tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN November 9, 2015 8:00pm-10:01pm EST
>> host: james lewis for the center of strategic international studies is regarded as one of the leading site for security policy experts in washington. he is our guest this week week, "the communicators". both the house of the senate have passed so-called cybersecurity legislation. what exactly would happen if that legislation gets enacted and put into law? >> 2012 congress tried to pass comprehensive of the best cybersecurity bill maybe not the best bill but they could not pass so they felt bad and they did the next best thing to work on in for richet and sharing. hopefully this will make it easier for companies to share information with each other and the government but
it is the second-best it is not the real deal. >> host: what kind of information? >> guest: risks and threats signatures of potential attackers to help a company defending itself better if it chose to do so. it is not privacy related. >> host: with this sharing in hands cybersecurity defense? >> guest: that is the hope. probably not. it did say good for step in if you talk to some of the sponsors they will tell you we know it is a first that we have to do more but it builds consensus on the hill to move forward on cybersecurity. >> host: let's bring in an our next guest.
>> you mentioned the real deal but would that look like? what should they be doing next even if they don't finish this bill? >> guest: date of dhs and its role with the grand mission to defend cyberspace but they don't have the authority or resources. they need to think about critical infrastructure. probably not in the right way the new cbo bob administration put up the executive order and to protect the network congress has to basket that is enough >> what should that protection of critical infrastructure look like?
2012 bill it turns out everybody on the planet within two exceptions hate's dhs that is just tell it is. to a slight republican sen democrats to say that is the administration position. >> the executive order gives each sector brit regulator the responsibility with the banking regulators and that turns out to be a smarter approach. >> one thing we heard from the administration they don't want congress to deal with a group did products to
create a back door for law-enforcement purposes is that why is? how should that debate be answered? >> to release an encryption because we have the same today. and the flip side is it is easier for terrorists and criminals but at the same time it is harder for cyberspies or cybercriminals and drug we decided the benefits outweighed the the cost. to have of much more
energetic russia and china. >> your data is more secure are we better off as a nation? >> i am not a fan of back doors but the belief but you do compromise security. in there is an issue of law enforcement. >> when you look at several security and the threats of private industry faces are rethinking about the right thing? >> guest: no. that is the good news. thinking of the dawn of the
>> it is hard and expensive a place is like apple and google. >> dan your stuff is a scripted. it would be bad for law enforcement. >> in 1980 moved there is a movie named hackers and started to leave italy toward the end of the movie you can see her break a password in 10 seconds that was the to 95 and hasn't gotten better. >> and they're still writing skateboards with trench coats.
>> a woman who wears the ceo of the company that this is the airfield skateboard is motorized. [laughter] still the same silicon valley. >> the interesting thing with the growing public concern and it made people realize and needs to be relatively concerned if your password is your dog's name you are not safe.
>> if you look work for an interesting place to be more attractive. but with bed big company. >> what is the worst-case scenario? >>. >> coming forays a replacement we needed to catastrophe and people think cyber9/11 or a cyberkatrina. there is no water involved. what is the worst that could happen would be some kind of
opm or target or the breaches that was bad but with the scope or the economy you don't want to do tolerate crime but i don't they get is the end of the world. >> host: on the flip side has ever security defense becoming big business. >> guest: in huge business a good source of investment probably over 200 companies now trying to do come up
that day all buys cybersecurity companies it is and because the threat is so severe but because we depend on this now it is like a toy here is on your desk and you can play pac-man but now it is built into the fabric the banks to the best job they will spend huge sums of money and that creates demand for companies or products. >> you mentioned china you see some positive in the agreement where do you think the shortcomings are for that deal?
>> so for a minute i thought i was back in the reagan the administration and. we're not talking about helsinki here or the helsinki accord. you have to start somewhere you have to find a way to work with these people and the chinese made a dramatic shift prior to the summit to say we don't need to talk about economic espionage. >> did say first that. when it depends on how they push to live up to its agreement the biggest problem is if you look if it was carefully designed and are interest but on this
side traditional espionage but the traditional espionage parked. >> host: is the u.s. also having a cybersecurity attack? >> chinese always complained about that. >> knowing that the u.s. is that -- very active and a couple years ago. >> that the internet created a golden age we benefit as much as anyone. >> host: talk about edward snowden did he do the country is service to get
the information out to have a discussion? >> guest: no. he limited himself to domestic surveillance you could make the case. what possible benefit to privacy does it do to repeal we were monitoring russian nuclear launch? that is directly related to national security to tell the russians we were to read that does not make a better off. what good does it do to tell the chinese your monitoring their nuclear facilities? and dad is the private debate we do real harm to national security. >> he said he is willing to come back but club med is nice -- club fed is nice.
the switch in the office i talked about this with a chinese official who says how much you believe them? they say i don't know but the president said in the summit the idea that i control the ball is nonsense they do, there are private actors -- hackers internet they may not be easy to control or under his control it could take months if not years that we will not support this. >> to think of china's
government that they could control the government. to centralize its authority and his control so they don't lose more legitimacy with that anti-corruption deco's against those but they need supporters from the people's liberation army. >> and to say basically they make money from the packing. >> it will be easy but it's not like it will happen overnight. we need to be aware to link
the negotiations to the chinese domestic political agenda with the pla modernization effort although the jacket remain. >> how did you get started? >> first in high school in my economics class across from the computer lab remember they had those old lion printers you could program to print out the mickey mouse ted? if i paid attention in economics that would be in a different line of work. they told me you have to learn how to program to graduate.
i thought about dropping out but then because of the a graduate experience i worked for dick clark the godfather senator security he said you know, how to program computers to new? i should have said no. >> host: are there other state players we haven't talked about or should be talked about. >> there are four countries in cyberspace and we would have to include iran and north korea. so if they happen to anybody
that work with that level has gone down they have been doing a lot of work. with strong capabilities and to scare them off a little bit. but iran and north korea or the country's better most likely to miscalculate. >> is that real ale was stop them? the was there other actions? >>. >> i think the answer is no but i don't know that for sure.
>> and that they were able to attribute about sanctions i have a whole repertoire of jokes on that like turning off the power to north korea the people would be grateful there isn't a lot we could do to that country but we could fight them with the ability embarrassing. >> people we could hear could not scare this week talking about a case. >> this is the wave of the future. >> how realistic is a thread of cyberattacks from terror? >>.
>> and we have been hearing about the terrorist with the decade and has happened. syndicate have not seen the attacks yet. hopefully that will remain true that every two years to see a terrorist attacks. >> host: duchess cybersecurity cooperation stop other countries' border or is there international cooperation? >> there is a growing amount of cooperation the u.s. has
we're largely defenseless now also tottery hard in that critical infrastructure so talk about cyberdeterrents probably doesn't make you -- make any sense it is indicative. >> if you let the exercise no maybe they will be a little more cautious. >> cassette availability and use of the cloud of the cedras security debts? >> a lot of cloud providers to a better job but if opm was using clout services from commercial providers it
is it doing a good job of security but overall the club seems to of made things better. he basically takes the marchers out of the equations. >> you mentioned the attribution a couple years ago everyone said this is the biggest problem have gotten that much better? how do we do that? >> we put a huge amount of effort and money to improve retribution one out of three cases now we can do better from three of four.
>> that is pretty good. >> there was a line in the "state of the union" address as healer and with counterterrorism entry don't get to say that very often it is the their magic or they don't believe you. and what it companies in the commercial space five years from now it will not be a problem. >> host: thanks for being
>> all persons having business before the supreme court of united states give their attention. >> to build the oppose forced internment of japanese-americans during world war tarot after being convicted to fail to report for relocation in his case finally to the supreme court. >> this is a recreations the barracks were 20 feet wide 120 feet long and divided into six different groups. they didn't have the
as the chief of staff as an ambassador to two of afghanistan's most problematic neighbors of iran and pakistan, and finally afghanistan during 2014 that was an important year in afghanistan politics. it could not be timely your obama recently made an important decision with respect to the continued u.s. troop presence in the country. as a continuing reminder of the sacrifice and blood and treasure that the allies have made for post 9/11 afghanistan especially for the afghan people this task
is by no means complete and the recent crisis and the efforts at reconciliation about the prospects of success it is in this context to understand the political terrain as part of the united states and its allies. and then to be working so long enough. so now i will leave the podium for his remarks and welcome him once again. [applause]
to look from where we started and important to recognize up against unrealistic expectations. in 2001 those that would enroll in universities that were not normally open. imagine taking on the difficult task of rebuilding the state and nation. but today we have over 100 universities and almost half a million boys and girls are enrolled.
tens of thousands of boys and girls have been three universities across the world return and work in the country and some are working here in the united states. by the way the syncom then stay on and work for the american friends at work in afghanistan with the enduring partnership. and from that we built the state of course, a lot of patience and a lot of pain.
all of us are committed. you probably have memories particularly of the last election but i am here to tell you the cultures are entrenched and people participate and speak up like never before in the history. significant progress is made in human rights but not enough for ending balance and justiciar by a shameful example the only extreme
that we will do question intended answers. with the afghan national security forces. with the afghan national security forces they are a very challenging time. and i continue with all honesty of the security forces is now a force to reckon with. we are proud of the directory job every day. of course, the forces still have a long way to go. this summer was
exceptionally challenging with a high number and scale from me and my experience this is the most the national security forces could face over many years to get with their expected. in addition into the taliban assault had to be at the burden of international terrorist groups to the pakistan army the afghan national security forces take control of anything that could have replaced. let me explain.
this year there were talks the taliban was taking control certain pockets of afghanistan in order to pull the headquarters. but then the fall happened in the made -- in the middle of that ad that was a major incident so it provided a lesson learned with the national security forces and they're trying to learn their lessons from the fall. the afghan security forces took over in the project --
the projected civilian life. now the other aspect as they have so much diversity -- adversity because after the fall many are enterprising across the country. that is the making of the afghan national security forces and people look at them as their savior. now we know those seven support of the afghan national security forces but we haven't heard of anybody in support of the taliban.
still against day victim in afghanistan and i want to give give you an example. there is a woman issue visa force and that is why we call her commander behalf and she formed a small resistance group from many of her distant relatives. when i was the minister in order to legitimize her work within the framework i brought her under the umbrella of the afghan
police and she continues under that. and reheard she lost a son in this latest battle. the other frequently asked question from the afghan national security forces to talk about the national unity government in a way put together private ambassador. [laughter] before i give my judgment or say something you need to clarify one thing. the state of afghanistan as of the collective force we have invested treasures to
create the state of afghanistan in and defend it at all cost. as far as the government is concerned there is one culture that we normally don't criticize our own government. the national governments is new although some would argue it has been tried before but what was tried twice before with slightly different the one was in the first government was created coming from two factions and
the people argue it did not survive for more than a year. and the second to was the empty soviet union when they form that national unity government and it didn't take a year for the prime minister's to start fighting each other. but then we read in a totally different era. there was no prostitution now we do. and it is one of the best in the region. the national unity government may not be 100 but that -- bit more than 50% and then they try a to
easy thing to do. but what i can see for sure is no afghan political forces in the country do not wish the national unity government we all want them to complete their term and continue through 2019. but the political forces across the country preparing for the coming parliamentary elections that is in 2019. the next question to say a few words over the prospect
that in the past 15 years with energy construction with international partners also in the midst of the war imposed on us with applet peace dialogue or a political settlement, it goes from my memory and then we realized with the afghan population selfie try to eliminate the taliban by force and is part of the
warring strategy never hesitated to use civilians as a shield and sometimes that was the source of tension so we have a political settlement from the peace process but we needed to find the address the only address we knew was islamabad. where we could find the leadership to talk to them. so the state serving as chief of staff i was moved
to the ambassador there to improve relations and to get the cooperation to the pre- - - the peace process. an interesting coincidence i arrived there the president of pakistan bendy american steel's took been lauded so a very difficult start and a difficult beginning i tried my best but it took a couple of years to realize what i was doing was a mission impossible there is no good political outcome from that. so we waited and practiced
on waded into everybody waited. as you are aware even president rouhani to a couple of steps to the headquarters of the pakistan army and i think he did the right thing because when we are in islamabad their brews like to capitals in those decisions that were made so the president did the right thing but we didn't get anywhere either. they had a face-to-face talk that was mysteriously halted
the professor was the chairman was assassinated that afghanistan took a with a promise of a corporation so it took many more months through 2012 that i taught for the second time that maybe they would be willing to help us. at that stage they asked us to present a road map and to my surprise is the first demand was for the four top taliban commanders and conditionally but here i
confess as the afghan ambassador i did not see the logic between the commanders and the peace talks. so in response to that demand at least 68 taliban commanders apparently they were arrested we demanded for they released 60 but most of those are now leading though war so here i am also excepting a blame on us with a piecemeal approach
to be very much personality driven of where to start and where to go. but that is in the past and the situation is changing. what is different now that in order to provide an opportunity they are increasingly trying to establish themselves to get a hold of that geographic pockets to put their leadership inside afghanistan and leave it there.
then there denied that opportunity. hearing that happen in that geographical area they are planning to establish their headquarters from pakistan into afghanistan that is afghan's problem and that has nothing to do with me. so that is what is being done by every have those intense attacks in the country. one more area i want to say a few words than we can have a discussion but people ask how do we see challenges ahead?
the one change within taliban there no longer a one united group but into four factions i can explain later but it is a good news and a bad news they act less coordinated and that we have news of fighting between two factions and this is not the first time in a few other locations also but if we want to do a talk to them which do we talk to?
that makes it even more complicated than it is it presents the main threat to us of the afghan state comes from taliban but not the whole problem there other emerging threats we're faced with and isis is one of those emerging threats causing us problems in the eastern province and you might have occurred within the last couple of days isis executed hostage - - hostages and among those the taliban be headed that means
they are growing in that area but those small pockets that are emerging but no chitin is also a resurfacing last summer there were series of big attacks those combined cost 500 and that's is the of hallmark with the offshoots some of them are belonging to the neighboring countries they're all trying
government is getting more and more comfortable and well you have been in office to the military commanders the impact of these operations. today united states is out of the combat business. but why is that any different? with this same challenges of the civilian population and the cost to attack terrorist will have this amy fax of a central government so
get the fighting and the logistics' of the evacuation of the wounded. >> i will ask one other question with that reconciliation effort that the bond requirement is for a successful reconciliation and you push very hard to get those pakistan is on board. one thing i struggle with for reconciliation you have to the fundamental transformation with respect to afghanistan.
they're all inside afghanistan. and it is definitely the case so wit is definitely the case so we must find a new approach to the peace process and for it to be mediated. every peace process needs a mediator. before then 11 -- 9/11 there was a taliban government that dialogue was mediated by the united nations.
>> thank you. please identify yourself and if you could keep your questions to the. >> hello, tom lynch, good to see you. thank you for your illuminating comments. i am tempted to ask about the current process because you alluded to several things that observers fear of indicated really are challenging to make this process work forward in accord with the two things that you talked about. accord with the two things up on the theme and this piece reconciliation process and pakistan's aims. china did not make it into their marks. he talked about iran and russia henry talked about
pakistan's interest much as you wrote about in thethe new york times saying pakistan had not changed his pakistan had not changed his , your successor testified in afghanistan on the process that it was pakistan that is the problem right now for peace and security, but the chinese have a long-standing relationship command there is increasing evidence that they had taken a more active role in trying to find a way to encourage the pakistanis to encourage etm. and i think the president has approached the chinese vigorously. i wonder if you would just talk about since you finished, could you talk about what has changed in the chinese approach and whether or not the approach
might have the prospect of assisting movement and pakistan's aims or initiatives or helping the afghanistan government get the peace process moving in the way you discussed? >> okay. in my assessment there are three main reasons for china to take interest. one is a security threat to china itself. china thinks that it is more based in afghanistan are at least parting through afghanistan with china which becomes one part of chinese interest command in this one when we were in government we started the dialogue with china and i actually was the interface with china with the ministry of interior and the ministry of security. and i was clearly seeing that they were very much concerned about the eti am
and needed help from afghanistan. initially in my 1st meeting with china i realized that they were so misinformed that the afghan national security force dominance is limited to kabul. when they realized the force that was controlling the remotest part. they turn to us for help, but there were two other reasons, more economic. the economic corridor linking which is already contacted to china. that corridor is not just a role. it is a corridor were not a huge area how could they
invest $46 billion in that corridor if there was risk to the corridor within the region of 1 kilometer. i'm sorry, 100 kilometers. so they took a keen interest in resolving the taliban issue. the 3rd was the investment afghanistan. to extract copper they need security. that's the key reason for china. we welcome that. but there is a lack of sincerity.
no matter how much pressure or incentives come from china, there is still that lack of sincerity, china will not be able to have a huge impact. >> yes, ma'am. >> thank you for being here today. i wanted to ask you from your perspective and a non-western perspective what is the impact, and perhaps you can offer insight into how iran is thinking from a non-western perspective? >> thank you. well, whenwell, when i started as afghan ambassador in iran we started thinking
of a new approach to our relationship. between afghanistan and pakistan. that relationship should not be affected by our friendship with the united states and their animosity. that should remain bilateral and be independent. i think we were successful. we were having good relationships despite the huge international presence, iran participated generously when we have problem of trade we could do it. now, as far as the aspect is
concerned we don't like the nuclear weapons in our neighborhood. india is nuclear. very problematic never had. it looks like we're sitting on an atom bomb. we don't like it, but we cannot do anything about it. >> just wait for the microphone. >> political and social activist. since he loves discussions i highlighted a few points. first, what is the ground reality?
there are rumors of both local government and international forces were involved intentional. since you were really involved can you tell us the three big achievements in the 3rd as for my information you will be running for presidential election. we need to know right now, what will be the difference between you and mr. president county that you are running against? and the 3rd one, which is a little bit funny, as you were saying, why you do not want to criticize the government, doing diplomacy.
>> ii hope i remember. if i forget, you remind me. never listened to conspiracy theory. what actually happened was that it was usually for three days they put all of the forces and trade and usually they take a holiday. many of the check posts are symbolic because many people go home. that is what the taliban thought for strategists took advantage of. like i said, there are lessons to be learned low
level of politicization when you form a government is a using ministry of defense his mind and ministry of interior is yours and it becomes two different lines of command. it becomes difficult in coordination between mid and lower level. that is a weakness in coordination. and i know the pres. has launched an investigation, appointed ainvestigation, appointed a commission command appointed me to be head of the commission.
i am sure that they will take a decision. nobody wanted to take on coups but the taliban. president karzai's area. when i think about this, a major achievement was the national unity afghanistan. you needed a visa to go from one part of the city to another part. you can go from the eastern part of the city to pressure off. that was the situation. now that unity is complete and it is reflected in all of the institutions come
army, police, judicial system, the bureaucratic. some of the top one is the national unity. the scale and the quality. we have to start with a borrowed capacity 14 years ago. education was distracted 20 years before that. in the past 14 years there is enormous progress teammate. like i said in my presentation, right now you have almost half a million enrolled in higher education inside the country. over 100,000 have been on
scholarships abroad meaning neighboring countries, too. this is the 2nd major achievement of the palisades time. the 3rd one is democracy. in a country which was a flaw for many decades now you have one of the best constitutions and know the democratic institutions that have been rebuilt. of course democracy does not grow overnight. of course the list is longer. running for presidency, it is far too early to speak about that. but when you say what is better i would not in the context of rallying, but i
would say i weigh more. [laughter] when you say why i do not criticize the national government is because i'm not in afghanistan. if you coach afghanistan asked me question my answer could be different. >> yes, sir. >> thank you very much. timely. a scholar with the jones of his university and my focused this southeast asia. you talked about pakistan and the peace process. my question is somehow wrong
perspective of how pakistan which is the involvement of saudi arabia and iran, if you a call with have to mosques inside kabul. of course both countries are influential. president romani during his 1st month of the office traveled to china and saudi arabia. which i think the previous government also did the same thing because they are influential and can help the process. the looking at the long-term perspective of those involved with afghanistan and also one thing that
differentiated, conflict and war was not along the line of sectarianism. if you look at the long-term involvement of the two countries, how you see that playing long-term? >> competition is not limited to afghanistan commands you said. we don't have any sectarian problems. how do we deal with that? each of them are trying. i would say that i want to let my americans cigarette
the soviet matches. i think we should make good use. looking at negative rivalries. they might be negatively affected. next line privately at how we can take advantage of those for the construction and economic and all the other kind of relationships. they cannot live in that part of the world not having good relationships with saudi arabia because of obvious reasons and iran is our neighbor. so we must find a more constructive way of dealing with them together, take advantage of their resources and knowledge. at least iran is rich and i am sure you must be aware
55,000 afghans are back in afghanistan, most of them. they are my and your brothers and sisters. we should look at that aspect. >> the young lady. >> i work with sarah chase at the carnegie endowment. sarah recently published a book where she argues that corruption threatens global security. the ordinary have come to have been slighted by the public official who refuse to bribe or whose sister was raped by a judge and finds
in the taliban an attractive option for numerous reasons including its ability to provide an alternate worldview in which the strict imposition of a 2,000 25 can address greed and public corruption. we see from the memos of the special inspector general for afghanistan that corruption permeates the missionary but particularly devastating is corruption at the highest levels of government, particularly? karzai government among the cabinet members which you were part of. i was just wondering how you see what measures you see that can be put in place to rein in on top politicians
corruption among the highest levels of government which deals a symbolic blow to the process of creating sustainable socioeconomic institutions in afghanistan. >> i agree with you that corruption is a major problem. of these are two major challenges. we all wish that it was not like that. the circumstances the way we started things, building a country that is also partly responsible for corruption.
he cited only the negative examples. the government brought in by the bond records. my question is in dealing with the taliban. what can the afghan government offer in peace talks that does not compromise the rights of americans. >> the national unity government and national unity itself is two different concepts.
what happened was a coalition government that did not include taliban. it excluded taliban which is wrong. the only way is a policy of inclusion. they included as part of the process. what we can offer i can only give you my personal opinion which is we should talk to taliban only from a position of strength. we should be in a position of strength. at the moment on one side you have the state and on
the other side you have insurgent groups. when state is in a stronger position that is the time you need to talk to taliban. what could be the incentive? let's say they asked for division of confusion in such a way we have to come from achievements, certainly that will not be acceptable for the state of afghanistan. the political parties in afghanistan. they are contesting elections.
taliban should also one day become a political party. majority government is how i would see it. they have to be transformed into a political force. >> it is such a pleasure to see you again. quick question. you have made in-depth comments about a number of pakistan's neighbors, but you have immediate neighbors to the north. do you see central asia playing a constructive role in afghanistan in the coming years? >> yes, not only in the coming years but the past years also. we buy most of our electricity from her neighbors.
there have been alternative routes for trade whenever we have a problem. we should have more options. the central asian countries in the past had a very good relations and in the future we want to further build on that relationship they feel threatened from what is coming to the south. we need to help them in that sense that they feel more secure. >> one last question if there is one, maybe two. i am going to stop amendment will come back. >> thank you so much. a very warm welcome.
the spoiler: not support them, and it it should not be commended for that. thank you. >> well, what you are saying is exactly what we said over the past 14 years. the root cause of the problem is in pakistan. safe havens. the leadership. i am sure the united states has been trying, but they know how to handle all of that. the summarize it in one or two words the way i seei see it, the united states sees pakistan as an ally. ..
>> my observation. [inaudible] it is more of an analogy. [inaudible] they have been fighting rulings back-and-forth than 35 years. compared to the taliban and they were weekend. when we see the taliban right now and they're -- i would expect. [inaudible] in afghanistan for at least two more decades. if they can demand for two more decades and spent 35 years, don't you think that the taliban would be having