thought the conflict would end about various aspects where kings are going. most did not see it, in 2013. maybe it has changed but wife
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evaluation reflecting the reality for syrians on the ground. here is yemen. clearly yemenis knew something was going on with their country before a lot of us were following them in the headlines and it drives home the point that as leaders, policy makers with the whar leading yemen or somebody is trying to help yemen these metrics become absolute essentials to understand what is underlying changes taking place here. bread and butter each use. i was hesitant to tidal this subject bread-and-butter issues, the greater jihad or it is the bread and butter issues to. depends what side of the aisle you are on but since this is above partisan effort i figured i would leave it at bread-and-butter issues and let people decide. on a serious note one of the
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underlying premise, to understand the causes to address the issues they capitalize on, the grievances they effectively used to get people to ideologically support them or even if not ideologically what we see in iraq, people feel they are a better alternative than the other shoelaces. let's jump into these issues. one thing we ask all over the world, in the last 12 months was there a time, to buy food for your family, that your family needed. i wanted to compare latin america and soviet eurasian countries, and dr. steve green with us today, in his book which i very much agree with, a big miss for us. since 9/11 and lost the ability, establishing democracy,
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not something we're trying to invent in the middle east improving economies is not something we are trying to do for the first time ever but other parts of the world that have seen a relative amount of success, what lessons learned from other parts of the world not all of them but maybe some of them. not enough money for food, deposed soviet eurasia countries making significant progress on that item. and median average of middle east countries, many countries that have note issue relatively speaking for most people with access to food. an increasing trend of concern on that. employment, 4 to 6 weeks depending on surveys you are talking about. this is responded 15 and older 30 hours for an employer of pay.
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post-soviet eurasia will be a little higher as expected. here is the middle east. basically no progress since the arab spring on the regional level. we have a great conversation over lunch, there are exceptions to this reality but in terms of developing on the jobs issue in the region, very little talk in the way of delivery. the feel safe walking alone at night? they did see uprisings. the middle east median average, there is egypt with a serious collapse during the arab spring and a significant rebound, the egypt waive in 2014 was three weeks after the president assumed office an important fact to keep in mind when
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looking at egypt day. there is iraq, jordan, lebanon and to be shut, safeunisia, safe walking alone at night. released almost no improvement or decline. varies egypt. we asked it'd different way but i wanted to use the most recent data. significant expectation that things improve in the last reading of 2014, consistently on government and corruption, egypt is consistently one of the highest, not a surprise, iraq a little bit of improvement, lebanon and tunisia at the end.
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desire to emigrate, one of the issues that has remained with us that was referenced in the video we just saw, when we asked ideally if you had the opportunity would you like to move permanently to another country or would you prefer to move prefer to continue living in this country, we're looking at the percentage of those is that i would like to move, i would like to leave my country permanently, there's a median average, there is egypt, iraq, tunisia significant improvement in tunisia, significant hope of people seeing things improving at not having to run away from what bad situation, jordan and lebanon at the very end. think about this, 15 to 30% of respondents, this is reflective of almost everywhere except the gcc countries, 15% to 30% want to leave.
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the steve jobs, the zuckerburgs, all of these people, a lot of them are trying to beef. one thing for this task force to consider is in terms of sustainable policy until you can stop that phenomenon from taking place but equally important for the u.s. numbers connect with vote parts of the world that are leaving these countries and succeeding that actually want to improve things in their own country. how do we form a strategy to not necessarily politicize but at least connect those networks and communities that are very serious about wanting to give something back and don't necessarily see a doubling of a future or security focus the lens of the future for the region for some of us in the city can. i wanted to share a few slides from iraq because i think the latest polling demonstrates what happens when societies lose faith in local and national
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institutions and movements like isis and others effectively capitalize on them. this is the same rage i share net of the beginning of this presentation. this is iraq broken into isil held areas, and iraqi kurdistan and iraq. and a proxy category for the region, and southern iraq, sliding coming back since the disaster september 13th meeting as maliki was in the full thrust of governance. the disputed areas, isil held territories, much lower in their sliding rate, since september of 2013 through december of 2014 to jog your memory, august is when the prime minister took over june july is when mozilla went
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to isis. this is six months and still fighting is low in known and shia areas. let's look at confidence in the military. similar dynamic where the shiite majority areas in baghdad and southern iraq seeing significant improvement, some improvement in disputed areas but i still held and iraqi kurdistan pretty significant loss of confidence and the military. the total, national average, notice on this slide and i should have showed you the previous wide almost tells you nothing. there's not a fluctuation on this level of analysis but when you look locally you see a lot. confidence in national government, national institutions like the military we did see a significant bounce back in the political appetite if you will in giving the new prime minister a chance. in iraq have confidence in each of the following, national
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government, confidence shot back to december of 2014. do you disapprove or approve of the way the prime minister is handling his job as prime minister? this is september of 2013, 13% of people approved of prime minister maliki's job performance. may of 2014 even worse to a point where barely a majority in baghdad and will lead a majority in the south approved of his approach of governance and very promising lead at least initially in december of 2014 a huge resurgence of at least a chance for this new political leader to strike a new page. what i challenge us to think about is how much should we state as policymakers on these very fleeting approval/disapprovals versus how much do we stake as policy-makers on addressing the underlying bread-and-butter e
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shoes. my argument would be we are a lot better off focusing on those issues. perhaps we have to deal with these issues that so much of our r p ms as washington has to be focused on this part, a lot less tends to be focused on the other part. iraq is an example. [applause] >> thank you so much. unwanted turn to ramadi who has been winning in a studio in cairo fairly late in the evening her time. tell us your own views of what public opinion is right now in their region. what our citizens in the region thinking about right now and how does it line up with what you heard here and what you have seen in terms of polling data?
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are you with us? >> hello, everyone. studying what every citizen in the region, i didn't hear anything today about unacceptable or something i have not seen with my interaction with my studies or political activism. overall i tend to agree with the picture, having said that i think there is a longer point. basically just like the person who came we aren't human
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beings. just like anywhere in the world. the idea of some thing wrong or exceptional needs to be -- this was the case. going out and dignity and understanding to flood everyone else but unfortunately we went back to adjusting back in particular. going to thing this, for victory
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who hate the u. s and so on and so forth. anything we see once we analyze it, completely clear how this is the reaction to the experience so when people are given the choice between their personal safety and their freedom the safety of their children and being able to live in a democracy, their own personal safety. and human instincts. understanding what it is in in order for them to have control between israel's bread-and-butter or security on the one hand or democracy and
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freedom and dignity on the other hand. the other thing i think we need to understand about public opinion in the region, for two years to come, things are changing so fast, with anything focusing on stability, this is the wrong bet. for stability being brought about. the idea is to think -- the only way forward for this region the expense of dignity and freedom
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and their bread and butter issues. with these introductions what we are thinking about what is going on in the note region, this is a series of crises, a transformation. in the nineteenth century, in the u.s. those transformations are messy, they take a long time and they run them out. the ideas they can be addressed, or conclusions between what
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people think today in the region that democracy -- bread and butter issues are a priority. they do not care about freedom and dignity because democracy is a means to an end. big daddy and freedom in a particular system or particular regime and this does not mean they have a difference. our universal values, no one wants to be in a police station.
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and at the region, things we have never seen before. when they were given a short to -- there is their own life. thinking -- people need to be said first and they would be fine because they don't care about freedom. it doesn't work this way. they need a number of things. all of them, sometimes the urgent need quickly and bread and butter issues that it is not because they tend to not value
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freedom or dignity. they are supposed to have to make another shall ease. the final thing to questions is the focus on bruce e. gerald versus specifics issues. continuing in the region, the urgency of asking people questions. do you want elections? do you want the u.s. to intervene in syria? we are missing the point. they are not procedural and
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technical. the idea is to make sure that there is an environment that leads to a political system that will be responsive. elections become a means to this. same with the issue of syria, intervention and no intervention missed the point because it is a technical issue a procedural issue for people in the policymaking, this decision should be based on a more in-depth understanding of what is going on. not particular elections for an air strike in order to momentarily -- the idea is to guarantee the use of circumstances to allow the
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people in this region to work for what they have been striving for for years. most of the people i talked to and work with including the person who runs that today they have made smooth sacrifices for what they saw in their future coming with the arab spring and small-business. and sacrifices. but the point where they can see first of all, risking their lives is okay but not to see the future. unfortunately, regional power and international powers, the majority of citizens of this region in a position, more
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pathetic, in a better future but they need some of them to resort to violence. the point of -- completely shocking. a couple years after 2011 with a presentation they are missing, a feeling of despair and intense frustration that citizens of this season are feeling. so thank you. >> thank you very much. that was extremely helpful and i think it shows the power of
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mixing polling data and anecdotal data. to understand in the polling data, democracy and freedom could be a low priority in the face of security or bread and butter e issues but that does not mean it is not an important element of where the people in the region want to go. it is a question of priority and responding to circumstances in which they find themselves. i think we are off to a terrific start in terms of trying to get some input and appreciation in the region and also this mixing of the anecdotal and polling is a very powerful tool and we will try to use that in the course of the study. we are a little bit running behind timewise. we have a firm 4:00 stop and i would like to propose rather than conducting a dialogue with
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in the panel i would like to turn to madeleine albright and give her a moment to comment and wheat will go right to the audience to our twitter followers and get as many questions in as we can. you want to come in for a moment? >> it truly was a interesting and i made a lot of notes and we have a lot to look at. the question for our task force is to look at the gate and try to figure out how we approach the longer-term course since a lot of the issues have to do with the media polling and the question in terms of security, jobs that cetera and look a little bit, make the suggestion there is the paradox here. we want to know what they want to do and to some extent they want us to have the united
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states do something they don't particularly like. for the u.s. ban did you do and damned if you don't. what is worth looking at, i have done an awful lot of polling in eastern europe at the time immediately after the fall of the wall and it was very similar to what you were talking about, for writing versus suffering and how people see their own personal situation versus what is going on in the country so i would be interested in who you actually poll, the age group, their jobs, because one of the things we found in eastern europe was it made a difference and it has a lot to do with whether you are quote somebody i always hate this term an intellectual versus somebody who is a worker has a very different approach to this, and dividing that up but the other part that i think we need to know is to what extent the people in the country know that this is up to
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them vote we can provide suggestions that we need to figure out and ultimately institutional development is important. as somebody who had a democratic institute, i find it hard to think democracy is not important. democracy has to deliver anyone to vote and be so whack of faith and institutions and i stole this statement from somebody but i used it because of a role of social media. what happened is people are talking to their governments on 21st century technology, the government hears them on 20th century technology and is providing nineteenth century responses and so there is no confidence in the institutions and yet institutions need to be built to deliver the jobs and health care. >> for their lives we have been
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asking the reagan questions. are you better off? and the data of the last 15 years. some of what you say, but it is an interesting way of looking at people and then looking at the demographics within. you are to be fined not a big shift among different age groups or gender groups. if there is hope in the country is widespread. if there is lack of hope it is widespread across demographic groups. >> one of the things we might do if the two of you are willing is to have a dialogue about other data you have that might be relevant. questions we can formulate or
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come from working group's l.a. would be wonderful to the contributions of studies and we can go to that and talk about that as a follow-up to this conference. let me open the floor for questions from the audience. jessica, somewhere here, a source of twitter questions. i will look to jessica when we have a twitter question and we will put that into the mix. for those of you in the hall here i know is a little dark. if you raise your hand i will hopefully see it and after you acknowledge, please wait for the mic, we have microphones which will come from the outside. state your name and affiliation and i ask both the questioners and responders to be brief. and to the point. because we want to try to get as many questions in between now and 4:00 as we can. let me begin with ambassador
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day. >> good afternoon. let me thank you for this. a couple time lines we as ambassadors and is. >> told the mic a little closer. >> i hope such discourse and discussion would lead to enrich and discussion with 2016 elections in united states, an important, i hope an important contribution to define the discourse. to the time line you have for your own projects understanding what is taking place versus the policies prescribing for it.
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another issue. another point, the view of the united states throughout the region versus what the region wants from the united states. unfortunately although -- the description of what is taking place in the united states at least some expectations of the region. that is too much a task to ask because it is important. >> those are very important points. one of the things i would say we are trying to get in this study and you ought to jump in on this, it gets too much about the united states and the region and what the region wants of the united states and with the united states wants of a region.
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we think is that back look needs to begin with what the region wants for its all. what is the conversation that is going on in a region? what are their thoughts and expectations of what they want for themselves? that seems to was to be the starting point, then have our conversation, what might the united states and europe and other countries be able to do and how to do it in a way that is acceptable and positive for the region? we will get to that interaction but we really want to start with a better appreciation of what is going on and in the region and we save the region as if it is all one thing and the situations are very different country to country and that is something we need to get around on as we go towards recommendations. thank you very much. in the back.
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yes? exactly right. speak loudly. >> i have a question. do you think of the growing anti isis contingent throughout the region would be enough basis for the united states to create a relationship with those people or people on social networks? what did be enough groundwork for a stronger relationship between the united states and middle east countries? >> do you want to take that? >> you take that case? >> and let me briefly, people in the region are well aware they
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are the main actors and look to the u.s. the arab spring did not come out of any kind of plan on the sixth of january 2011 to say they think the mubarak museum -- renasgime is responsive to the people. this has nothing to do with people's perception in the region. it is how strategically the policeman of the world's end --
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position. and continuing asking, what are we supposed to do? the presentation, i can't remember which crisis but there was a point about leave us alone. that was an option, leave us alone. the anti isis question, i don't think being anti isis is enough for people of the region to bond with the u.s. and believe in the capacity of this administration or the following administration
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to deliver because we can have common enemies but that does not make a trend. plus there is a lot of talk in the region about isis being an outcome of different forms of u.s. policy for the position on not supporting the arab spring, this is now the u.s. complaining about, but as far as doing -- anyway. as i said what we need to do is actively understand and understand the u.s. cannot be
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the leader but if anything try to coordinate between its own national interests and what people in the region are trying for. >> speaking anecdotally i want to address the question. i want to push back and say when you are the biggest factor in the room you will always be damned if you do damned if you don't. i say as somebody who is studying public opinion, public opinion matters, but making the most appealing decision in cairo if you watch what is happening in the last two years that is not a strategy because in many cases public opinion will take you to a place that is not very consistent with democratic values, a lot of values of public opinion is extremely important but when you cross policy i would caution against
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the finding which policy is popular. what was very popular in egypt just 18 months ago, europe's aid nobody wanting to touch it. egyptians did not want it. that conversation now in any coffee shop with an egyptian and propose to them the u.s. cutting aid to the military, military species, they had a very different attitude. what we have seen in the region of public opinion is it has been very effectively manipulated by some environments to provide not very convenient pattern or whatever powers they're trying to operate from the regime in a region or isis or the muslim brotherhood or al qaeda following the "i am, unfortunately, randy newman" and flow of public opinion can be disastrous. it doesn't mean we should ignore people's opinion but it means in my personal view we should give
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less credence to the jam did you do damned if you don't as a problem. that is just the reality. >> i guess we don't have time but i have to take issue, an important issue. there's a reason we have dammed and that is the trajectory of history we have in the region that has not been pretty. when i did my book arab voices and a myth americans have about arabs about us, they think we are really smart. what do you mean?
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they think that we are all powerful and we make decisions based all the time on our interests so when something happens that is really stupid they think we knew what we were doing and got the outcome we wanted. we invaded iraq so iran would be more powerful than the arabs would turn to was for more weapons and was part of a master plan because they couldn't explain our stupidity. they couldn't. that is an issue we have to wrestle with. as americans if we look at ourselves as the agents of the exchange, this project ought to be, we need to understand what the arab world wants. one of the things that compounds the whole study is they don't look at us as the positive agent of change as much we look at ourselves in the mirror and think we're really a great bunch of guys, we know what the world needs, they don't see us in the same way. that is a problem we have to wrestle with as americans. >> one word here, people compare
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this to eastern europe. they wanted to be like the west and that is not what happened. >> what president obama said in 2011 he said we didn't start this referring to the arab spring we didn't start it, can direct it or determine its outcome. there is a sense of humility we have to have as we approach this. what we can do is help them in ways they want help from us. the conversation we need to have is that one and you hit the nail on the head a couple times. when we asked people if this is true for muslim majority countries and arab countries what is the number-1 thing you admire most about america? liberty and freedom are the first thing they say, technology is the second thing they say. i in no way say people in that region don't want the outcomes of democracy and the governance. a just saying democracy has a brand with those people and
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absolutely we have made bad policy decisions in the region especially in the last 15 years, but moving forward my point was we should not simply just do what is popular because what is popular, what has become popular at this late date in the arab spring is not something we can get behind in a lot of countries. >> i am going to bring this to a close and we will do some other questions. i think there are two. just because it is short-term popularity is not a true charge for a future of a prosperous and stable middle east and people in the middle east will know that. secondly a footnote. america does have its own interests and sometimes those interests contradict the preferences of the people in the region. when your country is attacked from that region you have to respond and do things that won't
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be popular in that region. one of the things we have to do if we get this understanding in the region is put it through the filter of our national interests. jessica, do we have any twitter questions at this point? no? >> the big tissue it, jobs young people want prosperity. the challenge short-term is how do you create jobs? through innovation, the region has a lot of -- $2.5 trillion in foreign-exchanges.
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how do you get people to invest? that is the big challenge. >> we have a good taskforces and you are supporting them and that is clearly a part of the study. do you have a twitter question here? >> we have a question from twitter and they want to know how can we harness public-private partnerships better to more effectively meet the needs and wants of people in the region? >> back to president obama the same speech i am talking about, may of 2011, the fifth anniversary of cairo, the fourth anniversary of the cairo speed jeff flock, talked about all of that and when he sit here is what we can do and what he talked about was a fund to promote the public/private
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partnership that would create small medium-sized enterprises to create jobs and help build the middle class in tunisia and egypt and they will be the catalysts that will make democracy move forward. and we could create the structure is that would enable it. there are plenty of ideas out there but the question is is getting the will on the part of government to make those programs available and push them forward. aid has programs that are underfunded but are the areas i think our foreign aid problems ought to be creating enterprise funds and public/private partnerships to create a private sector. >> what happened as a result of the cairo speech secretary clinton wanted partners for a new beginning, i share that, public/private partnerships and tunisia is a good example, a
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local chapter dependent on the local, we just had an investor conference to bring public/private partnerships together. that is a model that works very well for trying to figure out how to develop this jobs jobs jobs. >> we are down to the 4:00 hour so i am going to take one more brief question brief response and then we are going to adjourn. and those of you who have to leave can do so. those who want to say we have a reception in the hall and hopefully a number of you can continue this conversation after we adjourn. there was a hand up here. >> i am with u.s. aid. 84 speaking to us and what we do. i wonder if you could talk a
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little bit more about what role u.s. aid or government aid can have in the region because a lot of the findings were interesting. and talk to the needs they have in terms of wellness like jobs a gentleman was saying, but in addition to the question about public/private partnerships some of the discussions we have been having have been around should we get back to more basic development projects such as the
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more core basic projects hasn't resumed this are improving the way in which domestic subsidize bread is processed through the ovens people who stand in front of every day, i wrote to get bread. usaid should be fixing the water system and a fixing nursing in a place like egypt or any other country the night was more familiar with that example because it is the most-active but those of the projects that are apolitical nobody can black list. in will be hard that the government is helping with the infrastructure of the water system. that is a crazy theory that will not get too much play. but those kinds of projects
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demonstrate you are in for the long haul and not interested in any short-term political gain. and you are not doing this -- you're doing this because this is your long-term commitment to this region in this country, nothing to do with what president is in office or any of that. you demonstrate this is the interest of america the american people moving forward in the long term. and has value. ..

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