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tv   After Words  CSPAN  February 19, 2016 10:50pm-11:49pm EST

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following them to the end of the journey, but i was myself pregnant. when i went back to beijing and i was getting really tired and depressed i thought it was because of the stories but then i went for this scan and suddenly i could see. i tried to be very restraint about it but it's hard when you see this scan and see the heart beating. this is a very strange feeling. then i had a miscarriage. this all happened before the olympics. again, i was very devastated by that. i tried to work my way through it. then later later on, i had ivs in beijing. it's a very strange process. i discovered there's a whole lot
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of people using ivf to trying get around the policy. many were trying to get multiples. >> there trying to get multiples because they were only going to get one shot at it? >> yes. >> if you get twins it's counted as a single birth. i met a woman who was a teacher and if she had children she would lose her job. >> there were some places where they had fake twins. people would register their second child as a twin if there born very close together. then there was an area where they had a huge percentage of fake twins. they were trying to get a round the policy. so the interesting part in this
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was basically when technology allows you something that policy does not, then people begin to improvise. >> having that in beijing gave you access to a world that most people would never see. >> i was hesitant about writing all of this because rewinding about policy and miscarriages and all this, it's messy. i'm not sure we want to hear this. it's to oprah. at the same time you can't be writing about something as intimate as this without leaving in some of this because at the heart of it it's a story about families. >> you have twins now yourself. i imagine the experience of being a parent has also shaped
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the way you look at the subject. >> yes. now when we hear all these stories about chinese families not wanting to have a second child or weighing all the costs and differences that go into it, i suddenly understand it having children that curtail your freedom. >> on a personal level, many families in china are making decisions. >> i can't let you to go without talking a little bit about what's on everybody's mind which is the chinese economy. you were a wall street journal for a long time. when you look at what's happening in china, do you see a country that is on the prefaces of an economic transformation, a hard landing or do you see a place that is doing something else? >> i see china in a much more challenge economically. in the past it was all low hanging fruit. there were all the things they
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did that was all easy to do. the gains for very quick and rapid. now this is the hard part, the things they have to do to keep growth. they're going to have to do a lot more with a lot less people. you have to increase productivity. chinese university are pretty bad. that's why we see such a huge flood of graduate students in the american institution. the reason we have smart graduates is not because of the universities, it's because of natural talent. >> i don't see a very hopeful people picture going ahead. i don't know that green
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societies mixed with vibrant societies economically. that's an issue that china will have to face. >> one of the other things china will face in the rest of the world will face is what does it mean to have a more powerful china and asia -- mark. >> how to other people in southeast asia and on the perimeter, how do they regard china's rise? do they embrace it or find it threatening? >> i think they embrace it initially but now you're looking at it with great nervousness. so you can't help but wonder what's going to happen on the horizon. chinese policies are dictating a lot more about what they have to say and do. it's a lot of tiptoeing around. >> you get the sense that this is about your experience as a
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writer in china question why did you encounter any obstacles? >> initially when i had been detained on one occasion and there was another one where they chase my car. >> i wish i could say the same for some of the other activists and riders that have tried to explore these issues and are now behind bars. >> you have spent a lot of time in the united states and allowed time and asia. one of the interesting puzzles that we all face is what's going to happen in this relationship between the united states and china. for long time a lot of us presumed that we would, because of technology, become more like each other. do you think that's true? if it's not true, what is happening today? >> i think because china is rising almost by natural course
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this relationship will get more fractious. the united states have been the main child for a long time and the relationship is going to change. none of that matters. there have been over 120,000 children adopted from china. about 70% of these are in american households. we have, for example given limited asylum to seekers of the one child policy. we have children and beneficiaries. >> it's a relationship that is both mutual coexistent but also like siblings, i think there
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will be more quarreling coming ahead. >> to think you go back to china to do more writing? >> i don't know if china will let me an. >> at this point you don't have plans to publish it on the mainland. you plan to publish it elsewhere? >> i would like to so i am looking into that. >> well tran1, thank you so much for talking to us about this and congratulations on the book. >> inc. -- thank you evan. >> i'm trying to decide which candidate to support. i'm trying to decide between the governors who have executive experience or some of the other candidates like ted cruz and marco rubio. >> the most important issue to me is national service. there are many young americans who are ready to step forward
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and serve their country with programs like americorps. >> cspan's coverage continues this week :
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>> >> karl, let's introduce the man as 1896 begins to was william mckinley clacks.
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>> the governor of the state of ohio in throughout his entire career of congress 1876 through 1890 he is the voice of the republican party for a policy of protective tariffs. that is just a service -- the beginning. no president is elected between the civil war ended 1904 not born in ohio. so that is a leading prospect. >> host: how big is it cynical fourth largest as populous as new york followed by a pennsylvania and then illinois that ohio. to of those states have been inconsistent battle ground states.
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new york gala and ohio. in 1892 to defeat the incumbent of benjamin harrison. >> what are his ambitions? >> he was to become president there is some evidence that has been is an addition his entire adult life when he gets married his bride with from one of the founding families as they return from their honeymoon her husband has been defeated from the county attorney job was to be president of the united states. she is thrilled by the prospect but they had been
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beaten in the election in cleveland is an office he has been governor of ohio and has seen the country in a deep depression the republicans think that the length -- that election will be theirs the key is not the favored. >> this begins to be seen by the time he takes office the economy is moving down rather rapid pace. it is long lasting and a deep depression literally 15 percent have lost their job we don't have a good economic statistics like we have now but hundreds of thousands of men have lost their jobs each and every month it did one day alone
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10,000 workers were let go of. >> as bad as 2008 or worse? rick to some degree there were not self-inflicted like the american economic system in the fall of 2008 with fannie and freddie dragging down the financial institutions. what we suffered through because we forget the mayor can economy was terribly dependent upon foreign sources of investment to build railroads and what happened was a series of international events a failure of the bank because foreign investors to pull back and then that accelerated what many blame is the cause of the recession in the ultimate
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depression which is a decline of the gold reserves it was to be 100 million of gold they thought that was the minimum amount necessary if it dipped below that level as foreigners would take their investments to europe there was a concern it would become worthless. >> the dollar is backed by gold. >> correct we have paper currency but unless you're carrying around a pocketful of large chlorines the you to take it to the treasury office. >> the economy is in the tank and they are hopeful. >> so the speaker of the
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house one of the largest private villa libraries and he had a classic way it in the run-up to the elections he said that those losses will be so plentiful that they will be marked in the unmarked graves of their defeat. he once said the party could do worse to nominate somebody else for president they probably will. he was a candidate backed by the leading figures of the republican party the party bosses led by the boss of york and his buddy senator klay from pennsylvania. their allies around the country had an odd
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collection of characters james clarkson publisher of the "des moines register" he got that nickname apparently he had atrocious handwriting to release sent to the copywriters because they thought they could not decipher his handwriting but there's also will float us man named mainly he wasn't an allied of that injury -- and that interparty rival and the two men who were lifelong rivals and now out
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of politics the the one is taken a dominant role in the state politics. >> so what is the vision? >> first and foremost, what is in the form the? there was somebody to win the general election they date back to best be figured out if the convention is chaotic but did not really pledged their support to the front runner and leading republican with benjamin harris but the other part of the strategy is those who will deny the state delegation then and we get together and nobody will ask
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and we can carve up the federal death threat to our advantage to unite who give us what we want. >> somebody inside they thought would be a dead candidate but somebody has to be a candidate so governor bradley of kentucky that is not a frequently seen thinks of himself as one. senator davis of minnesota is flattered enough to believe he could be. the governor of the stated new york former vice president is a potentially possible candidate but his purpose is to keep every republican in the pocket of the of a governor. other candidates are real candidates the most
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prominent is william allison of iowa who is a solid legislator creates the interstate commerce commission and a legislator who gets things done that most dorothy they could it can. the senior senator from illinois pace said -- does not even make it as far as the convention and is put in by the bond boss who was an interesting character and by the illinois a party chairman. >> host: all of these players are out for themselves what about william mckinley? to maliki is out to restore prosperity his fervent belief is the policy of
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protective tariffs he advocated for a great many years is the path to return to prosperity. he is not free trader but his focus is the american working man he once high wages for american labor and he believes to make rich people richer which helps to read to the republican defeat that year as what brought them defeat in the passage of that he was constantly asking people not how much do you need but what about your industry to be protected from competition? economists agree the
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policies he advocated not advance the economic growth would would have been otherwise but it is hard to understand why people felt so strongly. dell whole vision was a nationalistic program that benefited the american working man. >> of if you are read or mckinley what hurdles to have to jump to get there? >> the first nomination battle before 1896 you put your fate in the hands of your friends somebody in your behalf would move around the country would stay away as far as possible you'd have friends rally the you are expected to go into
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that convention with a generalized sense there were otherwhere candidates and generally it was the second choice rarely was a the first choice isn't they would make deals in 1888 benjamin harris receives the nomination after the front runner literally in carnegie's castle in scotland on a sunday morning is reiterated he is not a candidate and benjamin harris becomes the front runner he was born in ohio and a former senator from the status of indiana and his agents make a deal but
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in return for that support he is made secretary of treasury in the most valuable office in the country this would be plats choice and all those jobs connected with interconnected to him which could make him natalie secretary of treasury but president of the united states. >> and it even starts before then? >> what happens at the state conventions if you have a favorite to gather together to obstruct for their favorite son to say but i simply say we're sending that delegation to ohio.
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>> how does mckinley confront this? >> in a methodical in an organized fashion organize for the primary and the conventions like we organize for primaries i have friends who will become my agents and they will be systematically organized in order to generate conventions that the state level he is a concern of the delegation said he doesn't try to package use somebody does embolden them with the effort to culminate in a
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victory and begins the process most of this kind of maneuvering begins late before the election day he begins immediately after the election he travels to the country during the campaign with the message of protectionism in prosperity and make friends and allies who want to meet him the key began to systematically organize. >> he has the beach house. berndt canada is misunderstood first of all, not the mastermind of the mckinley effort but a close friend and a man who
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underwrites the primary campaign and a cold magnate from cleveland and comes from modest roots. they had a good distribution company and then move to cleveland and he has a mind for business this he is selling tickets working as the clerk but ultimately he rises to the management end he has in the role of your family it becomes enormously successful businessman the only financial failure he tries to build the oil refinery and almost loses everything if "this is it"
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to john d. rockefeller. >> in 1876 he remembers seeing him he is no memory of meeting mckinley he will make his first run for the congress and there is the minor dispute and the day go on strike in the mines are owned by the company so their arrests the mitres and they try them so they leave him to defend them and gets all but one of them off and they proceed to give him a fee and he refuses and
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instead contributes to the relief fund their by starting to create the reputation as the working man he is sitting in the court room and we have a young lawyer in his early thirties by hanna has no recollection and has sold for a ointment into only walk with a keen. -- with a cane but day come together eight years later at the republican convention for over his objections is elected as a delegate she
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doesn't want to go because he and his foreword john sherman of ohio but over his objection is said to the convention lohan a supports sherman. >> so how did they become friends or allies? >> by this time babel semi a rivalry going and why do runs for governor is elected excuse me runs and 83 elected 85 and as governor in 1888 there now in support
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of senator sherman and tried to make himself the vice presidential nominee at this convention he puts himself in a way that causes him to recognize that the convention is that a stalemate. he plays the role in the convention of 84 to demonstrate of maturity and then there is a conversation with him running for president. when word gets out there sitting in a hotel room and says if this continues this
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is what i will say then the delegate votes for mckinley and they say they are ready to go and mckim the rises of the floor and recites the telegram he does not want anyone to consider him for president he is committed by a the republicans of ohio with the support of chevron for president bush chose his personal character if anyone would vote for him he could have swept the convention if he would have let things go his way he is clearly the second choice but he says
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no. then he spends the next two days in recess brutally pushing the delegates he says don't do this a rather cut off my white - - my right arm in fact, he wakes up in the middle of the night and here's the delegates talking about housing day -- how they will get nominated and they said stop it. he is blown away by the willingness to step away. >> he is passionate he committed to sherman and nothing would stand in the way. >> so mckinley has a very
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important ally from chicago. >> he is born in ohio bed and it was to make his living he mis -- meets in early 20's as the one to help you and then they beat the october 84 and mckinley stops in lincoln nebraska. >> why is he so taken with him? >> a man who was separate and apart from the gilded age politics a man who looks to the future in it doesn't have that patronage republican end a reformer
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and has taken on the railroad he thinks are charging too high a price so he likes every four republican that pcs his hair is read imparted in the middle he practices in the savings all office building as william jennings bryan. there was a round table reading club the rotc instructor at the university of nebraska had a first attended into everybody shows up in this story. he makes banking deals in a society will become a not to print your a move to chicago trying to buy gas utilities
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which he proceeds to do. >> so mckinley has a new strategy for winning the nomination with the supporters where does he want to take the party? to mickey is already showing he is a different kind of republican so he realizes that country is changing the demography is vastly different if with relatively few were immigrants and comparatively more from scandinavia and southern europe we have portuguese and spanish tanners and italian craftsman and they're becoming very diverse and mcanally recognizes that they are catholic and the republican
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party has a bias the largest group in america with the anti-catholic anti-immigrant founded in iowa. and then passes the score card out tuesday are they under the control of the power? it is 13 million members and they are powerful. >> in another group of some polish catholics but did 1891 he is getting ready to run for reelection of ohio he has won undyed the votes
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in their 60s some odd thousand of the members of the apa in ohio they call them on a friday literally to say fire them. their catholics you need to fire them and replace them with a protestant they call back on monday he says no religious test and they keep their jobs so they drop mckinley from the ballot and send out instructions but yet he wins by a much bigger every geordie because catholics take notice -- take note to say but the governor defended the jobs of the catholics. >> the republican party partly because they lost that big chunk. >> that's correct their
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stolen by fried or violence and we have four states in the union with the black majority and they are voting in the south but yet he does dismal because if you take a look 88% in the south is the mid-30s there is a systematic effort. >> they said they kkk armed the auxiliaries. >> also localized groups in
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itself carolina they would wear red shirts to hide the the blood. there is violence perpetrated on a large-scale so it is hard to under station today with the black voters of the south people are routinely murdered of simple exercise. >> host: was there pushed back nationally? >> yes. there are efforts to take away the remaining federal protections in the kidney is the strongest opponent back after the republicans win the white house henry cabot lodge will provide protections it is defeated in the senate for those who favor the bill in the southern democrats oppose
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what they we're doing in the south. >> who is contending for that nomination? >> it starts in 1893 because grover cleveland status for maintaining the gold standard rubio out the united states to buy bonds and transfer gold to the united states treasury. that makes it unpopular that is angry at the concentration of wealth with a free it inflated currency. >> he can run again. >> there is a thought that cleveland will run again.
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he does not want to progress some point he decides not to. but he doesn't make that clear. the democratic front-runner who enters congress and the yearly '70s with the inflationary currency. me so of the adl would be that rather than having a target with free and unlimited coinage of silver you could show up at the u.s. mint and turn that over you would be paid $1 of cold for every 16 units of silver.
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and that will be cleaned into money. of the problem was the value of gold in silver fluctuated and running into the election $1 worth of gold would buy $2 worth of silver if you created as silver dollar it is half the value and bad money chases after good they hold the golden circulate silver so we have inflation. and those are for the debtors of america they are farms except for the large plantation owners are the sharecroppers. they don't have many, many so at the beginning of the
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season they give you all that you need to live:then you bring in the crop is in the fall they give you the values surprise surprise surprise it is less than what he gave you so each year you get $1 deeper in debt. in the midwest the farms are more lucrative but mortgages are held by the insurance companies. and while we're in a deflationary period by those mortgage companies and insurance companies have 14 percent if you talk about people who are hard pressed to those in the cell door the midwest. see you have that faction led by the incumbent in the
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champion of the silver. >> in the run-up to the convention they decide we will discourage anyone and instead we will get the free coinage of silver. to sit in the total silver delegation to the national convention so the rules are takes a majority to write to the platform but two-thirds to dominate the candidate. we won the silver platform to force the candidates to agree to the platform that we will never get two-thirds of the conventions we cannot nominate him that we want
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that platform so they succeed beyond expectations. in they are within a whisper but what stands in the way is a pair of victories of michigan and minnesota. the former postmaster general and former democratic national committeeman and they both go gold. >> host: they are close enough to two-thirds so why? rick bass say we have more than one-third of the delegates so we will use that for power and influence then those that our less objectionable.
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to show up bin make ted deal -- and make a deal but william james bryant thank you conceives said of himself as a presidential candidate in the youngest man ever nominated to this day and the only candidate who i can find who thinks of himself as a kid a but nobody else does a day before he is nominated. >> but they go to the convention so they have it silver dick from missouri and another from iowa there is the battle over the platform.
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but how many votes does each side get? homes so it is completely by accident to any one of which all could go either direction. in the sense that being the enemy and he was in charge of the democrat he is that being the concluding speaker the deal their principal speaker erkhart is the man from south carolina who was to be the closer but the senator hill from the york of jack's peaches he will
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spend his entire time kicking around so it is over how each side will make the final argument so he takes the opening argument with the closing 20 minutes but is cutting 20 minutes over william jennings bryan. in the end of us older man opens the goldman and speaks the silverman closes but the second gold man stands up the speech is so disgraceful he brings up the civil war again. he excoriates cleveland and calls a day sectional
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argument and they say i wore the color of the south this is a sectional but of mankind is international in nature and basically they cheered jones on because they hate tillman so much but finally they're finding out of time with one more speaker and he is complaining about not having enough time and william jennings bryan over here is that and that gives him a chance to give that 30 minutes speech is a brilliant piece of work without any single loads but played out in his mind that he literally left chicago to
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pick up a speaking fee and literally when he finishes the speech to say you shall not press down on the about of mankind. holds out his arms and finishes and it is complete silence and he steps back and he thinks he has tanked they said the haul was silent and held in fearful silence and then the place exploded they screamed and jumped up to cheer the has got to be one of the great marvels. very few people think is a
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serious candidate makes the nominee the next day. >> host: this sounds like he is coming of the convention as a powerful force for progress mckinley counter this? >> he doesn't initially. on the front porch saying the democrats have screwed this up we will win easily although they literally talk about how he will take the vacation on his yacht and doesn't expect to return before the beginning of august and what happens the next several weeks mckinley puts in charge headquarters in chicago. he travels to the east in
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the event the state party's to get the bad news that they are way behind. if you conducted a canvas of iowa with macmillan in july and i guess that means every precinct has a chairman to ascertain the attitude of every single voter and reported it to the county isn't to the state and every single one said. >> then they discovered that 30 percent of the voters left them which would have meant huge losses in this
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awakens mckinley along with key advisers that he has a problem. and by mid august he finally made said decision you into to straggle or avoid it and says don't worry this will dissipate. retells the judge in the month they will not be talking about this issue. and he is right and starts to find a way to a third of the speech talks about free silver. >> host: but he is for
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gold. >> guest: of one of the first big votes he makes after the election is for the passage of the silver act to have the bimetallic currency for silver coins. and he tried to straddle less. he has a lot of farmers and small town merchants. >> so now a sudden conviction. >> he does oppose free silver but politicians like to avoid him with the protection in unified laborers and those who
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tended to be democrat to bring people into the camp where at the republican convention montana or utah or nevada idaho or colorado they all walked out of the convention the only republicans sent a -- senator almost walks out so this has split the republican party he is afraid he needs those silver republicans possess i cannot avoid the issue but it takes him to settle on the right language who is the former head and gives the speech
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why it is important to have a currency backed by gold. >> so we have the two nominees how do they campaign? >> the populist party is they nominate their own vice presidential running mate so so now they have 1 million votes to put them with food they voted for and there vice think the republican to finesse the issue had right get him off the ticket in
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those battleground states and i cannot afford such gimmicky would storm the country in the fashion never done before he has three major trips this is the first time it is ever happened maybe before they have gone on the road to a gathering but you could count the number of times they spoke on the road with a front porch campaign benjamin harrison basically with those 80 speeches that he gave over the four months period but nobody had gone on a train to go someplace it is an amazing testament to his

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