tv After Words CSPAN August 24, 2015 12:00am-1:01am EDT
changed because of the controversy whether it was in the public domain or not i've written a number of stories who is currently behind a lot of these stories as well as solve the mystery of the suppose it did not in and of the member from peter pan and all sorts of things where he becomes involved in. and i would probably continue to write more about the adventures. >> obviously you read lots of books but i wondered if you were frustrated because he wouldn't access them because of language and then you would get some that are translated but they may not be translated with all of the nuances. so i wondered if that was a translation and if you could have another language or another culture which one would it be?
>> the question is about books in other languages. i am the greatest champion. whether it is the tale of benji or a new novel by the nobel laureate i will try to write about them. i do know french pretty well and i can kind of reader german and my wife and i are determined to learn italian. i think translations are really the options for most of us and the fact that we are in translation the other
translation was the one for decades but there are a few others. the tale of benji is not a short work. it is the truth and just as wonderful by the way. a wonderful essay. so why do think it is important to read beyond the borders of america or the english language. [applause] i'm sorry i didn't get to all the questions. i wish i could. i will try to answer questions coming up, but thank you all for coming tonight. let me say one last thing. this is the perfect vacation
you have written an exciting and an important new book how to build a fair happy and more prosperous america. it's great to be with you. i read this book and as you can tell, i started making notes. because you seem to have struck a chord but it's going to be important for the republican party with large but more specifically how to deal with some of the internal changes that are occurring in the party. you talk about the party becoming a party of aspiration. what brought you to that conclusion? can make people talk about republicans and conservatives as being angry all the time and if
you look at the television and what is happening with the candidates and people like donald trump right out of the gate it's not really angry. most liberals live in these communities they don't have that many conservatives and their families they see them yelling and screaming and saying things about immigrants and poor people when i became a conservative in my 20s studying economics it's because i realized - i was brought up in a liberal family but i realized that conservative ideas are the best ideas to get people out of poverty. we pulled 2 billion people out of poverty with these ideas since 1970s and i was a child it is incredible what has happened in the conservatives themselves can't think to shout this from the rooftop of you expect anybody else to?
>> host: the idea of putting on a different face schilling who we are in expressing what we believe in a manner as welcoming and inviting for some of the steps that we can take to do that because as you noted you got everyone out of the gate already falling into these camps of this or that. how do you begin to change that? to begin with we have to remember or purpose. it's to remember the purpose of people and the purpose is never to fight against the particular policies and there are a lot of policies i'm against my purpose in the leadership position is and to fight against things is to fight for people. this is when the great leaders all have in common.
how can we get the capital gains tax. that's what we talk about an hour prior lives. fighting for people, not against things. the second thing is remembering the faces of those people and telling the stories of those people. stick that was >> that was fascinating for me because in one section, and i made a note you talk about. you give these examples of how people sort of look with their lives and you talk about it from a very human aspect.
not political, not calculating. and then you talk about grandma europe and i particularly enjoyed what you say in the labor market liberalization and you go through all the technical stuff but then again if they talk about how the world is changing and how do you adapt to that change and what do you do to make that work and how do you explain that and gives examples of people's lives and their stories told you we as a party and institution, how does that relate to the individual lives and stories in the changing environment? >> guest: each of us is our brother's keeper. if we remember that can weaken and perv - improved. we are supposed to be fighting
for other people. the people or those with less power than us. conservative versus liberal. and we have authentically good ideas about the dignity of work, but limiting the safety only to begin to chant, all the things we do because we are trying to serve the poor better, that's where we start. >> host: i wanted to the checkpoint there because they want to get back to this idea that you laid out about the dignity of work and the value of work and how all that balances out in terms of lifting people up. you may out of my sins we can begin to learn from it and begin to implement to see this new
party of aspiration to sort of address and you talk about several things fight for people, not against. get happy, which i loved and i've always said that is the key part of it. so not just what's be happy for the sake of happy but it's actually mean it. the best arguments which i've learned to do over the years go bear doorknob of them which is a very important because when i was the chairman of the national committee i emphasized the party of reclaiming that you need to get out of the comfort zone and be where you're not wanted and expected. say it in 30 seconds integrate your bad habits. it's not necessarily what is the
most important but what is the most important jump off point for you? >> guest: . the easiest is to get happy. it's astonishing. think about it. this is the greatest country in the history of the world. we should wake up everyday feeling so every day feeling so lucky to be americans. but this whole doomsday scenario that we are always laboring under right and left in everybody's doing it as a zombie apocalypse. this is the most important of our lifetime and if the other guys when it is going to be - we have better ideas to help people and we are happy to be here and we are delighted to have our values. we are happy to present it as a gift we have a responsibility in
the country. we should be happy. it's unethical. why? because this country is a gift. >> host: how do you do that when you are talking about the arcane avenues and backroom conversations related to policy and all the stuff that goes into making of the healthcare reform? that may apply in amplify a visceral reaction in the something in healthcare. how do you talk about something like that in a happy way? >> guest: you remember the reason for the policy. so when you talk about obamacare , it makes than in same from the whole american idea doing things than the relatively simple way looking at for themselves themselves it is really bureaucratic.
it twists all of these incentives around and the result is they find themselves fighting against obamacare. if you want to be had here in them are the things that he's actually don't like and don't fight against it, fight for the people that are being hurt by this. reagan was a happy warrior because he was always a warrior on behalf of people who needed him. now there are a lot of progressives that are watching us. they still don't like it. and i - nobody voted. like eight people voted for reagan. nobody knew. how did that happen? it's impossible. so her number what was written on his heart. they say the same about bill clinton by the way. he rarely fought against things - he fought for people who needed him. he was a happy warrior -
>> host: which is why he went through the perales and impeachment his numbers stayed relatively high because people remembered that he was a fighter for them. it was purely political. and that's an interesting purpose of this kind of how i look at what happened with something like benghazi where the seriousness and gravity of the matter, the way the party came up talking about it was much more political. they didn't think the emotion and the feeling we just went immediately into the political. even along the spectrum is something that's really important like the loss of life and the matters of seriousness in benghazi to something that's political like the impeachment of the president. how would you handle it and talk about it still matters.
>> host: they would say that he brought it on himself which he did remember during the scandal was going on as republicans were fighting against clinton and the things he stood for. it was a distraction making it impossible for me to fight for the american people. and that was critical to read and get in everything we do we have to remember that fighting against things isn't even worthy of us as leaders but fighting for people who need us it's never going to go away and nothing is ever going to be more important than that. do i care about the people that are being adversely affected or in my using their plight as an excuse to hit somebody or something i don't like and the answer is the latter have to examine our own conscience at that point and redirect our energies about of that's what i'm asking conservatives to do. think about education reform. a lot of people watching care about reform on this thing. we can all agree that we have an
education system that is inadequate training people to grow up in the workforce and be productive and in a meaningful way. for the smart things for the kids not because you want to fight against the teachers unions are the bureaucracy, you want to fight for education reform because children are effectively being denied their civil rights advocacy worthy thing to direct your energy towards and americans will rework the site for reward the fight for people. >> host: it matters how you talk about it and what you say even in that fight. for example it's one thing to say it want to fight for you to reform education and charter scores and do this and that that how you begin to express and explain and to talk about that particularly in the political blowback matters more than anything else.
>> guest: remember the face of the person for whom you were fighting. the child, remember the mother that wants to simply send her child to the best school remember who you are fighting for. it's more important than your political future. it's more important than how people perceive even the press. if mom is the most important thing and if you don't think so you shouldn't be a leader. >> host: we got the broad scope and we will get back into the driver to shift into talk little bit about your journey but i think that animates the book. you can see at various points where there is this sort of relating back and you talk about the journey to the right. you talk about this movement in your 20s and you refer to the gap decade. so is that so if that so if that amount of explicit recognition that there is something else or
where did it begin and how did you end up at the point you are now telling this story and relating back to the journey? >> guest: to begin with i dropped out of college. i was in a lower middle class family, democrats which is sort of redundant. i left college when i was 19 and i wanted to be a french horn player. i went on the road - i made a living i played jazz and then i wound up in the barcelona symphony. binary the girl and she dropped out of high school and didn't get her diploma because she wanted to stay with her band associate a parallel track which didn't bode well for the futures we made a plan together. we plotted to move to the united
states and i was going to study and she was going to get a job. we moved to the united states, i didn't have a degree, she didn't speak very much english, neither and neither of us have skills and she got three job offers in the first month. and she said something to me. you are nonpolitical. a sort of leftist nonpolitical. this is the greatest country in the world for people that want to work and it just hit me. i didn't know anything about the united states except for my preconceived notion. these were minimum-wage jobs by the way. she worked a minimum wage job and we needed that money to get on our feet while we were made in college classes and trying to get on my own feed as well. but that had a profound impact because of the optimism of the immigrant i saw in my life. seeing it through the eyes i started studying and i'm working through the day teaching music into studying at night and studying economics and the main question i had was about
poverty. poverty is the most important thing to me. i have always been keenly interested in i remember when i was a little kid you had this experience, too probably. grow up when you first saw real policy and america's picture in sub-saharan africa seven, 8-years-old. how is that possible in this world. i studied economics in my 20s and i learned what happened to that boy were more or less. what happened to the world's poorest people in my learned that 80% of the poverty had been eradicated since i was a child. i had no idea. it's like a state secret. 80% of the number of people living on a dollar a day or less had gone away. and i learned why.
it wasn't the united nations or the world bank. it was globalization, the google flaw and entrepreneurship. american-style free enterprise spreading around the world and feelings of the free trade because the u.s. navy in places like the pacific. it was american conservative ideas that pulled the 2 billion people out of poverty since i was a child. so they came and experienced real opportunity with no education effectively and then i have discovered the ideas of american conservatives. i listened and all they cared about was money. i became a political conservative and it led me to where i am today to work with leaders and try to get this message out because we have an obligation to save the next 2 billion people and bringing
those that can earn their success, too. >> we have a problem with immigration though as articulated today, you go back to what the bush administration laid out in the president's state of the union which unfortunately dissipated and fell apart subsequently and was picked up again by the gang of eight in the house and the senate to get to the coprolites on immigration reform that all fell away and we seemed to be in the space where the immigrant story is not one of aspirational entrepreneurism and taking advantage of the opportunities that this country offers. but it's from the perspectives of some it's just taking advantage of the country, clothing the rule of law and according the response ability to come into the right way.
how do you create a counter narrative of an aspirational story. it's really aspirational circuiting the trajectory. one is specific and others are general. the general level the gop would be able to get his mind around how we think about immigration law center. once it thinks the current from the party and that is going to take a visionary leader that talks about the station as opposed to inciting anger. i think an aspiration means you
have to have hope and that means you are trying to make a new friend. anger is all about fear and fear is firing up the base. it's very easy. so castigation is the way to go and that will feed through all different things so this is the next remedy that's necessary. the second thing is republicans come and by the way, democrats to back need to stop thinking about immigration as if it were one thing. it's not. and there is an incremental approach towards progress. and even the grand bargain on immigration doesn't want progress on immigration. it wants to poison the well on immigration c. you can pull the band-aid off at one it will all go down in flames. let's do the easy and important things first. hard things first. for example, high school immigration. the average high school democrat
from immigrant from the place like china or india creates five jobs for the nativeborn americans. this is important. the guest worker program so they would stop being exploited coming to the united states and so on and so forth so we can make progress coming down the list going down the list and understanding that it takes a whole bunch. >> guest: this is a good way back from the personal journey and how that works in the book to the point where you talk about practical hope you and you referenced it just now. what is that does that for you, what does that mean? i had flashbacks to yes we can, keep hope alive, hope and change. we talked politicians and they talk a lot about hope that you gave a new emphasis for the gop. you talk about it in terms of being tactical hope. >> guest: hope as we come to
understand as you mentioned from hope and change state from the 2008 obama campaign it was all about i hope the government will hopefully help me. you can hope all you want about events outside of your control. that's not the traditional understanding of hope is in covering and by the way there are good psychological studies have shown you talk about things out of your control, it disempowers you. it cuts your dignity. so it's a problem for welfare. the traditional understanding understanding is two parts. it can be done and i can do it. that is the hope of the driver of my great grandparents who are coming to the united states and my hope is i can actually be rewarded for my hard work. is that the pathway?
pathway is in the concept of hope as it can be done and i can do it and if i understand it can be done and i see how i can do it that's where the pursuit of happiness starts. you reference pope francis and you talk about this aging that kind of goes back to as i mentioned before. is that also part of this narrative the sort of different approach for the pope francis idea of how we gave ourselves to others and make ourselves accessible to others and how it plays itself out in the
political context via >> guest: he gets a lot for the capitalism and the environment. but i'm talking about a different set of ideas from pope francis in the book. pope francis also talks about a society that effectively snuffed itself out, has no sense of desperation, too tired to carry on. she's actually the one that claimed the term. i have a lot of family because my wife is from barcelona. you meet these people in their 40s and their 30s and there is even a word for it. it means not studying and not working. so all these adults that don't have jobs or education and typically live with their parents and have no religion.
that's what pope francis was complaining about. get a captured audience as european leaders before this is the admission in brussels and they gave it gave a speech that was just silence. at the sight of him i don't think people quite understand or get. the conservatives that are against him and realize neither one of you are getting what they are saying because doctrinally and otherwise he's fairly coming up fairly, he is consistent but then he's making the point that you just did you need to take a look at what is happening through the policies and the actions are taking or not taking and i thought there was a fascinating how you sort of work
that into the narrative of the political process and policy changing itself and so i thought that part was very well done and i'm curious then moving all those pieces around that you have and you're looking at. how does an institution like american enterprise institute out of those institutions? we have seen for example the number of organizations and i don't mean to name them. as we if we had to perpetrate this narrative because it's a translation to money and a fund-raising tool but then you got others that left the conversation into other spaces. is that a tinge in the political
process has to deal with as well? >> guest: that reflect a lot of the problems going on. thousands of people watching us right now are very frustrated with washington, d.c.. they say it is better, nothing is getting done. it's pure gridlock. people say what you've got to do is the political parties need to agree with each other more. you need more liberal republicans and conservative democrats. that's actually wrong. what you need is a moral consensus around which. the policy ideas and the job of the american enterprise institute and the think tanks is to offer policy ideas that can actually help execute that idea in the consensus. that's what they are supposed to do. if you don't have a moral consensus, if you've discussed the consensus of serving those in the power, then the policy
difference becomes a holy war and that is a problem. so let's not forget these are policy differences and if we can do that we can make a whole lot of progress without pretending that the progressives and conservatives have to agree with each other, they don't. >> guest: my time as elected officials and as a political figure the one that i've always avoided using because it's become so polarizing is comprised because all of a sudden people think we use the term i've got to give up something. and so the word that i think seems to work best in this political environment that we are working as consensus. that's where i think
institutions like yours play an important role dot not just intellectually, but you're kind of putting it all on the table. you are looking at exploring these complicated issues and a lot of times you're trying to make them not just relevant, but understood and avoid the confusion that leads me to not like you because you have a different position. how do you see that playing out in the presidential cycle these folks are going to be taking some very hard to use. but from easier lower common denominator is.
to govern on pessimism is a huge missed opportunity. she was blockaded from doing what he wants to do by conservatives but you and i come at the chief executives of the organizations but you never play in people that are lower down the food chain. whether you can fire them or not they are professors with tenure or elected officials the boss is the boss. lyndon b. johnson didn't make that excuse. ronald reagan didn't make that excuse both of them were pretty optimistic. so so that's what a dangerous phenomenon which is the opposition of pessimism pessimism in the division. you see the most pessimistic divisive republicans today kind of came from the obama air a in the reaction that means we need visionary is who declare their
independence and cannot say it is a new day and we can have competing pessimism or optimism. >> host: what is the formula that you offer. what are the elements in the 215 or so pages of this book that you would pull out and focus that visionary on to begin that process because for me it's all about the process of evolution. how do you resolve from where you are to this new space and environment. to help you get there they be there are elements of that but what other aspects of the book that you had in mind for that visionary.
if there's one thing that would help us to be optimists. on behalf of the people that don't currently have about their job. how he talks immediately give a pessimist but we do and they govern which is that they should claim. they don't dig in and they are basically distracted. you spent 18 months of your life campaigning on hope and change. you see them, young
millennialist on the numbers recorded them african-americans, others. so all these folks coming into the space and then for the next seven years or eight years what happened? >> guest: how did that individual is bringing all of this energy of hope to the table all of a sudden admired and sucked into this land of pessimism. it's hard to do. it's hard to govern the campaign >> host: so if you are saying to me as you do in the book. i have to keep that sense of hope my self? >> guest: the division of the optimism that you have with people you run the rnc.
you do a lot of chief executive things. i bet you the first time you and i met you invited me over. that's what good leaders do they bring people in so they can develop these relationships with people. the only way that you can get the flexibility that you need is having a human to human relationships. if you don't it is just all campaign promises. that's why governing is hard work. that's why the management of that comes in a leadership that comes with being a member of the political class that's why your job and mine are hard work dealing into being with other people is the key thing and remembering why choose remember there there are always people out there. these people are suffering in the past seven years think about how many people they left behind in the country that we need to fight for. do we see them as hard to manage or assets to develop? >> guest: there's the conquest
of this incredible adventure you will develop any relationships you can. you say help is important and hope is essential. that really struck me in that section of the book you talk about that because it seems to tie into what you are saying in terms of that aspirational leader who's going to get out there and talk about that, that i think is where they get tripped up on the idea and lose sight of the fact that the hope is the essential element to all of that. parents do this constantly.
how immigrants as if my kid free? when you are thinking clearly about your children you are thinking what can i do to get the barriers out of the way into this with the government officials should be thinking about citizens as well. four secrets to a happy life i didn't make it up and i'm not a theologian just from pure science the secrets are faith, family, community and work. how can the government a system of things? we do not need a government health government health project and person of faith, family, community and work. we need a president of the united states that gets up everyday and this is what can i do today to get out of the way of america's practice in faith whatever faith happens to be? building the families, participating in the community than having an incentive for the horror become honest, sanctified ordinary work.
we are advising families, we are fragmenting communities and creating disincentives for people to work for the public policy and i understand it is the mercy of hope and i understand what is going on that they are doing something they think is helpful but they are not helping ultimately because they are not providing health by taking away the barriers. >> values matter lifting people up and you talk about and focus on jobs and pay equity and things like that and the section of the book that i thought was interesting in chapter number three, you titled it pushing the bucket. what is that? >> guest: so i thought what is that? so i did a lot of fieldwork for this book and the social scientist and ordinarily looking at the data and the scholars are looking at data.
there's one place i there is one place i went to and we admire it an awful lot in new york city is a homeless shelter specializing with men mostly centered 30s and 40s as they spend time in prison. so, this is the population of people that we throw away in our society. they are the hardest to deal with. men without families have been imprisoned or correctly homeless. this place is supported by a couple in georgia in new york city and they looked everybody has had to we believe people are assets or not? we are going to look at the hardest cases through the ministry of honest sanctified work will help them put their lives together and what they do is these guys come in as they are held to strict behavioral standards, the same as fewer children and that you and i were held to, come in just the same comment on discrimination.
pushing the bucket means they are claiming the street in the blue uniforms and it's not degrading because they get paid for it and it goes into a savings account and they have to pay child support for a lot of these guys to have kids into the migrate into other work programs. they've been in the program for one year after about eight years in prison. never had a job, never had an apartment, cell phone, car, nothing. they pushed the bucket and into the program learning how to be an exterminator. and i said to that after one year are you happy. he saw his cell phone and he said look at this e-mail so he shows me an e-mail from his boss and this is emergency bedbug i need you now.
she said i need you now. that's the pursuit of happiness. and to have your value recognized. >> host: which again going back to one of the underlining themes of the book is that's what we used to talk about as gop. that's something that was up value if we push, so you take this chapter as assets not liability and the new flash forward into the recent conversation and jeb bush has gotten criticism because i can't what he's saying but i would like to get your take in the context that you talk about work as a blessing and this is a value proposition the party should expound in at length it to a lot of other things. but then you have jeb bush a couple of weeks ago talking
about people wanting or needing to work more. and a lot of folks on the progressive side of the aisle to cut the wrong way sort of casting it as something as a negative. and in a sense he was trying to get to the point that you're taking up here about recognizing the value in the fact that you have those that are cutting back on time changing the definition of full-time work due to the arbitrary federal standards so they don't get penalized and have to pay extra. >> host: he was very unfairly targeted by his. here are the facts.
we have two big unemployment measures in america. one is from the department of labor those are the people that are looking for jobs that can find them and that's been going down. that's not the problem. the problem is as the unemployed people that are on the voluntarily underemployed, think about this these are people that want to work more but can't and this is the problem we have in our country today people that want to work harder and get ahead can't do it and somebody has to fight for these people. we need a system that allows people to work harder and there's more opportunity for these people. we have a certain point in our lives, how do we get ahead, by working harder. and people that are well-educated and come from the families that value education is good ethical standards and all the good things our parents gave us they can't get ahead with kind of countries that? and a lot of that traffic is
routed. a laundry worker making minimum wage and raising her kids but that work ethic than ever dissipated are dissipated and was instilled in me and my sister and it's amazing how we've transitioned to the point now where that ethic is not recognized to appreciate it where we have people who think that the poor are just lazy and they want to stay that way and as i like to say i don't know about you but how many people woke up this morning it is that all i want to be today is poor? spank process i want my kids to see me get a welfare check instead of a paycheck? i know about the expectations the left is deeply guilty of holding people to lower standards just because they are poor but the right has to examine its own conscience on this thing. too many times i've heard republicans and conservatives see people just want their free
stuff. there's got to be somebody out there like that but i don't know them. i've known a lot of poor people. i've never heard so many people. we showed should record the same standards of dignity for everybody and for the left to have the bigotry that it's wrong for us to say they don't want to work either because one is not true and two is not helpful in three it's going to kill the republican party. >> host: i agree on that exactly. that is the perfect addition to what i thought was a kind of fun part of the book because i self identified in so many ways in the section of the chapter on the protest movement to the social movement. and for me it was exciting and i think that the readers are going to enjoy the way you tell the story and create a narrative. you start talking about the
early founders of the school revolutionary sense. i like to mix it up. i believe in pushing the envelope sometimes. but that's another show. [laughter] >> said, i love this quote and i think it sets up and i want to tie it into adams, rosa parks, newt gingrich, tea party which are all revolutionary strains and it starts with sam adams as you know the original tea party it doesn't require them to prevail but i reached the tireless minority minority to set the brush fire in people's minds. you talk about how the tea party
jolted and in that poll movement in this part of the century roadbuilding the social movement and looking at elements of the civil rights struggle which the gop played an important part. talk us through the thinking. it's a sense of social movement being created out of the protest movement. it's against an unjust law. it's against discrimination in
this country and it's hugely important to do so because it is based on rebellion against injustice and a lot of good things start this way but they fizzle out if they don't actually go from fighting against the injustice to fighting for the people who are the object of that injustice. changing your attention from fighting than then having a strong moral overlay to it to become the majoritarian movement a david versus goliath. but ultimately the goal should be the majority. but they moved on to actually understand how the society can be better as a result of that.
a couple different examples one was the civil rights movement where it started out and the march on selma is was an important element of the protest movement that doctor king was a visionary because he understood his goal. they said i can't believe we used to do that. we can't believe jim crow laws and discrimination. from the top of the statehouse to the cheers that's how things have changed. moving from the protest movement to the social movement which is majoritarian.
what does that look like for you in the context of the fact that we've got the voting rights act that sitting languishing in the house controlled by republicans in the senate nothing is done there. we've got the shootings that have occurred and the tensions that have arisen. it was led in this area trying to lead in this area but how but how do you see this playing out? when you see social justice it's like automatically its liberal.
but it's important to decide when they are good ideas. social justice is important. it's important that we talk about these things as a gift as opposed to the republicans talking coach earl - cultural war. they say no, what i told my kids to high standards. they are our children because we are our brothers keepers of values start. we need to declare peace in the safety net right now. it's not the whole thing. i know it's messy government
spending so the idea that we can help people report that we don't even know because of capitalism that creates so much more so the first time in human history is impossible and that is a great achievement. that becomes unsustainable as we've seen in the case of greece which is included in insolvency. >> host: bernie sanders effectively articulating the redistribution of wealth. if that becomes the agenda. i value has no value because you are going to take it and give it to someone else.
>> host: >> guest: bernie sanders wanted to be norway. we wouldn't become norway we would decrease and that is what happened in the greek system is very similar but it's more or like what we returned to in that massive scale so that means education reform, radical work creation and entrepreneurship pushed all the way down to the bottom. republicans have been obsessed for very rich people which is a mistake. entrepreneurship is not about rich people. we haven't gotten too far into the weeds of this conversation. i talked about getting rid of the licensing that hurt poor people and i look at washington, d.c. so that you and i know really well if you want to be a real trip takes $130 to get your
license and that is a difficult second job for an upper-middle-class woman after her kids move out great great thing. if you want to be a hairdresser at the typical first job for a single mother that is ported washington, d.c. you are required to get a license with 1,500 hours of education. that's discrimination. that's anti-poor behavior. that's anti--. education reform is all about innovation choice. every public policy is to bring more work especially more work for those that don't have college education.