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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  August 26, 2015 8:00am-10:01am EDT

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occurring. one is dealing with the cyberspring activity that all of these have initiated going back to the late june, july timeframe. in that, one of the things we observed as they can actually move rapidly over 35 years. but if you have the necessary support and understanding of what is going on in your environment, that it is important to do something. the cyberspring activity incorporated something different working groups, but the focus that came out of there that was being measured literally on a daily basis, daily calls to cios and on a monthly basis with death threats. so high-value assets identify what a high-value asset is and
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what are we doing to protect god and from a planned protection, are you on schedule. so that is a big thing that came out in cyberspring activity that basically cios i was on the boat for reporting literally on a daily basis. taking a look at who has a day of an tiny q-quebec and why. what assets today have been why do they have it? making sure folks that don't need it don't have it. so by telling scott and others if we need to address this in a timely fashion. again, the third area dealt with the factor of authentication and accelerating now. another one dealt with making
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sure if he does have a cbm in place as well as accelerating einstein. so the metrics that were put in place were in support of not only the program, but also the areas of priority identified as critical cybersecurity areas to address part of closing the loop. the third area is communication. communications from a machine perspective making sure it is made available to departments and agencies through price breaks as well as information that is through the einstein program. another element in regard to communication along that line is
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also the activity being put in place across the departmental agency. double play two roles one is allowing the agency to see what is on their network do you have a visual perspective of that. a prioritization of those issues to distribute your security resource, but also >> translator: in across the entire government to push down from a federal dashboard to the agency dashboard for risk management awareness so that you are aware as an agency. doesn't matter if you're in an agency of people or in an agency like da. you are aware this is traipsing across the government should be doing something about it.
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so then it's coming forward from a federal standpoint down to the agency dashboard. those are some of the machine sharing this. what is also interesting is basically that people interact. what we saw as part of the activity of the cyberstream activity occurring is much more communication going on between the system, the cio. what is going on there and the cio needs to be aware because it's also an increase communication when your deputy secretaries made on a monthly basis and basically become more responsible for cybersecurity, they want to be aware of what is happening in their environment.
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the point where one of the additional methods we did put in place to the agency for critical reliability, when you are putting out a directive, and they wouldn't real happy about that. we actually had to secretaries called jeff johnson, our secretary and say thank you. thank you are putting this out. a really four-star awareness and the communications. the communication between cios in regard to impact because the issue with their hands behind their back and responsibilities they had, the dialogue is
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opening up to a point we will see. communication is supported. one other area we also emphasize supporting agencies on his permission when you put the security capacity in place, often times they say this is starting to implement the job. i don't understand why you are doing that. so bringing that awareness is a key element we are involved with because cybersecurity is everyone's responsibility. especially when we talk about how everybody felt interconnected. there is a conversation icon at the tail end earlier in regard to the federal government.
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how many interactions there are between state and local government. i was the cio for new york for 20 years. the interactions between state and federal government to increase more and more activities between federal government. so one in regard to addressing this is also making sure on the stateside they also have access to a similar type of capability and programs. so the cdm program leverage the epa and there's other activities involved directly with the state local support and activities. so we look at it from a good of
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how you address the internet of things and the interconnectivity of 3% of the program would provide going forward and the metrics and how we are mentoring success and how we are encouraging that access and basically the communication. so that is the approach put in place. i just want to provide you a perspective of the key elements in each of those areas. we are working with agencies to be able to provide that type of support. with that, there are questions at the end. >> more questions at the end. as the folks are thinking about the internet of things that i mentioned early on we live in a world where target got hacked through an air conditioning system for god sakes.
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and so we hear about are they going to attack us through our toaster. how do you begin to deal with the world possibility and how do you do some risk management around that? >> a key element they are his understanding what is happening on your network. that is really the first emphasis we put in place. what is the hardware? because the level of awareness is all over the place. so now you are aware of what is going on there and then you look at the policy of how to ensure you keep aware and then you take a look at the issue coming through and regretting not in a timely fashion.
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you know, part of that is when we look at all of the different typos and activities outside the federal government. that is where we need to take a look at what are the policies that occurred and basically, how do we want to have that conductivity or not. the information in regard to threats, what is happening is a key element involved with the federal government. at one time, those people that only were at the operations level. now the awareness is all the way to the death threat level. when we talk about the agency taking a look at what is occurring and what are those
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threats, they have it up to the bubble and have that understanding. they have the full range of people involved in regard to addressing those. >> many more questions. stick around for a couple minutes to join the roundtable. we look at some of those. let me bring up -- [inaudible] [applause] >> the associate director of cyberphysical assistance program with the standard and technology focus for a while now. the last time, we were -- we are happy to have you back. >> thank you.
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[inaudible] thank you, everyone. good morning. exert being here. thank you for listening to the presentation i have. i work as director of cyberphysical assistance programs and for those who may not know, the department of commerce is the u.s. federal agency that works on measurement scientists. it's one of those institutions and federal government and science and engineering, specifically things and comparability but those things. so how many of you have heard about something called the cyberphysical system. raise your hand. very few. i didn't do my job in promoting my title.
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there's a lot for you guys to learn today. so i'm going to talk about ioc and at the same time that is really iot on steroid, i had tea with more focus and system control. with more robustness and resilience. think of any basic critical systems. they are part of it as well, but at the same time the college assistant and needs a lot more science and engineering to make sure they are safe and secure. so this is kind of my definition. any talk i know you guys all know what it is.
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the definition is really to correlate at the bottom the sensors, chips, but you can kind of touch. there is a communication layer. wi-fi, long-range communication. everything that can connect to is the hardware. a lot of people think that is what it is. that is not absolutely correct. for more layers have more important in the system. on top of that, there is a software. potentially it collects data appeared by the way, they don't have a lot of value. they have information from the federal data and when the information is extracted, that's what we call it. so that is what the data
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analytics player does. on top of that the most important layer of service. so all this information, what are we going to do with it. it does not do that much good for us. you have to take action. the action could be humane interaction and data. so you can look at all of this application, transportation, health care. those are really the factors that you've always seen and said he is really the playing field you can see the applications provide real benefits. so from the smart city is, they pretty much categorize parts of the layers. what is missing is the human
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factor, but the application is in there. you cannot do anything without the human factor. so opportunities we talk about really the question bear is what is the real benefit. we can collect all of this data. unless we take action, somebody has to take action and that is where it comes in. it is very fragmented, just like the ioc system, meaning every city literally does their own thing. it is not to scale. it is not business because they cannot resale. so important pieces to replicability, scalability, we
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need to find those models to really catalyze the deployment of iot. when i say catalyze come you cannot just pump money into it. you have to have some goal or direction. you have to find the right model that can create to bill benefits. without the real benefits, whatever you want to call it when not be sustainable and that is the theme that i have in my programming presentation. i want to go back. so instead of each city doing their own thing, why don't we bring in multiple cities in multiple to lg innovators including companies and universities and help them pick the issues that create a real benefit to us.
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cities know what their problem is. they just don't know how to solve the problem in a manner that is viable and sustainable. a lot of them when they are solving problems. they have the real problem that they feel. so we want them to group with the specific topic and then address those problems. so how you program twice starts around the september timeframe and culminates in the june timeframe and we bring the partners and we bring in all the different players and help them to find the problem.
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again, it's a repco, scalable and sustainable path of benefits. in the process/airbag partners like nsf and private sector partners like the corporations listed here. about 250 corporations and organizations participated to address the issues using the iot and others. we had about 50 participate. it's really provider showing their solutions. it's not any different than a trade show. so we had about 50 cities around the world including chicago and san francisco. also i don't know if you heard about this,.
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and israel, and tanisha all-caps are together for their common problem. they came to the conclusion to be replicated. i will give you a few examples. we had 54 teams composed of 450 organizations. first of all, the top left this link and i say, a couple other companies which is now google has invested in some of the partners here a pretty simple concept. it's not really used these days. the huge wi-fi hotspot is a free wi-fi wi-fi access to citizens
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and then generated revenue. they are being about $700 million revenue for the next 10 years. that is where the sustainability is because you generate revenue. virtually every city you had the scalability and it's not just one block. you can cover the whole. they have battlefields without putting the ambulance of field. so now being without the commercial sector, typically the application right now is when you have a lot of ties and just come to the bus station and.
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so why don't these go to the house where he picked them up instead of the hospital. so that is the point right now. they are doing a bunch of stuff. the city initiative is the path participating, they proactively bring in these different solutions. several other cities on the important question is, each fully modern station that is a professional grade concept to $6000. you don't have a $6000 station.
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so you need lower costs. a good mass answers can have a lot more in the process. so the culmination of the program have been june 1st at the museum as you can see. we have the museum and presentation stages for more than 50 plus governments. we are lucky to have high profiles and also the transportation and also at nsf. we had about 1500 attendees and more than 50 media outlet. so picture yourself --
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[inaudible] so we are planning the next challenge. but this is not the end. we know this model works. the cities are looking for solutions than companies looking for the issues they can address. the next challenge will come soon and the focus this time will be more on the measurable and quantifiable internet. let's say we can reduce the traffic. how can you reduce? can you show them, can you prove it? it is a real business model happening. and then all of this is a lot
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easier for them what the real hard data. deployment, deployment, deployment. having a pilot until it comes out of the lab as scalable and replicable and sustainable, so also we will work on the architecture because a lot of people think if they have some sort of common understanding. so i will stop here. there's some more information over there and i'll be happy to take any questions. >> in the next phase of this because you've been through a lot of phases.
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any lessons you've learned from the smart cities program so far? what is your big take away? >> the big takeaways this. the market is huge and everybody's trying to solve the problem on a local scale and we need to work together in creating the collaboration of the public private partnership. the reason is because the iot by definition is technology. transportation, energy and water have to also work together to achieve from the program. >> it's not that i'm ignoring the people. we have one more and then we will come back and have a whole conversation about this. thank you so much. i had it right here.
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peter robbins is the cybersecurity solutions lead for the go public sector. there you are. >> hello, good morning. >> so as they mentioned, i am the last speaker before a town hall session. so i have the distinct opportunity to kind of summed things up and to leave you guys with some good thought on where you can go forward with the internet of things. so i would like to start by talking about and this really does some things up, that there are really three things you can gauge when you start talking about the internet of things. one is you can do things more efficiently. you can gain the operational efficiency and hopefully save some money. you can create new things with the technology sadistic here you
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can create new things to your citizens and customers will be happy with and will like and then you can improve the quality of the delivery you are giving. so if you look at all the benefits of the internet of things, if you summed them up, you get the result. sorry, i will go back. so when we think about the internet of things, the industry and government we think about industrial control. we think about lighting. we think about parking and those are all very good and things that can save us money and efficiency, but our users are thinking other things. our users are taking about smart from, smart toaster and to our users, as has become very and
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especially when you talk about the new workforce and trainer businesses and government to younger generations coming in with the increasing notion all of these things are going to work. in fact, they surveyed 14 to 29-year-olds and they asked them, i cannot imagine life without. the answer was mobile phone was 97%. and the car was very important in my generation and becoming less important and most of the survey is the current partners only 43%. so it is very. and of course all of these devices are growing. we have seen over the years that it is growing back in 2009 with
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had the inflection point where there is at least one device on the internet for every person in the world. by 2020, we estimate 50 million devices on the internet and it's starting to look like that number may be too conservative. adoption of the internet of things in things on the internet has grown faster than any other technology that has come a has come along in our lifetime or previous lifetimes. so with that comes the challenge. we have all of these devices out there and by doing that, there are more places the bad guys can attack. there's more devices and not only more devices, but more places you have to worry about. there are a lot different ways you can find a weakness in pecan. when you add that to the
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endpoints being created, essentially in the consumer world are not really designed with security built-in. so they are oftentimes designed to get to market very quickly. you know, they want to beat their competition with the next new greatest device. they want to keep it low cost so it can be adopted by more people. there is a censor out there that is about the size of my thumbnail that is about $2 that includes internet and may be the amount of moisture in the field. so they are very good and they are designed that way without security built-in, oftentimes using code that comes from open source and so there is some problems there as well as the
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hardware as simple as possible may not have all of the security built-in that we need. so when you start adding all of this together, it becomes very complex and the people who are trying to keep the data secure, it becomes a problem. the big question out there is you have all of this stuff, how are you going to orchestrate and control? ..
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you have this one time where you say i will lead again, or know i'm going to block it. that doesn't work anymore. and in addition over the years there's been all these great new technologies that of introduced to go after these threats. so our big organizations have tons of security devices in their data center that don't talk to each other, get fragmented, are too much to manage. at cisco we are talking about a new paradigm when we talk about what are you going to do before an attack, what are you going to do during an attack on what he going to do after an attack. so before, you want to know everything that is in your environment.
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surveys, the products out there, mark talked about cdm, the diagnostics mitigation, that's a first step. there's also controlling who can get where in a network. they should not be able to access point-of-sale data. so you not just allowing access to your enterprise with username and password. it's my username, password, javier connecting, where they are connecting from, what time of day it is and what their title is. so you want to segregate access to all of the things on your network. all of this is done before. during an attack you want to block as best you can. there are many technologies out there. we offer them. our competitors offer them.
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it's important to use the best intelligence you have to block. and think if we know that things are going to keep income we have to worry about after. so after, can you find what is in your network quickly? can get rid of it impact a business? it back to your mission. that's what we're pushing for at cisco is this before, during and after. in addition we say it can no longer be perimeter-based. it needs to be based upon threats. are you looking for the threats and are using the platform. all of the things you have at your disposal in order to find what is going on in your network and get rid of it and get back to business. visibility is critical. that is for the standard network, and we haven't really gone that far in the protecting
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iot for all the reasons i've talked about before. if we apply this to iot. we have pretty much a standard data diagram here, and when you start adding iot you need to add things like a connectivity platform that takes into account internet of things. you need to have maybe some specific network elements. at cisco we are creating routers and switches, making small form factor, making all the things what we call swp, size, weight, power. in addition you need the sensors which is what we talked about all day here today. and you need, what are you going to do with all this data? so you want to have these applications and processes that take advantage of it, and we
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talked about that today also. in order to do all of that you need the data and analytics and all of the things listed here. and most importantly from my perspective is you want to spread that security throughout the whole system. when people say peter, you are after talking about security in the network, how do you secure these iot devices? my first thought is, well, you can't because they are not designed for it. but the other thought is if i put my disabilities and capability as far to the edge, as close to those devices as possible, then i am doing the best job i can. if i can push it into these devices and get innovation in the devices, then we are starting to talk about having secure. i'd like to talk about probably
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the most famous case study for internet of things and that's the city of barcelona in spain. i'm sure you all know that spain with her quite a bit of a recession. they were hit hardest in the last 10 years, and so they decided they wanted to use technology to pull their city through. they started by building a wireless foundation throughout the city where they could capture all kinds of data and put centers on things. as a result many of the things you've heard about this morning happen. so parking, they were able to increase revenue and decrease the traffic in the city with parking. they were able to make it so their trash cans were emptied of properly. they were able to put smart buses, smart bus stops, all kinds of things like that, save tons of money.
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so they saved $47 million over a 10 year period just by doing smart lighting. they are saving $2 million a year on smart trash pickup and there's all kinds of dollars involved. the most important things they've done is they have revitalized their city. they say that they're bringing more than 1500 new jobs in, in the next three years. and most importantly their people are happier. the frustration of looking for parking place has gone away at the ability to not have to look for points in your pocket has gone away because you can do over it smartphone and. a posting at a bus stop are happier because they can see things on the screen to know when a bus is coming. it's the attitude that is happening in barcelona is a huge thing. the link for the case that as at the bottom of the slide and you guys will have access to all these slides if you would like them. so it's not just, if it's secure
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and i can put it in a things out there i can save money. there's a lot more to it than that. and that is you can improve services to your citizens, you can be more open, accessible to make it so your citizens can do some self-help. data analytics and decision making, and most importantly much happier citizens. so i would like to leave you with a thought of, you are going to hear all kinds of scary stories and it's important we secured the internet of things. and it's important we do it right here as you leave here today think about if you could have all the security that you need and that your data is going to be safe, what new things can you do a note or to bring new things to your constituents? and i think that you will find that the opportunities are endless. and that is what i have to tell you guys today.
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[applause] >> stay right up there. i'm going to invite back up on stage -- it would be like musical chairs. mark, sokwoo, peter, chris all coming up. i love a parade. and this is a real opportunity us all to talk about. can i do something? there you go. i'm just getting out of the way. i'm going to go to these guys because i was talking to him during the break about what they're working on the terms of internet. mark has been a couple of events are done and he always takes, these of google blaster and he always takes pictures of me with the google class and he posted on twitter. it's actually not bad.
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kind of amazing. they are not making google guys anymore right now, right? >> they are waiting. >> we were talking but what you guys are doing. talk about that. >> right now we've been involved with with some of the speakers at today's mentioned about interoperability and standards. we've been involved with the -- working group, and developing a way to exchange standards, or a way to define things within the standards. they do gml and gml -- kml. >> describe that to me. these are what kind of things we talk about? how does it help government do
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its job? >> the premise is to show the usage of different organizations operating using just these standards. so there's actually a pilot that they are doing that is dealing with the internet of things in a first responders scenario and is sponsored why dhs. it's showing how you can have given agencies or different responders, whether fire, police, or a commander, be able to have the ability on the scene from say like apple watch at that will both display data coming in, calling for hazmat situation or take data from the user, from the firefighter in the field and feed that back in. doing that using just open
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standard. >> one of the things that so powerful about the world we live in, particularly in light of emergency response situation we can get all sorts of data coming in. i think superstorm sandy was the most tweeted ever. where's it coming from, essential having some kind of situational awareness is what they call it, right? >> it's making sense of that david and been able to make sense of data coming from different things. and not just a vertical application but how do you deal with that and another thing brought up is bring your own device or bring your own thing. you don't know exactly what asset that someone entering a first response team will have on the. so making an attempt to have these devices interoperate is the key. >> one of the things, there's a
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case study for fire service which we are all keenly aware. lots of stuff going on at west entrance of the so that's in the govloop and you can find it online, too. so kelley, talk a little bit, i was fascinated by your discussion because there seems like summer places the postal service can do. you hear about this in terms of first responders. it almost feels like how do you choose amongst all the options how do you choose where to spend your time, energy, effort, money early on what it feels like we're really in the shallow end right now? >> the point. i think example you brought up is one for us to talk a little bit about how important it is to know, the first responders, and advance. your own access --
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[inaudible] and then share that information with the appropriate agencies. for us because we have unlike some of our other agencies in france would affect the taxpayers money. over everything we do have to make sure we have a solid business case and we return some revenue to the organization. so we prefer to address where there's an opportunity for cost savings. then figure out if there's an opportunity to turn at least into a revenue stream. which we will partner with an agency like fema into something to help support a collaborative and get monetized out through other companies we did get the opportunity to do it sometimes,
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that is tricky for the greater good and we appreciate that opportunity when they become, when they come to us. but typically through the white house and other organizations we try not to get involved. >> again on this topic of how you prioritize, how do you spend, if there are world of opportunities, how do you decide where to spend your time, energy and effort? [inaudible] >> there you go. >> you're absolutely right. iot is so broad and assuming opportunities that you can tackle. you have done some focus, and focus from our perspective, my perspective is it may sound pretty weird but creating new jobs, creating new business opportunities or save lives. all these things that you can kind of see that, can't iot to
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the? i may not be many of them but there are a lot of them out there. you have to focus on the impact, the actual impact you can create. that's a week prioritize and focus our effort. >> chris, do you want to pipe in on this? >> i completely agree. i think it's really up to each agency to look across a spectrum of technology and be creative to figure out where they can increase operational efficiency. so could be in a lot of cases cost, could be lives, to be resources, i they could be reaction time, taxpayer dollars. willie we are looking to work with the different agencies to help them reach out and understand what is the art of the possible and where can increase these by bringing new centers, the devices to bear on
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the problem. >> my sense is a lot of agencies are really think okay, there's a lot of cool things we could do, but how do i find that money, that time, the energy to do this? so again it needs to be tied into your mission in some form or fashion, right? >> yes. my first thought was to do what is burning you the most. so you pull your head out of the fire. but the other thing is it's not defining -- finding the money to some of these projects can create revenue. we talked about the phone booth in new york where the kiosks are now generating revenue. with the parking in barcelona they generate money by better enforcement. so they automatically, a ticket is automatically generated if you stay too long, by better collections. so it's much easier.
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you can even reserve a parking space and blocks off for you and you can park there. you get us better service but you pay for it and generates revenue. >> an interesting stat in d.c. were empty park mobile app, which has been awesome, but revenues from tickets has dropped precipitously, kind of throwing the city, having a problem deal with that because they made money off of tickets. >> but they do benefit from less traffic and they get that revenue from the media. spent on security, mark, talking to the cybersecurity guide, we are just really, really terrible at risk announce a. human beings to do a good job at it. talkington back when the whole ebola things going on and everything was running around with her on fire about people the. he said the most dangerous thing we do in our life is getting to a big out of still and moving
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along at 60 miles per hour. then we take out the device and do something else while we're going 60 miles per hour. in terms of risk analysis we do a really, really bad job of this. their contractor pulled over to internet of things world where hold on, and all these things attached, do we do an effective job of risk analysis and that kind of space? >> basically what came out of the -- [inaudible] looking at where the high-value assets are, because that's where the malicious activities point you. so being aware as to how or which ones are high-value assets, setting that as a priority and then looking at what is around that with regard to access. so that's the key element that
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dhs is definite engaged with. there's been a number of agencies identified, high-value assets wer or working in providg assistance and things of that nature. the thread is looking to gain access to. and then how do you wrap that are protecte protect them from e network side. second is information. they're basically is a lot of input coming in from across all agencies. we also have a lot of information coming in regards to the cyber hygiene of the agency. but how do you put that together? how do you blend that set of information and what trends are we seeing from the? that's also going to identify where we need to put additional efforts and priorities.
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i think the third element is looking at nss from the perspective of how best to leverage the resource that you have, agencies, everyone with regards to cyber resources. we have quite a challenge there. bring new resources and. so in taking a look at how best to use of that that's where we coming up with the capability that is put into like a dashboard part. so instead of have a team attack a thousand things at once, let's take a look at which ones, prioritize based on the risk tolerance and also the threat factor. those are just three aspects we're promoting with regard to try to help risk management. >> it just seems like if you're
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an agency like opm, they knew what data was important and it doesn't feel like it was protected to the degree that at least -- i'm not go to put in the position of commenting on opm, i will put in a plug for next slideshow into which we talked about the opm stuff and trying to pull some lessons learned, not beat people up to take some lessons learned so to make these mistakes again. says the rebels want to comment on the cyber stuff? go ahead. >> the example of cars being hacked remotely, that's important remotely. that with any kind of break-ins. that's a pretty scary stuff the you look like it like so within a family room and do something with a mobile device and drive your car. really it comes down to a fundamental concept of design. so from a technical perspective,
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a lot of people, i hear a lot of people say we have experience of 40 years of cybersecurity. why can't we apply that to our cyber physical system? my responses you're absolutely right, you can apply that knowledge to cyber part of it, physical part is completely different ballgame. most importantly the interface between cyber and cisco has to be really fun. at the end of the day when i talk to my cybersecurity friends and say talk about the car thing, they should just put up better firewall. if you look at from higher levels, firewall itself is not either you should design a system so you can separate the light critical, safe critical stuff from this connectivity. you should put some hardware measure.
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so it comes down to not having firewalls anymore. connected think of more holistic perspective, combine cyber. that's a new area. >> i got to drive the tesla and i got to download, they found out some hack and all of a sudden like the iphone, i've got to download. question. all of a sudden i feel safer. question? no one? thank you. i love your tie by the way. >> thanks. i'm with usaid. there's been a lot of discussion of smart cities today, and we worked a lot with cities in the developing world, and the question i have is what is the most important piece of the enabling device, enabling environment for lack of a better term, for cities to want to become smart cities?
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isn't have a good connectivity, good political leadership, having high smart phone penetration, what is the key piece speak with what i keep hearing is a lot of these for cities have been able to jump, almost jumped a step in also in have a lot of infrastructure in place that we don't have in this country in some ways. in some cases, sure. what do you see out there? you stump the band. i love. >> i'm a little bit out of my -- is, you will notice when i talk about the barcelona case study, the first thing they said is we need infrastructure to do this. so they put in wireless throughout the city. there's a lot more than just a were going to put in wireless. you did to backend you need these capabilities to put it up there. but you did mention that the political will has to be there.
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and several speakers said they talked but you need someone who's going to drive and push this forward and you need the citizens to support it. so i would say those are the two things. whether people are cell phones right now, that's not so critical because you can put kiosks out. >> i'm going to put this in this context because there's times you're driving around and you feel like you're in a third world country with some of the infrastructure that's out there, or not out there. what should cities, federal agencies, what should they be thinking about? the are some who are not even thinking about it. wished they start? >> start with social media. if you look out there today, well you're taking everybody, their driving experience, they are all feeding him, i now know what traffic is really like. i know where the police are. i know what the best route is. leveraging it that way. someone else mentioned pot
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holes, having the postal service are out on the roads everyday having them report potholes. you can go online out in those cities, report a pothole, things like that. really leveraging your citizens more. we all have in the u.s., we all have cell phones now. that's pretty much standard. so to be able to design an app that will engage of those users and get them to contribute and put in the information so that communities, local, state, national can harness that data and make it useful. >> just to add to it, i think to a certain extent there's a bit of advantage gained in not having tremendous legacies that countries like the united states have. when you are having the opportunity to build from scratch with all of the efficiencies we see with a mobile perspective, you can
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begin to crowdsourced information from those enable citizens of those countries because we are seeing such huge penetrations with smart devices. there is a lot of new start their that was naturally inherited from all of that data that's already out there as opposed to where we are currently. it does make it a little bit easier in some ways to go down the model of building the new security right off the bat. you do that through identifying those users, having verified providers and enablers of content to your solutions and i think that's not a power spent some ways we learned that on the federal perspective, new agencies, consumer financial protection bureau, the recovery board, they got to start from scratch. they didn't have any of the old crap -- can we say crap on c-span? sorry. stuff. we may be taken off the air in a minute. they don't have that old stuff that they have to maintain and
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fix and patch and all those kinds of things so it makes it a lot easier. does anyone else want to comment? >> going back to the idea example. i would also suggest that the political support, being a former manager, i know the type of cities you are talking about. from a smartphone perspective, i think there's a lot of that after but in essence how you'd start blending that two of the cities into a smart city mode, and those whose i think attack the whether these things are the political support will be there because they have to break to a lot of these supersize those between agencies -- super silos. spent i'm not sure which is the case, if you can't keep a job
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for everyone keeps recruiting you, but congratulations on th that. >> i had the question facing particularly at kelley sullivan but i guess anyone can address it, when it comes to workforce and the internet of things. a prior question you answered, indicated the hope is to be nice to have a lot of jobs and shed but to the people repurposed for other roles. i was hoping you could expand on that. did i read your response right ethical would be to hold on to jobs? and in general how do you change workforce radically? >> particularly the workforce but the postal service. you have a lot of people who drive cars and deliver mails and get into the internet of things space. >> that's not an easy shift and some of them quite public. there's a lot of conversation around what's happening with our united workforce. i'm sure this public which were referencing as well.
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we are partners with the postal service in this conversation and also would like to keep the citizens around for the workforce. which means that is a reinvention. in some scenarios you may seem the postal service is now testing the delivery of groceries. interestingly expansion of the mail service, coming to the house, in addition to doing those packages what are other items we can provide that would be of value to the consumer. that's part of that expansion of the division. their job is still to deliver and security the united states mail but if they can provide an additional service that allows us to keep those positions and extend to something that consumers are interested in, that's what we are interested in pursuing. >> should the nature of work
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essentially, how people do the work, arthur things, there will probably be jobs to end up disappearing, that happens with every department of technology, and he didn't reload change as long as we don't have to change. >> yeah, right. there will be some jobs that may not be kept at the same level as we have today, but if you look at hundreds of years, that happens anyway. 50 years ago there was willing to a job called software engineers to now have a lot of software engineers. a new category. that are no right now, there were like a lot of typewriters, dedicated person who loved typing. we do that with word processing these days. the world is going to change in iot is not the only exception. there will be new jobs created. we talk about drones and new technologies. think about.
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if you have a drone, who's going to operate that? somebody has to be able to the expert. summit has to be expert. that's a new job category. so we don't know exactly what kind of jobs will be created but historically, i'm kind of like a little optimistic about it. a lot of experts are needed training, education, that's critical but eventually i think it will -- >> and overtime our lives have gotten better. even the less advantage people in our society today have a life that is much better than it was even 20 years ago. like any technology can be used for good or evil, and hopefully you are seeing that some of these sensors on trucks, some bad measurement data, makes a
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driver do something seminar deposited. but on the other hand, that allows the driver of a truck to automatic blog and so he's over by police but eventually did and tried to me our for things like that. there's always a balance and it gets down to the people making the decision, not the technology. overtime we've seen our lives improve though. >> my name is bernadette. i'm a serial entrepreneur and paste into arlington area and i see a lot of investment for small amounts of investors. do we are in a seat of our national government with real pressing problems. so i encourage those of you who are in a position to influence the angelge investment community and early stage investment community to meet with them. because i feel a little bit of hay, let's bring important people to silicon valley because to shake things up and shows
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that do things. there's a lot of really smart people in the d.c. area who work within government and with government any contracted capacity, if you just need the funding, like our company to be able to work and make it big and awesome, just like they're getting the funding in silicon valley. and let's stop fixing millennial simple nice things and with the summer countries infrastructure, and you guys can point instrumental role in doing that stuck to talk about uber or something like that, right? cisco, talk to her after. she needs money. [laughter] but it does raise the point about money out there and how do we get, there's lots more people in the dark about trying to figure this out, and although the actual worksite worksite but in terms of priority but also sometimes there isn't always the money associate with these kinds of projects because they just
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don't -- they haven't proven themselves yet, right? >> i joined the government only two years ago. before that i was a startup guide. you are absolutely correct. in d.c. there are all kinds of smart people inside and outside of the government. we all talk of silicon valley a lot of times but it's all because there's probably more concentration of engineers and companies that you know of over there. funding issue is not an easy question, whether you're government employed or not. but only thing i see is the reason we talk about silicon valley is, and the recent have a lot more venture capital and d.c. areas it's just number, not quality. more engineers and more entrepreneurs over there. if you look at how may of them got funded, and that's not the
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percentage of -- is not that different across the region of the united states. so yes, i absolutely agree we should do more in funding great ideas and entrepreneurs who have right business model. and that's the key, right business model. technology itself doesn't really cut it. you have defined the model. job applications back and actually -- investors need return and provide right path to return spee-1 i grew up in silicon valley. and there's a big chunk of luck there, too. right people, right time and some of all magically appears. are you writing your check? >> i wanted jumping to quick. one of the main differences, it is geared towards more, millennials in general our lot earlier on the adoption curve. in the government, we are farther back and makes it harder
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for startups it is a lot of times we are looking for more mature technology. we're waiting for a lot of that stuff to be flushed out. and in doing so it's just, it leads to something a little more conservative and that's why we are not seeing the love of startup funding your that we see somewhere else. >> we are talking about small c. conservative. a government has tended to be more conservative also because there is a certain risk aversion, right? we don't want to make a mistake. but my sense is with this stuff you need to figure out a safe way, it's not like we used to be in the place where we will wait out at what else captured to nature works and they will jump in. my sense is this stuff doesn't work, you have to be practicing as you can because it's really evolutionary if you just wait you are so far behind the curve is almost impossible to catch up. spent your right.
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you missed it. you on to the next opportunity. that's what i think it's really important for agency in the government as a whole. that's why you see organizations -- i'd like to put her own group in an interesting rapid prototype, trying to identify opportunities out there, but then find things that add value to not only our current consumer base but the larger company and country as a whole. you do have to take a look at of a risk. part of that is executing to our prototype, participating in conversations we get a lot of interesting feedback and look what's happening with the private sector. i think the public-private relationships are very important.
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>> i want to come back to you and to bring up a really, really boring topic, but acquisition. do have an acquisition system that doesn't move real fast generally, it would talking about things that are changing so quickly and, of course, the federal government has a reputation for buying yesterday's technologies 10 years ago prices. really making, not getting good value. how do we will put in a world where we are in, how to move to places where we want to be? >> government acquisition itself, by the way i'm not an expert in acquisition itself. island of its slope because i worked -- love corporations and small startup usually want to work with you, they say the acquisition cycle is a so long. there's nothing we can do to dramatically change it overnight. however, the federal government helping these companies and
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universities, helping them to show the impact. that's not science fiction anymore. and by the way, it worked in my city. and by the way, if that city using it, i will use it. that's like city to city communication. i can call it federal government as, that's kind of output, important role. >> just a couple things. i agree on the acquisition process, but i think it's much more awareness and the need to be more agile along this line. we are seeing -- [inaudible] another point with regard to the funding aspect, one of the challenges, again came out of
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the cyber activity, we are looking at how i.t. is being funded, is cybersecurity and i.t. have been linked together. as i.t. budgets are impacted, it impacts the whole selection of activities within the i.t. lets him do now is that cybersecurity should be viewed separately from cybersecurity. so when decisions are made with regards to adoption of things of that nature, you are looking at cybersecurity relationship to everything else i.t. so those are some of the conversations that are being discussed now across the cios and the cisco's. as we move forward as they were looking at budgeting, we can ensure that there is more emphasis, the criticality of cybersecurity in the budget cycle. >> a couple people said they're
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working early stages of iot things. does anyone want to talk about their lessons learned so far? >> again we're working on a project where we are combining historic data from hhs with real-time air quality monitoring and we've driven the price down because of the vast reduction in cost of hardware with the center box to below $5000. we will get the government a good one for its money and hopefully show that we can collect it for a lot less than what epa pace which is run $200,000 per box, show health impacts of air quality and chemical exposure. so my findings are that innovation is really easy with the sensors and open-source software and open source hardware. it's difficult to get government to publish the data largely because of fear of embarrassment. so we work pretty closely with
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the stewards of the data to try to get them through the hurdles and move from the flow, migration from the need to know to the need to share. i with the agencies from information should officers are the biggest roadblock because they've nothing to gain professionally by allowing it out of the agency, only blame if it goes wrong. >> that's a good point because we see that a lot. my favorite line about open data was from the former head of the recovery board who said if you're easily embarrassed to get into health and data space because although several but that did at someplace and you just need to basically say we're going to be embarrassed about something, get on with it. but i hear that complaint a lot is these -- the people who stop you from doing things. how do you get that partnership so you can get things done puts everyone's data is safe and secure, but how do you find that
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safe space speak with a goes back to one of the points raised on communication. basically a dialogue between mci and cisco are critical. so as you're putting forward one example there is acceleration of -- what does that mean for usaid as an example when you have four nationals and you will be graded, if all cards have been addressed for the privilege -- [inaudible] the impact on the nation leads -- difficult with this situation, specific cybersecurity aspect in place, what is the nation impact? what activities do you now need
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to be able to judge because of this? the end result is really protecting the critical data that you are responsible for. that dialogue is critical to make sure that as we are becoming more sophisticated, that we don't have all these smart people trying to work around them. i think airport bring together in cybersecurity. that's a key element. spin always seems when the challenges or cio agenda is to not be the chief information officer, these days people go about you, right? they figured technology finds a way. >> that is happening.
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>> they figured out a way to do it without your something. >> you talk about change is good as long as i do have to change and that reminds me, in front of mine used to do business information consulting the used to say a hard stuff is and the soft stuff is hard, meaning the technology, the process is, though she can do reasonably well, wha where is getting peopo change is the hard part. when we look at specifically this technology, technologies are getting there and are almost there. we have technology to measure almost everything. we have technology to protect most things but most of the time it's getting people to enacted, to use it, is the hard part spent that sounds like a guaranteed employment or you're not getting out of a job anytime soon. >> you talk about if i.t. is giving them away, i will go about it.
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we've done surveys and we see how many outside suppliers for cloud trucks the they were sickd our averages we're finding five to seven times more applications being used in the environment and the i.t. managers. so it is getting done. people go around it. it's called shadow i.t. spent less shadow we all the time. how do you do with this world what you did do things in a secure space, but they want the security folks in there. you have to get your job done, right? how to navigate those spaces? solve the problem forced the we've been talking about this for way too long, years. >> if you have five minutes we can solve the problem with everyone here in this room. i think one of the easiest things we can do is first create a framework for developers. because again altar boy all of us have business goals and
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objectives we're trying to achieve. established this is the way it's been emphasis the way that it is doesn't always work when you're trying to drive rapid change and iterate quickly you need something in the market. but if we can create an advance, a series of, if you will, of recipes for if you want to do with this type of information and you want to share this information publicly, this is how you're going to do it. go ahead and dive right in and tackle somewhat on some of the biggest things people are asking for in advance. and layout the kind of road map. so this is going to be the scenario, these are the languages your developers are allowed to use. feasibly this feature to practices. they have to be in place in advance. make it clean and easy for folks to follow. i think doing that an advanced manual more people comply. but when you take the gold
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standard of these are the 400 controls we have to put in place and this is what we're going to do, we will evaluate you over a period of eight months after you're finished with your built activities, to see whether we let you deploy, that's where you end up with this is that we'll fight against the transfer and the i.t. function and i find an easy way which ultimately will reduce the sake of the system and impact the end-users experience because it will not be scalable for cohabitation and create problems for them. i think we can proactively get ahead of what the business is driving a little bit. i think you know what they want. >> you look lik like you on thee of your seat, mark. >> i agree. basically it's getting your standards up front because they will be driving the applications. as i said earlier, cybersecurity, everybody owns. making sure that as we move
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forward with new applications, as well as board with what we're putting in place regarding network security, everybody is included with regards to impact. so keeping that communication open. >> just want to add to his point. [inaudible] it is a key part of the ciso function to a justice of the part of what is doing business for them. >> one of the things i've talked to much debate about its standards. i cannot emphasize enough about the importance of standards in i.t., especially iot is framed right now in terms of application technologies. that was everything that was just discussed about the process. it's kind of happening per se. a lot of cooperation --
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corporations, cisco and others form alliances, really figure out what the right thing as. by trial and error of their figured out what is the right standard and it is happening. and i think once that happens, once that gets to the point where it's mature enough i think a lot of these pieces which i but today, including all the human factors and process would be a lot easier to figure out. >> sokwoo gets paid by nist so it's pretty broad that it. i would ask a final question for you. leave something for folks to walk out with the what should they take out when you think about iot? before i do that i will let you think wanted a couple of reminders about if you want -- we will send an e-mail to you. there's a qr code in the back to
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make sure you fill out your valuation. we will ship all the slides to you. anything i'm forgetting? i got it? how unusual. press, what should they take home with them after spend some time thinking about the internet of things? >> technology is just continued to increase, it is going to end we'll save sensors everywhere. we are wearing more. we will see more wearable computing devices that we will see them in places that we don't or haven't in the past seen them. what i'd like to take away from this is you need to be in a place where you can take advantage of all that data. you need to start think about how you're going to build out your infrastructure to be able to collect, hardest and make use of all that data because it's going to be there. the standards are developing. we do have the technologies.
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i think we're all in agreement, the technology isn't there today. it's just really how are going to build out our infrastructure to utilize all the data. >> i'm going to ask you to think about when have we gone too far and what's -- what senator they feel like you wouldn't want to share your information? that's a question we all need to ponder. where do we draw the line? is there a line? if i can be anonymous, maybe there's not a line at all. >> i found out, my sick bed, you click on the page and say clear all the stuff on -- fitbit. go ahead, mark. peter, sorry. >> i am very confused by all this and i say look at the possibilities. so in your job, what this
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internet of things do to measure, to change, to enact that could make your job easier and make a so that you are more effective with your constituents. and, of course, did not forget security. it should be built in, not bolted on. >> just two points. one is that have everyone here, exchange ideas because when it all the more people in the world to work and share the information, address the challenges of cybersecurity. second is that cybersecurity responsibilities owned by all. so as we talk about agencies and cio and ciso, collectively we are responsible for securing the critical bit of a government. >> sokwoo? >> i would present with all look around in our agencies and see how we can improve, and how to
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work with other agencies because it's very important. there's virtually no agency in the united states, government that has no stake in iot. transportation, energy, whatever you call it. to our something did you can always do, and by combining forces with other agencies, you can escalate and amplify the impact. and by doing that, the way to get the standard is by practicing and coming up with best practices, so we'll efficiency and impact and real value. i really suggest everybody kind of work with other agencies as much as you can. because if you keep yourself in silos, it will never work spent real power of sharing. i will leave you with two points. one is, i know how challenging
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the kind offer, to do its job. we've had furloughs and sequestration and shutdowns, oh, my. but my goodness, the opportunities out there these days are just so humongous and you can give them relatively easily and relatively quickly and see returns on those investments pretty quickly, pretty exciting stuff. to do it, try. and the other thing is the power of sharing information. we have seen two instances of people saying can't share that with another agency, can't work together. my goodness, people need us out there. so let's change that, and you guys can do it and i know you are. so go do it. do good work. we will talk to you soon. if you so much. thank our sponsors. go, have fun. go do good work. [applause]
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[inaudible conversations] >> saturday august 29 marks the 10th anniversary of hurricane katrina, one of the five deadly storms in u.s. history. tonight at eight, c-span's 2006 tour of the recovery of st. bernard parish in louisiana. >> you can't describe it in your whole life on, completely. nothing but cement left and rubble. and not only are house but the whole community. everybody is gone. now it's going to be a year
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later and you still come your family and friends you don't see anymore that you used to see. hell of a feeling don't forget it. you will never forget the rest of your life. >> followed by a town hall meeting. >> i know august is state level, federal level and all of the levels. i don't have them. i voted for you. ..
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it is hosted by the international foundation for electoral systems. it is just getting started. >> -- across the globe, working in countries undergoing democratic transition from those experiencing are emerging from post-conflict to those experiencing democratic consolidation. we are working to empower the under represented, including youth, women and persons with disabilities and other marginalized groups here to participate fully in the political process we applied field days research to them prove all aspects of the electoral cycle as part of the larger political process. in support of our work, we have not worked and connected rogue remain in more than 145
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countries worldwide and we currently have more than 30 offices in various countries. our organization's vision is a world in which strong democratic and detentions empower all citizens to have a voice in the way they are governed. there are programming, and engaging young people in the political process is critical to the country's democratic help and a culture of democracy exists when citizens are informed about democratic principles and can translate that knowledge into action through such things as democratic community service and leadership. with this commitment to future democratic health in mind, we design programs and implement youth programs around the world
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that foster an understanding of citizens rights and was instability is in a pluralistic society and work to create a culture of engagement are those who have not yet reached the voting age in their country. for youth at that age, ifes works to provide training, tools and opportunities for newly franchised voters to participate in elections and advocate for positive change within their communities. considering challenges young people face around the globe today, including the serious threat of radicalization, these programs are more vital than ever. i have a very personal connection to our work with youth as i started my career almost 25 years ago as a peace corps volunteer working in
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post-communist poland i worked with high school age students for over three years and did research and work with other used in the south caucasus and central asia. at that time we were working primarily to combat apathy, to orient or combat disorientation and orient young people to the rights and responsibilities that were either newly found her newly realized at that time. and i am proud to be part of an organization taken these issues seriously given the new threats we have the youth face and the challenges you face some 20 years later. with that, i would like to introduce our moderator for the session, my collie, a featherstone serves as ifes's technical lead on youth engagement and helps us design pacific programs and works on other global youth initiatives.
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join me in welcoming her and i look forward to a lively conversation for my other colleagues as well. augusta. [applause] >> unembarrassed thank you, michael for that very kind introduction. i would like to take a moment right now to thank congresswoman sheila jackson lee as well as her office in south for partnering with ifes and providing support for the event. we are pleased to be here this morning to discuss the topic of the engagement and we believe the discussion is relevant and timely in light of the international focus on youth in the month of august as well as current events illustrate challenges young people face everyday in their community. before introduced the panelists, i would like to invite the audience as well as those online to join the conversation on
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twitter by treating ifes 97 and jackson lee t. x 18 which stands protected it congressional district. one more housekeeping comment. lewis had questions from the audience until after the panelists have had a chance to respond to my ruling battery question and for the q&a portion microphones available in the center of the room. without further ado and join on the panel today by four of my colleagues who between them have a wealth of regional and technical expertise that will and richer discussion. various the regional director of ifes division and spans the breadth of technical areas including programs that address election violence among other
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topics. most of which feature substantial specific education and youth engagement components. and she is responsible for political participation, just as in the deputy regional chair of the division and provides expertise in the electoral conflict and security strategy and program development. many thanks for joining me here today. our discussion will focus on how engaging young people in democratic processes can serve as a deterrent to radicalization. and the working group that focuses on the subject is
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radicalization is a process by which a person is indoctrinated into rigid ideology and equipped with plans to eventually breed extremism, military and the understanding we have of that term throughout our discussion today. is important to note the research the guys no single path towards radicalization, rather a complex confluence of fact there's included willful context that might compel an individual to radicalize. however, factors such as alienation from traditional community support structures or alienation from political marginalization and a lack of opportunity to engage are cited as contributing to an individual . in light of this daunting set of influences, international institutions, think tanks and other organizations to work with young people are concerned about
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the status of these and their potential to radicalize. we must examine why this must be the case. a simple note about demographics could provide some of the motivation for focus on the topic. according to figures, more than half the worlds population is under 30 years of age in the vast majority of individuals that can capture with emerging and developing economy and democracy is. many countries at the one in which ifes works. asia has the largest absolute number of young people. roughly three quarters of a billion plus sub-saharan africa is the largest portion under 3070%. when you talk about youth and facts and figures.
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the definition of the missionaries. the 2012 policy at 10 to 29 years of age providing youths that that encompass 15 to 24 years of age and the african charter means a direct quote, every person between the ages of 15 and 35 years. let's reflect on not very moment. think of yourself at 15 versus present day. the developmental gap between the two milestones is huge. for our purposes in this conversation, yet is best understood as a period of transition or dependence of childhood to independents of adulthood. this makes more of a fluid category rather fixed age group and in fact train to is designed
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to address two distinct cohorts. young people is not yet reached the age to vote versus young adults who have. another note here in the united states the hallmark moment is 18 years of age else where in the world than they are different voting ages up to 21 versus 16 years. this is one of the reasons we don't as an institution have a particular rage to define categories of use. in light of the demographic statistic i mentioned a moment ago, it seems clear these numbers speak for themselves in terms of justifying why it's critical to address the needs of young people globally. recent large-scale retail attitudes and beliefs to run a democracy and democratic participation which is a critical vehicle in ensuring
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citizen needs are addressed. unfortunately some surveys suggest young people are not fully engaged the democratic process. according to the 2015 survey, 40% of african youth never discuss politics with friends and family and 60% have never contacted a local government official to resolve community issues. both are indicators of public and political participation for an engaged citizenry. furthermore. the number one sign in indicates young people are uncertain democracy could ever work in their region. these get passed for concern and young people the world over are frequently indicate their societies in a meaningful way.
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in fact come a report released earlier this month on the international youth foundation analyzed data to recommend nations from dozens of consultations over the past few years and regional polls including the two i mentioned a moment ago. and what this analysis found an participation and good governance and corruption, quality and human rights among the top turn. these are a generation maker to take on the challenge of leadership ifes works on advancing good governance and democratic rights by primarily providing technical assistance to election stakeholders and empowered citizens to engage in
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the process including years and disabilities of marginalized groups. ifes has found an engaging young people the political process the dysfunctional culture of the exist when people are informed about principles and translate that into action with community service, leadership, public engagement and participation methods. this commitment to democratic health and potential deterrent to radicalization. and foster an understanding and this is programs for those that have not reached the voting age in the country body of research in the field of education and human development suggests early intervention establishes and the man's lifelong pattern.
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i'd like to turn now to our panelists were some discussions. thank you for humor in midair. we are all here to discuss how our work contribute to use development broadly. i would like to pose a question for each panelist. in your opinion, what are the most persistent challenges of civic and political engagement confronting people in the region. >> good morning, everybody. first let me thank the gusto for moderating our grueling and wide discussion today and also the office of the congressmen -- congresswoman for hosting the event today. in terms of the middle east, most of us know what the
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challenges are. and continue to exist now. for example, an issue that continues to be prevalent in north africa. as much as 70% of the population is under the age of 30 and many countries and most of the middle east and north africa the population continues to be under the age of 25. 50% or more under the age of 25. this phenomenon will continue another decade will have a large effect on the middle east and africa. tight is the educational opportunity at high levels range between 25% and 40%, also something many young people were protesting about initially and yet we see unemployment is
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increased in many countries in the middle east and north africa. tied with this is upward mobility that people are unable to get jobs, get married and this can have a big impact on psychology. specifically in regard to civic voter education and political engagement, four points and led to bring out. first is provider to the revolution in 2011, many people in the countries have not had any sort of experience with democracy. the concepts are fairly narrow and a lot of this is surface level on an addition that how to make true elections and international norms. they understand the notion of citizenship and after the revolution they wanted to be
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physically active. they didn't know how to translate the concept into change. a lot of organizations to focus on youth are advocating didn't have the tools and capacity to do this. tied with this is even after 2011 there was a lack of reaching out to youth by the authority and any sort of voice within government and advocating with government. they are still run by people who are older than the youth age. we also have presidents well beyond the age in the media new stage in various countries.
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and i think young people have increasingly black trust in the process as augustine mentioned earlier survey shows less than one you think democracy will work compared to 2012 when there is a high number of 72 pairs and am now there's the potential for democracy to work. with a lack of trust in government continuing and lack of trust in the democracy itself. finally we should mention political institutions are weak and this has allowed many nonstate areas to move in. we've seen the emergence of groups like i says, al qaeda increasingly started to radicalize and recruit you for
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very many highly skilled methods. those are some of the main reasons civic and political engagement has not been strong before 2011 incidents. this doesn't mean it's all bad news. part of what we see as there is still optimism in the region. youth are optimistic about their futures. they do still see countries like the u.s.'s allies that this is something we could make work in our favor. additionally it doesn't need to be an issue always said that the company of a strong educational is in strong market policies in east asia. and that's a positive and negative in those countries. >> thank you. there are so many follow-up questions i want to ask about.
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some of the things you mention would be help but i have some other regional comment and then maybe follow up on challenges. irony challenges similar widely different than the issues just highlighted? >> good morning everyone. -- i think what i would like to add to the discussion in terms of specific challenges and thinking specifically of africa and even more central africa is to me one of the biggest challenges is sort of a general failure of the state and state institutions to deliver economic growth and better opportunities.
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that sort of undermines any of you you might create returning engagement and proven in your own life. i think that is essentially a major challenge to youth engagement. engagement proudly, but more specifically youth engagement. and juxtaposing that with the fact there's a lot of political actors sort of looking to instrumental lies used to sort of further their own political gain and offering immediate access to some sort of authority jimmy ray says a fundamental action of how you support the democratic more track to and
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providing more instant gratification. >> you have anything to add? >> i trust the microphone is working. great. a couple things i wanted to add to that being said previously. in asia, one of the largest concerns as a lack of real channels to be heard and ways to engage issues determined to be most important than other people are not determined important on behalf of youth. we see a lot of the same things spoke about earlier. levels of apathy in indonesia, 70% say they don't care about politics. there is a high level of violence in countries and
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there's quite a bit of disagreement on how power is transferred within countries. this is at the essence of the electoral process and how change can happen through official channels. what you see is high levels of frustration and apathy among the population. basically the movement to take violent action talked about earlier. unlike in the middle of the state fell through the air of spring are still not considered agents of change. in many cases their slacker policies of the government and used are not only marginalized groups in south but young women with disabilities, and other marginalized groups within the countries they operate and are facing further obstacles to
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participation. the other thing is the lack of skills in order to advocate an address grievances nonviolently knowing how they can get involved in some of these particular processes. there's a high tolerance of violence perpetrated by young people often encouraged on behalf of political perpetration by countries where there is a high tolerance for mob violence. this is then seen as an appropriate tool to engage. the last one is the sense of meaning and we are now looking to live meaningful lives when it comes to young people, an important or intense time because you try to figure out who you are and where to find meaning to write in a number of different ways whether economic or your job or sent to political participation or a social
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movement. as the guest alluded to, this makes you vulnerable to people looking to exploit this. curriculum support alternative views or radical views on environment. susceptible to parties who mobilized to end groups that are providing this sense of immediate meaning. it is really critical that the changes over time country by country to generalize asia pacific is quite difficult. >> thank you for those comments. >> i know i'm not supposed to be commenting because were talking about regional issues, but juliet give me points including regional generalities cannot know change her country and likewise the global trends. i wanted to pick up on a point
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juliet made and the concern we have in terms of a persistent challenge to connect young women in particular. and this is a concern ifes has. we look at the girls themselves, the issue which is a priority in the u.s. government is gross education and the key piece to access for growth into the political process oftentimes in regions around the world, parents, communities have to make choices about who goes to school and young, poor girls are often the least recognize and their families and communities that needed miseducation for the choices made between a son and daughter and a son is chosen for
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a reason that tied to a number of cultural understanding with this we can invest and hope for our future in the community so not to put the burden squarely on the parent be there. the lack of access to education is a key moment for girls and i think another piece of that in terms of societal burdens on young girls is early marriage and pregnant the end making sure gross can do in school so they continue to progress in their society and become leaders. when we talk about politics in particular, there is this not a lenity of politics that this is men's work or a boy's area of work and something we try to break down the barriers and do so as soon as possible is critical. to raise one more point on this,
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also security. a lot of the places are unstable. societies are attempting to transition to peace and oftentimes women and girls, the restriction is severely -- their movement is severely restrict dead which means they can participate in meetings and public life in the same way men and boys can. >> thank you very much. there's a lot to impact in the discussion of these challenges. ..

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