tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN August 4, 2015 10:00pm-12:01am EDT
of the lack of a better term mechanics to work on the weapon systems into vehicles but what we didn't do well as we did and build up the middle management to take the time to build what i call the senior noncommissioned officers to keep them into it's going. so again i will assist those every week as we move forward and we make adjustments based on input i get from the afghans. ..
>> maintenance, aviation intelligence. and i think that you will see nato come on board as we continue to build on the capability of those forces. >> we are willing to stay a little longer if need be. >> i think that we are waiting to see where the u.s. is going to go. every day we are assessing that. another my senior leadership at the end of the fighting these individuals, we will make some decisions in 2016 and beyond.
>> thank you very much. our question about the afghan government. i would like to ask one about the region and then we will wrap up from there. we have talked about how abdullah and president ghani are doing. we have heard reports about how long it has taken for them to be formed. could you just explain whatever you think are the most important highlights. in the broader question is how well are they doing twomac are they starting to make headway or is this sort of capping these tensions that are so severe that they could explode at any given time. >> i think that this is the best political construct now. and what is important to recognize is that this is a
unique arrangement that hasn't happened in the past in afghanistan. and you need to kind of put it in context of where we were a year ago. how would we then end up in this arrangement that we have right now. because a year ago we still had president hamid karzai who had been leader since 2002. in every five years they had one in april of 2014. and he wasn't allowed to stand in as president and so then you had 26 candidates afghanistan had even more of them. so at the end of the day you had a candidates running in april of 2014 and in order to win the candidacy, no candidate was able to reach that threshold.
the first one was a duo with about 40% of the vote. and that happened about two months afterwards in june which we then contested because of both of them being on top and there was a wide recount that happened for a number of months. and that arrangement was brokered by secretary kerry in the united states in order to bring them both leaders together to help govern the countries together. and you just had president karzai at the helm. and doctor abdullah had handled
the day-to-day operations. and so this is very difficult. what is fascinating to see is how both leaders have a different approach to common problems and how their strength after all have the ability to be good. they are generally on the same page when it comes to broad-based policy. so when it comes to security and regional relations and women's rights and that shouldn't be taken lightly with regard to some of the earlier challenges that we have had. and so where are the challenges that they face and they have had
this a long time until even one president karzai was president, it took many months for him to put his cabinet together and so what are the benefits. and while it does take time to come to an agreement, once an agreement is made, that agreement is much stronger. because both of them are able to deal with their own constituencies who fundamentally disagree on political dynamics. but it actually strengthens the bond of the decision we have an cabinet formed and it's a real surprise that he was not able to
pass this a few weeks ago. it is good that he is still serving in this capacity. but it's also good to talk about this. and what is important to keep in the back of your mind is that the more time that of all the so with this in place the stronger the bond is. and while there are others that are outside the government saying that things need to be changed, i think that they need to recognize and i don't think it's at the point where anyone can bring this down. there's too much of a vested interest in this. they know that they the whole country recognizes the value of the community in afghanistan's
future. >> for probably the last three or four months they continue moving forward. and i think as was said over time, they continue to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each other and when they are together, i actually think they complement each other and they work very well. and all the national level strategic issues, there's no daylight between them. it's all about picking people as they have helped to satisfy different groups and i think that they are working very hard and i think that everyone understands that we had to get this going. and really over the last several days we have been talking every single day. yesterday they did a video teleconference from germany back
to afghanistan, talking about the issues at hand. and so i think between them they understand how important it is. this is the way to go, 80 plus percent of the people in afghanistan have said that the government is our only way forward. there are people trying to keep this moving forward and they understand how important it is and i think they're not going to let that happen. >> it's also an appreciation of the international community. that is so clear when they came to washington and addressed this with both of them and really kind of expressing their
appreciation that america has given in to be able to work together in a partnership. >> we recognize that they are not here joining us and you don't want to get too far into the summa is there anything one could say that they have begun to deliver for the benefit of the afghan people? obviously making a government work and continuing in preserving security, that is already a great deal. i don't want to be unrealistic, as you say tardy been nine or 10 months. but is there anything that we could point out with any kind of development program that is out there, anything else that is a good sign as where the government is going in afghanistan? >> this is something that they view as a top priority and it's
right on par with security. and what's interesting is how they both engage this in a robust way and economic issues. to the north, given the relationships he has there has really been pushing forward on those things. with regards to the ease to be able to bring economic growth in the west. opening up trade routes is important. this actually includes greater trade with regard to sanctions and others as well. and so they are really serving this is a great benefit to all in the region. and they really are taking this in terms of being a source of
stability. >> they are still in the gdp growth capability. they have done pretty well when we were at 2001 in 2002 and they have done reasonably well in some of that was propped up by the influx of our dollars and so forth. and when i was there in the 2011 in 2012 timeframe people were scared about what would happen to the economy. and i think it's a challenge that they know that they have to address and this gets back to where they know they have to address this. this is something that they cannot fight on. given the skills and the importance. our withdrawal from the country in terms of these numbers has really kind of left this economic debt. but we know we need to do this
and we know we need to reach out for this area he's reaching out not only to them but to the wider region and to be able to kind of say, okay even when it comes to saudi arabia, when it comes to china and the energy matters, it's a key point that he emphasizes time and time again. and we saw when he was in moscow. so he knows if there's ever going to be long-term stability it's going to be that. >> you have been mentioning the key relationships already and some of the interplay with pakistan's own security efforts. is there anything else in the
region with regard to china's role, anything else that we should understand that you think is particularly salient right now remapped. >> i have been in afghanistan for over five years and everyone says that this last year was most critical. but i must candidly say that is pastor has been fundamentally different than others. and there have been a number of strategic tips that have happened and a lot of folks couldn't have predicted that they present great promise and peril to the region and that is why there are these adjustments going on. and i think that there are issues with regards to pakistan and we have all been reading about this in the press. donnie has really kind of pushed forward with trying to be able to have this undeclared state of hostility, having it in to be
able to have a fundamental situation with them so that there can be greater economic issues. and so we didn't know if the u.s. would be in the region either. and someone could recall this in 2014 or about 142 people were killed in a school 135 were children. it was very graphic. and in many ways the way it was described, i can see the reason why. it was pakistan's 9/11 which woke them up with regard to their own security issues and borders that they have to
address. see you can see pakistan take on many security challenges within their own country with regards to this with what the general alluded to. it's something that we have been encouraging them to do for a wild. and of course, the secondary effects with regards to afghanistan, which is another reason why the security situation has picked up at times. what you are also seeing is in regards to greater reach out. especially with regards to the peace mission, things that we didn't anticipate what kind of pick up the momentum that they did. so there are all of these things are that are happening that are truly strategic in nature. and we do have a great strategic
opportunity to make sure that they do not affect the past. >> we are going to transition the entire time from a government perspective and a regional perspective. the changes include being a commander in chief, being a wider regional perspective. we did not see that with president karzai this last several years. in its attempt to make sure that people understand that you can't talk about afghanistan and he really went out of his way and expended a lot of political capital to do that.
and that includes taking a lot of kickback from the population and i think that now that people will say that includes driving the taliban into the peace process. it's going to take a long time and we shouldn't kid ourselves. the incident that we had finding out he's been dead for 2.5 years will change the dynamic. it's going to drive some to the table with her at tendency to drive others quicker. and so we still have to work with that. but i really do think that this is a strategic opportunity to have a country in that part of the world that wants to be part of the international community that has a senior leadership and wants to move forward and they are going to continue to need are some words. and thankfully we have 42 countries that are still tied into this and continue to
provide either people or money. and i think for the international donor peace, making sure that people understand what they do contribute to afghanistan, it's making a difference every day and will continue to do that in the future and i look forward to working with you going forward. >> her book is one of the very best on the subject. so i would like to turn things over to you. >> thank you very much, gentlemen, for coming and for the analysis. most of all for your commitment. you spoke of the importance of the national unity government not just the arrangement that came out but more probably that commitment of politicians to progress as a country. coming through the government
itself is as much as it might be defined in some ways it is also in and handing over, that is supposed to be either endorse or dissolve this arrangement. prior to that could you give us your reflection on what kind of preparation is being made for the parliamentary elections? what are the politics of that and also the impact on the security forces. in particular there has been another year of transition for the diminishment of u.s. rules
and that includes any preparations that will be put in place and security preparations of the juxtaposition of this coming together at the same time. >> if i could just raise two points on that. i think that there will be a lot of discussions in order to address that more directly with regards to the particular appointment of the election. what is interesting from my viewpoint is how they will actually be carried out from security perspectives and that will be fundamentally different from in the past. in the past this has been there to help to provide a lot of assistance and while the afghans have their own airlift it certainly is in comparison. so regards to the fight that they are taking on themselves
it's going to be a real test. and as we all kind of do our own analysis on this, i believe that that will be a milestone on them being able to stand up and do that from a political perspective and also from a security perspective very at i have been impressed as they are giving a specific event in order to kind of locked down in some ways. i mean that was very great event. i was very impressed with that. they were able to make sure that there was nothing that was threatening that from a security perspective. and i definitely don't think that that would be a problem for them being able to perform. how that works out politically? i wouldn't really want to guess on that. what i have seen over the past year has constantly surprised me
in terms of the twist and turns with these sorts of events. right now the date hasn't been set, of course that will be a political calculation on all sides. what i will be looking at is how the security forces are formed and how they prepare themselves for it. >> i don't think they can even talk about it until they figure out the election of warm and they just announced this the last couple of weeks that the doctor is taking that on, they had their first meeting about two weeks ago and i think that they're going to work towards it for the next several weeks what that means when parliament comes back in and then they will decide that it will probably be in the spring or after the fighting season based on the security and i think you'll make that decision for the next month or so. from a security perspective before this or after this we
still have several months before that and again once the security forces, if it's a specific event they have no issue doing the detailed planning to get ready to do something like that. and i think they have to get through election reform before they get anywhere on that would have the election. >> we will start taking two at a time and then turn to you again. >> hello, i work for the bbc and i would like you to talk a little bit more about this. you also talked about how afghanistan is near and due dear to you. i'm wondering what your most how to. is there anything more specific about your experience there be remember as you are legacy? >> thank you mike and general campbell, thank you very much
for being a service to our country. [inaudible] and about over three years ago the admiral told congress about this strategic asset in many ways and that includes pakistan's intelligence. since then they have made it quite clear leading to this in the two plus year timeframe. and the question that i guessed all the time is how can you trust pakistan. my question to you is the same one that i get asked frequently. how can we trust pakistan? are they for us or against us? and i have a second question related to that as well. in his recent book, he
essentially missed the vote and general, the former head says the intelligence system needs to be reworked. are you satisfied that you're getting the right kind of intelligence or does this need to be reworked. >> we have to remember all four of those. let me start with an easy one and what it has meant to me. i went back as a major general. my son is a sergeant in the army and he has been there twice. i have lost many friends in afghanistan and iraq as well. but what i think has impressed me the most is working with the afghan security forces, the men and women that continue to
understand how important the role is to bring about change in afghanistan and they have no qualms about putting their life on the line to do that. it's a volunteer force and to see these young men and women in harsh conditions continuing to move forward every single day for the good of afghanistan, to see them dead a certificate to stand up in front of the crowd for afghanistan it makes you did goosebumps. they are very giving people. they take care of me and my men and women. when we have had green on flu attacks they have gone after that to make sure we can learn everything we can after that. and they understand the sacrifice of the men and women have endured. so when you work with a partner
you don't want to fail and you want to make sure that everything that you do, do you put your best effort toward. that is the latest with the senior leadership and that's the way this would be after afghan police that i've dealt with on many trips here. i'm honored to have the opportunity to continue to serve and i think that the people asked me all the time if it's worth it. and i have to look appearance in the eyes and say that their son and daughters pay the ultimate sacrifice. and that it was worth it and i do believe in my heart that it has been worth it and that we have made a difference and that we will continue to make a difference. when you talk about the definition of hope and what that means to the afghan people, it is about what the men and women here in the united states have done for the last 14 years. so they understand that and i think that if you ask any afghan on the street about this the
coalition forces, you would find out that that is very positive and they certainly understand the sacrifice. there has speculation as to whether he was dead or alive, that sort of kept alive his presents. they talk about another engagement they had in the taliban is really in smaller groups the way they operate, all they had to have was the notion that they had a spiritual leader, a commander that was out there and now i think that knowing he's been dead for several years since about april 2013, that is going to cause people to think, what have i been doing this for and i think there's opportunity for
afghanistan for them to help the facilitate this to the table. you brought up how can we trust pakistan. and again i had a very good relationship with the general, i tried to talk to him every week. i go over there about once a month, i was there 10 days ago talking to him. most my conversations how can we bring this to fight a common enemy that doesn't know the border of this between these two countries. so in general we have to leadership teams that understand that it is not business as usual. and they are going to have to work together. years and years of mistrust.
if you talk to any afghan security force on the first thing they will say is that pakistan has been harboring these guys. but they also understand that they have to have peace with pakistan before they move on. that is where the president is trying to move forward. this piece is very difficult. it has been the number one threat to the coalition forces and i would say the afghan forces as well and there's no doubt in my mind that pakistan over the years has not done enough to help us in the back. i've had a good discussion when i was over there 10 days as we focused on how connie. that is going to take time and i think as they look at it they have a lot of other issues that they have to deal with it inside of pakistan and they don't want to connie to turn on them. they have to look at that as well.
but i think you're going to see a concerted effort by pakistan to continue to drive down the violence level over the next couple of months. the president has been very strong in giving him this out there show is that you really mean what you say this time and it's not like it was last year with your order. so again i think it's going to take time. have i seen any measurable changes impact than against them? i will tell you know because i'm so worried about the threat that they are bringing to cobble. they are the folks that will continue to keep the pressure on pakistan. and i think that we will be as accurate as possible. >> mike is a good friend of mine and we grew up together.
i'm not going to comment on his comments, but i think over the years we have learned a great deal from a conventional perspective in all of our services join together. from an inner agency perspective, what we do and how we operate today is light-years 13 or 14 years ago. the intelligence services is the best in the entire world. i would stack that up against anyone in the world. the cooperation that we have between the military and the inner agency to include this in the community, we don't agree on everything and i think quite frankly they have a view that is glass half empty all the time with a lot of holes in it. i will argue about that. people go back and look at different reports and it should've been done a few years ago. but that's okay. they are looking at it very hard, we work together as we move together.
but i would not want to be in afghanistan without the intelligence team that we have that provides indications in that relationship that helps us mitigate that everyday. >> is with regards to taking away these eight and a half years, the most viable thing has been both with military colleagues and others. the afghans and iraqis, it's something that will always be deep to me and a sense of purpose. you know, what is important is that all sides continue to try to push this and i think that is the real drive it will continue. and i think that these are the sorts of things that these challenges and curveballs four. and that includes the issue and
whether or not we are able to remain focused. i think that the primary players are being able to reduce violence and bring back peace that's the key thing in order to keep in mind with this. to get that to the point that i alluded to with regards to how they are trying to deal with this, these are problems that have gone on for 30 some years and again, ending that undeclared state knowing that this is not going to be something that you're going to achieve it if you weeks or months or a few years, this is something that i think is going to take many years and this includes a number of other issues in your giving those indications to pakistan as well.
and while that might not be there, the issue is whether you are able to identify certain interest in order to build momentum. and i think they are working towards eyeing those so you can get through the inevitable challenges and curveballs that may throw our way. >> sure, exactly. two more rounds of questions and then we will ask each person to only ask one question so we have time to get to two more rounds. so let's talk to the two gentlemen and third row, one question. and then we will have a final round. >> thank you. we have talked about this with 50 some companies who have provided services to us in afghanistan. as you draw down will you be
turning more to them to fill some of these gaps? >> thank you very much. my question is that dealing with where the taliban is concerned, they have been talked about killing people and they have killed many people. so what does the future, and what role do you think that india had done a lot. >> on the contractor question what we have tried to do is in areas that we could have this we have built it up to a point
where we are very dependent upon contracts with the skill sets that we could not afford to have them do. that number has continued to rise over the last couple of years we have retrograde at our equipment and people try to strike a balance of both military and contractors and as we move forward we will continue to have that balance and there are many critical areas that contractors provide on protection on and on and we will continue to have contractors on the battlefield and i think that we just have to balance that and we have more folks pick up many of those jobs out there as well. >> with regards to the peace process and the role that they
have pointed out, they all have a vested interest be it economic interest or political interest, or regional stability interests and i think that being able to do it provides greater impetus behind the collective efforts. india has invested a lot of money out west in west in afghanistan and i suspect that they don't want to have these coming through. and so again it is finding those common interests in order to kind of achieve the desired ends the question is whether there is a political dissolve in afghanistan and with the taliban
in order to achieve that. the fact you are able to have the talks happen in early july they sit down to address this problem that is not something that is not significant. but i think that it's something that is worth the effort at all sides are contributing to. >> unhappy that pakistan and india and china and russia, all of them are taking issue they are working together in a stable afghanistan is a good thing. i am all for that. the important piece is that this is something that the president has taken on.
>> would they like to look at this here and next year to their opportunity? any indications that they are becoming discouraged? they are actually not taking a lot of territory. i'm wondering if there's any such indication that they are actually finding the going tougher than expected? >> we have talked numbers. the reporting of a number of those that have been killed is probably three or four times higher than it was last year. so the security forces have inflicted a lot of casualties as well. we see signs of fracturing from leadership and lack of supplies and money to competing against eyesores in parts of afghanistan where they are coming in to take away from the taliban. so i think they have significant issues and now they are finding out an element that you have been following the last two
years it was a spiritual head of your movement that has been dead for two and a half years. why do you continue fight. so i think there is an opportunity for both sides here to come together and i think that afghanistan will take that opportunity and i think that the taliban has to work here as well. they are tired of the last 14 years, they want to get on with their lives and i think the only way that they are going to do that is because the afghan government is not going to fall to the taliban and they realize that as they come to the process. they are not taking territory or meeting these goals that they set out they are going to lose it. so they are not going to gain terrain that you talk about the city is or any territory that means a great deal or has a great deal of value to afghanistan. and again the president from the first day that he took over this, he reached out to the
taliban and said that your brothers and sisters of afghanistan and you need to come to the peace process, we have to have a solution. so hopefully this is going to speed this up and we want to continue to fight the fight. [inaudible] >> they are not getting any more terrain, they are taking this where they are losing it within 24 hours 48 hours they have losses were the people, you know every poll and survey that
we take shows an approval rating as less than 5% and the afghan people want the same things that we want, they want jobs for their kids, they want their kids to go to school, that is something that the taliban can have. >> taking two more questions and i think we will go over here. and then back to the woman in the red shirt. >> mark schneider, crisis group. let me push harder on that question. just this year since january you have had the highest rate of attacks since 2001. while it is clear that they haven't been able to pick cities, they have been able to
essentially threaten a lot more cities outside their normal area of operation. so they have managed, if you will, to sustain themselves over time. and obviously the nsf as well. and so our question is really are they going to be able to continue to maintain their ability to provide security unless we maintain our level of support both in terms of air support or logistics and not just the end of next year but beyond. and this and that the only way to get them to come when they see that they are not going to achieve their objectives militarily see that the last question we will wrap up. >> thank you so much for being so active with the national unity government.
i view almost weekly. [inaudible] and you made that remark that we are getting involved in afghanistan and bringing some help to the wounded soldiers. in my work we have an impact not just of the wounded warriors but to their families. not a lot most of us have wives and daughters and sisters. and when they return, a lot of problems happen at home. will it have an emotional counseling part for the rest of the soldiers? thank you. >> on the first one again i
think that from a part of this they are doing 98 and 99% of this on our own this season. providing this at the core level and the ministry level and some of the special operating force levels and they have this they have this at a time when it's been very tough and i think that they continue to progress. i think that the taliban and i think that they are realizing that they needed to do something spectacular this season in order to make a statement to say that we are relevant. and again, they are not making the gains that they talked about. are they having high-profile attacks, yes. one or two people running into a place that houses the ngos and it's very hard to stop. but i think that they continue
to improve and people need to continue to stand up and fight this and identify somebody that doesn't belong there, and as they do that and they partner with the afghan security forces you mentioned cities and i talked more in terms of villages and checkpoints. small centers in the middle of nowhere. and even then it was probably a good 10 kilometers which made it sound like they were going to fall in the next 24 hours. as i talk to the senior leadership and we took a look at the different sensors that we had, we probably, we and the afghan individuals, the way that they get their messaging out is
probably to meet some improvement and we have talked to them about that and said that we need to get the right message out, when we don't do that they had a much better propaganda machine just like my soul does. they get the message out and they don't have to tell the truth. and then all of a sudden it blooms and starts picking up steam and i haven't seen that yet. if you are on the ground and your house is under attack, if you lost a loved one wars are going to have a completely different outlook on life and the feeling that the government is in supporting you. but from a strategic level that i look at, the taliban arnon making the gains that they need to get. and they continue to make progress and i think bed it is continued progress in the right leadership holding people accountable, i don't think that the others are down the road. i would say that we are in the
stages of trying to build the program and it's a great idea that we talked about, bringing that emotional piece to the families. we have sent back senior leaders back to the united states to view how we do our programs from all of the different services we have taken those ideas back to afghanistan. we are starting to figure out how to do that everywhere from providing payments to families that lose a loved one to providing health care to make sure that they get the right care and they are working hard on their procedures to take care people. i talked about this earlier not having seven or eight people in the back of a pickup truck, where your headgear. we are working all of those at the same time and i think as we
continue to do that, you will see that the afghan ratio will continue to go down, just like they did in afghanistan over the years. they have a lot of work to do and just talking about taking care of martyred families and wounded warrior families i think that's a good thing and the international community the uk is stepping up there and i hope to see other countries step up as well. >> please join me in thanking these two. >> thank you. [inaudible] >> we would like an opportunity to talk about the great men and women. many have returned three or four or five times many have sacrificed a great deal and so we cannot do what we do without
having our family's supporters being in the military. [inaudible] and so we shouldn't take that for granted, i don't take it for granted and i try to make sure that every time that i go to sleep at night that i have done everything i can resource wise and decision lies to put our men and women up in the best possible position and if we start to take that for granted we don't take care of the wounded warriors, we don't remember the ultimate sacrifice paid by the great men and women shame on us. we thank you for your continued support and again i see we continue to make progress we
>> on the next "washington journal" a recent article on the 114 congress which examined congressional gridlock. and then the competitive enterprise institute and jeremy simons of the defense fund look at the obama administration's clean power plan that calls for 30% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. plus your phone calls and facebook comments and tweets. "washington journal" is live at 7:00 a.m. eastern on c-span. >> this month c-span radio takes you to the movies. >> a can of worms argument. we recommend opening a can.
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financial sanctions in exchange for international nuclear sites. in the senate, bill nelson says that he will support the agreement and we will also hear from jerry moran about why he opposes the deal. this is ari half-hour. >> we have the taken us quite seriously. i have talked with folks on all sides of the issue. exper these includes colleagues asle east a well asnd constituents and experts on the middle east and central asia and arms control the cons tiexperts, foreign allies and it
includes just plain folks. 1-2. >> and i want to say that a nuclear physicist has been especially helpful. and and needless to say i wish to lev say that the three americans jailed in iran 13 dash for what rate 1, missing in iran, i wish thato they had been a part of an agreement of this agreement to return folks... th >> levinson family is anxious for information and help to o return. this is personal for me. and i am a strong supporter of israel mr. president and i
recognize that country is one ofhe u.s a america's most important allies. i am committed to the protectionnd of israel as the best and rightlessed foreign policy for the united states and our allies. citizen and mr. president, i am blessed to represent florida which also has among our citizens a strongst and vibrant jewish community. .. compensation from european insurance companies which turned their back on them after world war ii and would not honor their insurance claims. in our state we're also proud to have a floridian a former u.s. and miami beach resident
as the israeli ambassador to the u.s. ambassador ron as the really israeli ambassador to the u.s. >> ambassador ron dormers grew up, his father and brother are former mayors, he is someone i have enjoyed getting to know and have had several conversations over the years and recently spent time with him about his opposition to this joint agreement. i acknowledge that this is one of the most important preparations and will be one of the most important votes that i will test in the senate. because of the foreign and defense policy consequences are both huge for the u.s. and our allies. unless there is an unexpected
change in the condition and facts before the vote is called in september, and it will be called on the very first day that we return in september unless there is an unexpected change i will support the nuclear agreement between iran and the e5 plus one which are the u.s., u.k., france russia, china, and germany. because i am convinced it will stop iran from developing a nuclear weapon for at least the next ten to 15 years. no other available alternative accomplishes this vital objective. the goal of this almost two-year
negotiation, culminated in this field, the goal was to deny iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon this objective has been fulfilled in the short term. for the next ten years, iran will reduce its centrifuges, machines that enrich the iranian by two thirds. they will go for more than 19000 centrifuges to 6000. only 5000 of those will be operating all of the times, all of the most basic models. the deeply buried ford o facility will be converted to a research lab, no enrichment can occur there and no material can be stored there.
for the next 15 years iran stockpile of enriched iranian which currently and amounts to 12000 kilograms, enough for ten bombs, will be reduced by 98% to only 300 kilograms. research and development into advanced centrifuges will also be limited and taken together these constraints will lengthen the time it would take for iran to produce a highly enriched uranium for one bomb so-called breakout time will reduce it from two to three months that they could break out now to more than one year.
that is more than enough time to detect, and if necessary, stop iran from racing to a bomb. iran's ability to produce a bomb with plutonium will also be blocked under this deal, the iraq reactor which is currently constructed to produce enough plutonium for one to two bombs each year it will be redesigned to produce no weapons grade plutonium. iran will have to ship out and dispense fuel from the reactor forever. iran signed the nuclear nonproliferation treaty in 1968 in which, they agreed agreed they would not pursue nuclear weapons. iran has reaffirmed this principle and this joint agreement, iran also says they want to eventually make new
grade nuclear fuel as other name he t nations produce electricity. if they comply, they will eventually be allowed to do so under this joint agreement. and our expectation is that in 15 years when iran can lift at the limit of 300 kilograms of low enriched uranium, if they have not cheated, they will continue to abide by their and pt obligation and use their fuel only for electricity. if they deviate from those civilian purposes than harsh economic sanctions will result and very possibly u.s. military action.
mr. pres., the world will be a very different place in ten to 15 years. if we can buy this much time, instead of iran developing a nuclear bomb in the near future then that is reason enough for me to vote to uphold this agreement. if the u.s. walks away from this multinational agreement then i believe we would find ourselves alone in the world with little credibility. but there are many more reasons to support this agreement. the opponents of the agreement say that war is not the only art turn it into the iranian. indeed they as articulated by the israeli ambassador, say we
should oppose the agreements and the result will be that the international sanctions will stay in place, that iran will continue to build the economic pinch and therefore iran will come back to the table and negotiate terms more favorable to the united states and our allies. mr. pres., if the united states kills the deals that most of the world is for, there is no question in the senators mind that the sanctions will start to erode and they may collapse altogether, we just had a meeting with all the p5 plus one ambassadors to the us. they reaffirmed that exact fact. sanctions rely on more than just
the power of the united states economy, they depend on an underlying political consensus in support of a common objective. china, russia and many other nations eager to do business with iran went along with our economic sanctions because they believed they were temporary and a temporary cost to pay until iran agreed to a deal. that fragile, consensus in support of u.s. policy is likely to fall apart if we don't get this deal. i think it is unrealistic to think that we can stop oil hungry countries in asia from buying iranian oil especially when offered bargain basement prices.
it's equally unrealistic to think that we can continue to force the foreign banks that hold the iranian oil dollars, banks in in china, india japan south korea, and taiwan that have sequestered the eye brainy ends oil dollars it's unrealistic to expect that they will hold onto that cash simply because we threaten them with u.s. banking sanctions. how will such rights be taken seriously when those countries taken together hold nearly half of america's debt? making any decision to sanction them extraordinarily difficult. so, killing the steel by us rejecting it means that the sanctions are going to be weaker than they are today not
stronger. the united states cannot simply get a better deal with iran with less economic leverage and less international support, that is a fact that we are having to face. of course, if we rejected it and if the sanctions crumbled, all of this would probably happen while iran would be racing to build a bomb. without this deal, iran's breakout time could quickly shrink for months to a handful of weeks, or days. it's reasonable to ask why iran would agree to negotiate a delay in their nuclear program that they've advanced over the years at the cost of billions of dollars. simple answer is, they need the
money. the iranian economy is hurting because the sanctions and iran's supreme leader needs to satisfy rising expectations of average iranians who are restless to have a bigger slice of the economic high, with with more and better goods and supplies. so, they have an interest in striking a deal. does that mean we trust iran's government? no, not at all. the iranian leadership the iranian religious leadership encourages the hardliners they are to chant death to america and death to israel, therefore this agreement can't be built on
trust we must have a good enough mechanism in place to catch them when, and and if they cheat. in other words don't trust but verify. i believe the agreement sets out reasonable assurance that iran will not be able to hide the development of a bomb at declared, or undeclared sites. the international atomic energy agency inspectors will have immediate access to declared sites the iraq reactor, the enrichment facilities and for the next 20 to 255 years inspectors will also have regular access to the entire supply chain including iranian mines and mills, and centrifuge production, assembly and storage
sites. that means inspectors will catch iran if they try to use the facilities that we know about to build a weapon or if they try to devote materials to a secret program. to confirm that iran is not building a covert bomb, this agreement ensures that inspectors will have access to suspicious sites with no more than a 24 day delay. i know there has been a lot of conversation about that, it is broken off into days at the end of the day it must be a physical access that would get in instant taste me as a is what i would
prefer. could iran hide some activities relevant to nuclear weapon research? possibly. but to actually make a bomb i ran secret activities would have to enrich the fuel for a device, they couldn't cover that up if they had years let alone in a few weeks. traces of enriched iranian or a secret plutonium program do not suddenly banish, they can't be covered up with a little paint and asphalt. i am convinced that under the agreement iran cannot sheet and expect to get away with it. on top of this unprecedented iaea inspections is damaged by this deal is the vast and little
understood world of american and allied intelligence. the senator served on the intelligence committee for six years and now has clearances on the armed services committee i can state unequivocally that u.s. intelligence is very good and extensive. it will overlook lay the iaea inspections. remember, we discovered their secret activities in the past, even without the kinds of inspect since put in place by this joint agreements. so if iran tries to violate its commitments its commitment not to build nuclear weapons and if the iaea doesn't find out i am confident our intelligence apparatus will.
what about the part of the joint agreement that allows the conventional arms embargo to be lifted in five years and missile technology to be lifted in 18 years? i understand that it was always going to be tough to keep these restrictions in place, and i don't like it. but fortunately even when the arms embargo expired five other united nations resolutions passed in 2004 and will continue to be enforced to prohibit iran from exporting arms to terrorists and to militants. these have had some success albeit limited, as in the case with the u.s. navy arms shipments to the who jesus and
humans. these same you and rest solutions will be in place to block arms shipments to others. we also have shit non-nuclear sanctions tools, we can and we must continue to go after that traffic of iranian arms and missiles. mr. president, will this president allow iran to continue to be a state-sponsored terrorism? yes, but they now have the capability to develop a nuclear weapon within months and still be a states sponsored terrorists. i believe it is in the u.s. interest that iran is not a nuclear power sponsoring terrorism. as dangerous a threat that iran
is to is right l and our allies it would pale in comparison to the threat posed to them and to us by a nuclear armed iran. what i prefer a deal that dismantles their entire program forever and and all of iran's bad behavior? of course i would. but how do we get a better deal that the opposition wants we don't have that opportunity if the sanctions fall apart. that is exactly exactly what would happen if we reject this deal. iran will emerge less isolated and less constrained to build a nuclear weapon. under the deal we keep most of the world with us.
that means if the iranians cheat, they know that we can snap back the economic sanctions and cut off their oil money. this joint agreement declares that iran will never, ever be be allowed to develop a nuclear weapon, if they break in their agreement even if in ten or 15 years every financial and military option will be available to us and those options will be backed by an ever improving military capability and more and better intelligence. mr. pres., when i i look at all the things for the agreement and against the agreements it becomes pretty obvious to me that i should vote in favor of the agreement. mr. president i yield the floor.
>> one of the most consequential decisions that i will make and that is a topic of concern of the negotiated agreement between the p5 and iran and the proposed joint comprehensive plan of action with iran. in my view it provides too much relief in retune for too few concessions. the deal implicitly concedes that iran will become a nuclear power and will gain the ability and legitimacy to produce a weapon in a matter of years while gaining wealth, and power in the meantime. i serve on the senate banking committee, the sanctions that were created by congress originate from that committee. those sanctions were put in place to prevent iran from becoming a nuclear power a new
leader capable of delivering a nuclear weapon across their border. those sanctions were not put in place to create a path guideline by which iran could become a nuclear weapon capable country. the key is keeping nuclear weapons out of the hands of iran's government and the key to that is keeping nuclear weapons permanently permanently disable iran and remove the technology available. this deal fails to achieve that. some that will will be limited use of the near to centrifuges will not be destroyed, or removed from the country. this deal at allows their
infrastructure to remain on standby for nuclear development when the sanctions expire. also troubling is the agreements lack of restrictions on lack of research and development. iran seeks to replace its current technology with a more advanced centrifuge that more efficiently creates nuclear material. the by failing to do this now we are priming new iran's nuclear program to hit the ground running for a bomb once the restrictions are lifted in a matter of years. also the inspection regime, agreed to in this negotiation, is dangerously accommodating. the agreement provides iran a great deal of flexibility regarding the inspection sites just like those where iran's past development work took place. it allows them to hold and concerned inspectors at bay for weeks if not for months before granting access to a location expected to be a site for nuclear development. the value of any access that
international inspectors ultimately do receive will depend on their understanding of iran's past nuclear weapon research. a comprehensive disclosure is necessary for inspectors to fully understand iran's current in such for structure and is critical for their ability to rule out future efforts to produce nuclear weapons. the international atomic agency iaea, has not made a public agreement with iran about their previous nuclear developments. none of us should agree to this negotiated agreement without seeing, reading, reading knowing the content of that agreement. under the proposed deal that vital full disclosure of their nuclear past may not occurred, diminishing the value of inspections. painfully absent from the agreements requirements are
iran's relief of american hostages. i'd be having the knee robert levinson the freedom of americans unjustly held in iran should have been a strict precondition for sanction relief instead of an afterthought. in return from very limited concessions, this deal gives iran way too much. if implemented the agreement will give iran your complete sanction relief up front common sense tells us this is not republican or democrat issue you don't get away your giveaway your leverage until you get the result you're looking for. this agreement provide sanction relief up front delivering billions of frozen assets to the iranian government boosting their economy. including in this is relieving
sanctions to their guard corps which was to be lifted only when iran sees to provide relief to terrorism. sanctions sanctions in this proposal failed to require preconditions and disarmament but would remove sanctions from the iranian guard despite their status as a top supporter of terrorist groups around the middle east and globe. this type of gratuitous flex ability for iran is found elsewhere in the agreement. eighty-five plus one acceptance is both perplexing and scary this deal would relax the trade restrictions on missiles after eight years while immediately erasing limits on the research and development. it also lived research on centrifuge research after just eight to ten years. the deal grants iran the ability
to more efficiently produce nuclear material just as it gained the ability to have access to the weapon system. earlier john dempsey said under no pressure should we release restrictions from iran. similarly western diplomat matt said lifting the arms embargo was out of the question. yet just one week later, negotiators announced the lifting of the embargo and and five to eight years or or less. i wonder what has changed? unless the flow of weapons substantially decreased this sudden change should have is greatly concerned. the spirit of increase money
flow to the sheriffs organization to the iranian government is not based on an outside possibility it is a likelihood, last week iran's foreign minister said whenever it is needed to send arms to our allies in the region we will do so. more money, more weapons and hands in the terrace organizations are the fuel for increased violence and further destabilization for the conflict torn middle east. we will have little to believe that iran's behavior will change as a result of this agreement. in fact, their chance death to america become more real. since the end announcement of the agreement, the leader of iran has been openly antagonistic to the united states. their promise to continue with on rest and said the policy toward the u.s. will not change. these anti- american statements come from an iranian leader that the obama administration is relying on to work. it should trouble every american
that the obama administration is asking us to support a deal that relies on the total cooperation of those who, as i've said have strongly said death to america. given the administration's effort to push through the deal to the united nations and restricts the influence of the american people through this congress it is all the more important that we follow through with a serious assessment of this a nuclear agreement. we are faced with a circumstance by the administrations standard concedes too much and secures too little. i strongly oppose this deal. it's intolerably risky and the result is a new iran, i'm legitimized nuclear power with a growing economy and an enhanced me to finance terror, to antagonize and pursue a nuclear nuclear weapons program. i will support the resolution.
i is an obama has said and has used fear in his agenda in seeking our support to this agreement. the warning has been a vote against his policy is a vote for iran. the presidents scare tactics are not only untrue but also illogical. we are not at war with iran when the agreements were in place before the negotiation. the absence of agreeing to these negotiated agreement would not mean that we are in a war thereafter. his claims under mind numerous statements is on administration has made about the process if true, the presidents were conceived that we will lead america into a dangerous position. we would expect the president to provide america as many
alternatives to war. according to pres. the only alternative to war is this agreement. a deal that results in better financing terrace, a weekend arms embargo. that these negotiations would result in a strong but fair deal that dismantled iran's nuclear infrastructure. again, the purpose of placing sanctions on iran was to get rid of their nuclear capability as far as its delivery of nuclear material across their borders and yet this agreement leaves that infrastructure in place and puts them on a promising path toward that nuclear capability. regrettably, that kind of deal was not reached. now it's my hope -- it's a
simple one -- that we are able to reverse some of the damage that's already done and that this agreement is rejected. i would say mr. president that there are those who argue we would be isolated by rejection of this agreement that other countries would approve. the united nations may approve. this is an issue of such importance that w n the united nations made approved. this is an issue of such importance that we need to do everything possible to see that iran doesn't become a nuclear power and we need to have the moral character and fiber to say no to this agreement.
if detroit had taken that money out of 2005 and 2006 and if they had just invested in an index fund the stock markets were up almost three times but it was that not only would have tripled their money but they could have paid attention sinful and got back in the business of the check of giving pensioners a 13th check at the end of the year in addition to the 12 they were due so they could have fixed itself if itself as there have been some set of a sober management going forward. if you have a strong leadership
and focused leadership you can resolve these problems but it takes a lot of effort. a group of business people and inventors showed off technical innovations at the first demo day at the white house which the administration plans to make an annual event. among those seven straight it was an application that helps children develop healthy habits, and a new type of lithium battery powering mobile devices in electric cars. we will first hear from president obama talking about entrepreneurship. >> hello, everybody.
thank you very much. welcome to the white house everybody. as a birthday treat me i thought i would invite a business leaders and officials here for the first-ever white house demo day. [applause] when i were eight, i would have been confused by choice. but now i think it's really cool and i'm so grateful to have all of you participating. on a typical day entrepreneurs like many of you pitch your idea to central investors and venture capital or elsewhere
and it is a high stress make or break moment that can change the course of your life. in front of tv cameras that everybody's going to watch. fortunately everybody's done a stellar job i've had a chance to meet and here in this room we have some of the best and brightest object entrepreneurs who are working to transform the way we live and work and communicate. they've taken over my house. we've got people developing the next generation of lithium ion batteries, a system of radio sensors that notices when a senior take the fall when they are in their old - home.
there is an app to help people transition to communities and another that helps you order replacement parts just by stepping a photograph of the old one and then there are the folks at best robotics technology in pittsburgh shooting for the moon literally with plans to land a rover on the surface in the next couple of years. i wouldn't mind seeing how that turns out. [laughter] at the we've always been. we are pioneers with a vision for tomorrow other lewis and clark, sally ride the nation of franklin and edison and carver
and the folks here today are the driving force in the 20th century economy. startups, young firms account for almost 40% of the new hires and as we fought back from the worst economic crisis of our lifetime default create jobs over the past 64 months which is the largest street of job is on record so that's as president i worked to make it easier to strike out on their own sweet made it easier for folks to buy overture and making it portable so you can strike out and do your thing. we've made it easier to pay off student loan debt although i saw an app somebody was good at working with businesses to help manage student loan debt. we've tried to download data
sets for new apps and innovations following in the path of the national weather service and other data that's turned into commercial ventures. we've worked to connect to high-speed broadband and open access for free and open internet and we are working on trade agreements for companies to sell their products overseas. thanks to those bipartisan jobs i find it's easy for innovative companies to take the next step and go public and when it's fully implemented for startups and small businesses will accept support for regular investors so today america is home to more high-tech companies than any place in the world and business leaders have declared that china is no longer the world best place, america is with technological advances like
cloud computing and three d. printing the fact is there's never been a better time to launch an idea and bring it to scale here in the united states right now. but we have to make sure that we are taking full advantage of this moment by tapping all the talent america has to offer no matter who they are and where they set up shop. there are chronic challenges for any entrepreneur. it's tough to come by but it's tougher if you are not in a handful of cities that have a well-developed venture capital present. if you are an underrepresented minority fools who often have to fight to get a seat at the table
another study showed fewer than 1% have an african-american father and though we see the leadership often outperform the market that's out there here in the united states and globally so that application isn't good for business. we have to make sure that everybody is getting a fair shot we have to unleash up leaving more than half the team on the bench and that is something a growing number of companies have begun to recognize. so the january intel announced by 2020 they had achieved full presentation of the minorities in the u.s. work force.
last week contrast announced new diversity rules of their own. today we have commitments to build. the two higher and supports women in the firms and portfolio companies they are leaving pension funds to diversify those that manage their money. companies like xerox and others are going to institute their own version of the room which means at least one woman and one person of color for every senior positions so folks get a chance to get in the door and more than 100 engineering schools are committing to maintain more diverse student bodies building
the pipeline for the next generation of entrepreneurs because this is something we are seeing again and again. we are not producing all the technical talent, all the engineers that we need and part of the reason is because too many girls into too many young people of color are getting intimidated if we deprive ourselves of the talent to continue to be a dynamic economy they create new fast pathways like boot camps for the diverse group to get hired and perhaps start a business of their own. we are scaling up the national science foundation's innovation
core program so that we can help more of the scientists move into the marketplace and they sign up to start up in the initiative many of them earned cash prizes for the small business administration to help them clear up the red tapes of the entrepreneur can apply for the license is for the permits they need for the start of business in just one day. so we hope that these efforts are going to open up new opportunities for all of our entrepreneurs. there are giants into growing startups and they all take new steps to build these actions. because you never know what's going to happen for the next big idea or what the path will lead them in. a couple examples for the folks
that are here. take the story of ramona pearson this is a pretty remarkable story. back in 1984 when she was 22-years-old she'd already been a u.s. marine and was a young dedicated highly skilled professional in the prime of her life and one day she was out for a run and hit by a drunk driver. she was in a coma for 18 months woke up later and weighed 64 pounds, was bold and blind and couldn't walk or speak it was moved into a nursing home. it's fair to say that a lot of people would be broken. in the nursing home she was surrounded by senior citizens with a lifetime of knowledge and expertise as s. parents and teachers and community leaders
and over the next few years she had if she had to learn basic skills like walking speaking, crossing the street. decades later she worked back on the process connecting others with a catalyst that a technology platform that combines the search engine with a network of experts for their lifetime of knowledge. it's like google needs facebook but there's all kind of stuff to it. there are women serving as as
the ceos and head off to get a science. that is the power of a good idea. when ramona was in its nursing home and don't think anybody would imagine she was quite be a candidate because she would be a significant technical entrepreneur. ideas can come from anybody anywhere and can be inspired by anything. we have to judge those ideas on their merits and think sure they are not filtered by misperceptions of who people are and who is capable of training something up. that's the heart of part of america that we can make it if we try and if we have enough effort and urgency our idea can move the world.
we can all have a part of that chance. that's what our initiatives are about and are outstanding partners are about today. keep in mind that in about 18 months i will need a job. [laughter] please remain in your seats until exhibitors have exited the room. [applause] ♪ happy birthday to you ♪ happy birthday mr. president
♪ happy birthday to you [applause] >> this is so fun. we make healthcare education fund for kids. there are health-care problems. we want to make it fun early on for kids so this teaches about nutrition, exercise and mindfulness. we started this out of a passion we started in a particular area with type one diabetes. when i was a kid i was hormone
deficient and by the short and administered itself an injection every day and it gave me empathy for those that are ill. >> growing up with my parents with diabetes and my dad was diagnosed when he was 45-years-old it was a new lifestyle. and according to healthy eating and exercise you learn how it can be said was a perfect project for me to work on. >> the idea came all the kids were taking the stuffed animals and playing dr.. they would make little insulin pens and they were doing everything so we want to bring that to life and do it in a way that is educational and also fund and comforting because learning about these things shouldn't be scary but the
research shows that when stress is reduced in the stress is reduced in the home it leads to better outcomes. four to nine is a magical window when they are still forming behaviors and habits into setting them up for healthy habits. >> to see how it's feeling you pushed his finger. what you do is because the age of the target it's very complex math for little kids so we made a very visual. every dot is five cards. so you can swipe the food across his mouth. that's the snack and now we have to give him insulin so because he gets one dot food we tap the
pen and now i'm going to give him one dot. he has 21 games. [inaudible] we assure that learning health is through storytelling so it is a core part of our curriculum and we work with parents and educated nurses so that it's understandable for both parties and nutritionists have been recognized as the gold standard of education. so to see how he's doing now with test of his fingers over here. it's set happy birthday. that's so cute. what was the background other
than a personal interest based the personal interest based on your family's health issues? >> we started working on this when we were still in school so i've actually been able to create my study around electronics and user interactions but basically i just play with robots. spec i studied mechanical engineering. i carry the passion with me beyond. >> did you go to school together? >> we did, northwestern university. >> are you at the stage now where you are manufacturing a lot of these? >> they are made in the u.s. and usa and western governments 4% of kids diagnosed. kids are able to articulate their symptoms and they say that it's given them a voice to talk about their diabetes if we use the analogy so these kids are
getting shots and [inaudible] >> that's wonderful. what do you think about the model going forward? for everyone to - >> the long-term goal is for the reimbursement and we are making the next version which addresses general health education and that we have made specific content modules for asthma and allergies. >> congratulations. >> fantastic.
>> what we are doing is solving data. 30% of the knowledge workers are trying to find content in experts to help them solve their problems in learning, so what we've realized as we needed to really focus on that. so when you are a knowledge worker you use google or some other platform to get into an e-mail and send it back and forth and then you lose that conversation so we said that if there is one place a knowledge worker can grab content be able to share it and be able to have people on one platform and get smarter and smarter so what we ended up doing is creating a knowledge platform so we are able to surface the content and
experts that are otherwise hidden from anywhere in the world. so our big data algorithms are constantly pulling in all of the content in the world wide web and even pulling in government content, so the cdc, nih and other kinds of content so that knowledge workers who are trying to invent new things or salt big real-world problems can get access to experts and information. >> so let's take a concrete example. i am somebody who works in a company and i've got to figure out everything there is to know about rock guitars because we are selling them.
are you creating a place where i can collate all that information more rapidly than i could by doing a google search? >> absolutely. >> it could have been a yahoo!, i'm not trying to proselytize. >> they are 25-years-old now and they are also really good at getting you to buy ads and that's how they make money that we but we are in knowledge platform that helps people rapidly get to the knowledge and be able to share it and access that knowledge. so for instance, if you are trying to build new policy it would be powerful for you to be able to share some information and create a collection and have
create insight and be able to reach the contextualized information. >> so that is in the search time is actually setting up or somebody will have to set up already some sort of place or page i can go to that already gathered up a bunch of stuff without me having to search individually. if i'm in the platform committees are articles that are leveraging predictive analytic. so we are building a graph on people, so we look at the reputation, knowledge level and we create something like this
that allows you to see the depth of engagement and the breadth of influence they have on the community so you get to see whether knowledge is. so, based on the graph this is a recommendation based on my interest of the ceo. and since i am a scientist i have a variety of interests. so come if i go into my feed, this is where information is coming to me from the community that of people in following and things that are getting recommended. so you have netflix creating recommendations about your entertainment but what of the art doing is creating the next generation in the transformative recommendation which is trying to get out one step in front of you based on what you have been learning and as a person in
policy we may be looking at you and going okay because you are trying to create policy and hope care, perhaps you should be looking at the content, perhaps you should talk to these experts and when you do what has been happening in the platform as i can go in here and see these conversations and see what people are highlighting so that it is within that content and we do insight also in video which is quite remarkable. >> so let me ask you and i setting this up and personalizing it and by the customer, the end user and if so if i'm signing up i become a member or what have you and the nine paying whatever the monthly fee is or what have you and then
slowly you are building a platform of information for me back-and-forth? the >> very similar to that. so what we are doing is we have two models )-right-paren. one is a consumer product so anybody can download this and get into this for free. the other product the enterprise product is being used in australia mexico the largest teachers union in the western hemisphere is now using it to level up their teachers so for the first time ever those teachers are hitting their competency levels and it's based on leveraging our platform that way they have a closed environment where their data and content is kept within their walls. with this what you're we are doing is creating a way for content to