tv Book Discussion on Blood Brothers CSPAN March 19, 2016 5:00pm-6:01pm EDT
>> former nfc a and cia director michael hayden recalled the decision he made as director of both agency following the events of september eleventh. in the coming weeks on afterwards, nancy: on the : on the challenges that women face in politics. and the potential of a female president. then we ask for voter fraud. also coming up former congressman talks about the guiding principles he follows in his professional and personal life. this weekend, former bush justice department official
contends that executive power has gone beyond its constitutional limits under president obama. >> i think the story of the obama administration has been the expansion of the administrative state, of the agencies, the federal government as a whole. when we look at the media sometimes we see corruptions, tiny signs here and there, lots of cases are collected in the book but the real story is how large the government has grown over the last seven years, you might see it in cases like the obama care statue. or the bailouts here and there, it's a story that is in almost every subject area where the federal government asked today. >> afterwords on book tv. you can watch all previous afterwards program on our website, booktv.org.
>> my name is sarah and it is my pleasure to welcome you and to welcome randy for his book, blood brothers. he is a distinguished professor and has written biographies of iconic athletes and has been published in u.s. history, u.s. sports history and popular culture. blood brothers is an old friendship between mohammed ali and malcolm x. it's the first book to look at that complex friendship. it goes deep and previously untouched records and documents. we are very, very pleased to have randy here today. we are really glad that randy is joining us tonight. >> the live talkshow on fridays at noon, they host a politics
owl hour. and multiple media outlets. they have been listed among the most influential people by the washingtonian. we're so glad they could join us tonight. this is one of our many partner events, were pleased to partner today and they share so many of our values and bringing authors together and having great conversation. thank you again so much for coming. please join me in welcoming our gas [applause]. >> thank you all for showing up
on a dark and stormy night. if you bed to bermuda you know that is a drink. dark and stormy. before we get started i would like to not only think sarah and the whole staff here at cramer books, but the partner team is working here with events because we know listeners are also readers. tonight so we are here to talk with randy roberts about blood brothers. he was in my will get the conversation rolling and get to a question and answer session with you after we have talked for a little while. first randy roberts, welcome. >> thank you very much. i am happy to be here. i am happy to be here with you. >> first, what got you started on looking at this. you have it written about legends before, as far far as i can see this is the first time
you looked at the combustible mix of sports and politics in a relationship. >> i have looked at relationships before. i did it in a book earlier on joe namath and bear ryan. i looked at relationships. i started with the idea that i wanted to write a book about mohammed ali. i was writing the book and it was cowritten with johnny smith so i want to give him full credit for co- writing the book. quite frankly, mohammed ali with my champion. if you like boxing, if you follow boxing, people that live through lived through the 1930s and early 1940s, and in the 1950s rocky was a champion,
and in the 20s it was jack dempsey. if you lived through the 1960s in 60s and the 1970s, mohammed ali was your champion. in the ring he was your champion and what is even rarer, outside of the ring he was my champion. so i thought, wow. i. i would like to write a book about that. johnny and i started to work on it and the more we worked on it the more we decided what is really interesting is how they became mohammed ali and what went into it. the more we looked at it and we realized there was malcolm x. the caches clay was inhabiting them mind of malcolm x. it's an interesting story, it's a short. of time, we can look at it fully and deal with all of the sources that we can dig up on it, it is a moment that changes american history i think
the three great black leaders, martin luther king, malcolm asked and and probably one who later became mohammed ali spivak we spent boxers in 1960. one of the boxers the boxes we sent there, even though he got knocked out even i got knocked out it in round one of his fight somehow he managed to get a photograph of his self and the eventual winner of the heavyweight division at those olympics. the winner in that division was who? >> it was cassius clay. >> quite frankly it would not be hard to get your picture one, he met everybody, he was every place in the olympics.
one of things is that they exchanged pins. the new york times said the winner of exchanging pins in the olympic one -- cassius clay. >> he was expecting every interview it probably wasn't a good thing to do other than he won the gold medal so he couldn't get better than that. >> but when we look at the border grab what we saw is this unbelievably handsome young man. as you said he accomplish all this at the alembic send he had for us the on you shall name of cassius clay and his brother was name rudolph clay. it all started with their father.
what we did not understand at the time was that they had not lived the lives of cassius his parents would have you believe they lead. they have a much upper upbringing and the consciousness of the relationship between black and white people started with their father. talk about it. >> no question about it. their father was by the same name, cassius clay he was a painter and an artist. you can still go to black churches and see signs of his work. he believed that he was a great artist. he also believed he was a great singer. he would break out into a song, i listen to interviews that are in our collections and interviews of the father and he would break into a song and talk about how good of a singer he was. what a great artist he was. he was destined in his own mind to be famous. he was michelangelo, frank
sinatra, he was a prank snatcher was a pathetic singer but i can't go along with that. but his career was funded because he was black and it was the thing he talked about with his son all of the time. not not sometimes, but all of the time. oppression of whites, they grew up in a segregated section and he learned early that you stayed away from white people. that if you interact with white people it can do you know good. harm is going to come from it. the one thing i interviewed one person who is a friend of kasha's when he was younger. he talked about the lesson he had learned.
don't go here or there, number one, don't get arrested. if you go to jail, we cannot protect you, there's nothing we can do. danger will come of it. i think about that. and what seems to be a non- precedented play of the black kids being murdered, murdered is too strong of a work, but being shot by policeman and maybe there is some truth to it. >> that is what his parents were warning against. it also helps to explain why, despite the fact he was able to charm those around him, why despite the fact that he was doing so well as a boxer that he became attracted to the nation of islam. he started going to nation of islam meetings, how come? >> he was born in 1942. he was about the same age as
emmett -- he remembered the murder of emmett ten his father talked about it all the time. he was down in mississippi it was taken by several white men for supposedly whistling a white woman and i don't know he had trouble saying certain letters. he would kinda whistle because i would put his mouth in position where he would not stuttered. maybe that is what happened. whatever. whatever he did, he ends up dead. mohammed heard this over and over. also in mohammed's neighborhood there neighborhood there was a family that lived a few blocks away into black neighborhood and their house was firebombed. he was not interested in integration.
he was not part of the advancement or the national association advancement. he believed in separation of races. so so obviously the nation of islam appeal to him. >> and his brother rudolph thought of going into the back door of the meeting at the nation of islam where he had a fight or some other events. he was attracted to the nation and ultimately he would meet malcolm x and be attracted to malcolm x and malcolm x. was also very interested in who had been cassius clay. but i think it have is evolved and i think there is a time when there is a dispute between malcolm and doctor martin luther king and the best way forward. but with popular culture today here's what i noticed.
there is a popular feature film made of malcolm x. there is a popular feature film made about mohammed ali. it wasn't until the last two years that there is a feature film that was may not about doctor king but his role in thelma. what has has emerged is that the most charismatic figures of that era turned out to be malcolm x. and mohammed ali who now capture the imagination. why do you think that is? charisma? >> partly charisma, although, although, my goodness. martin luther king had charisma. i think malcolm and trent -- tran10 -- they did not turn the
other cheek. they said you should my dog you better watch out for your cat. it was going to be an eye for an eye. in a boxer has that same sort of defiance. so maybe it is that. >> the ultimate thing to me is that it was in part because of their relationship and impart because both of them at one. , with people forget that there was a time when both malcolm x and mohammed ali were hated because of their relationship with the nation of islam. >> you are absolutely right on that. i am dealing with a time where mohammed ali was probably the most hated athletes in american history.
now that will change. his stand on vietnam war, he never changes, america will change. but the time i am dealing with, he is absolutely hated. of course, malcolm x. was the most hated black leader, the most hated politician in america. this is a person when the president of the united states was assassinated about a week later malcolm x. said, as far as he was concerned it was chickens coming home to roost. america's virus was being revisited to america. >> malcolm x is the minister in the mosque in new york. how do the two meet?
>> mohammed met captain sam, he told him that with the nation of islam of the leaders and they talked about different aspects of the nation. one time when mohammed was back home in louisville, and captain sam, this was june 1962, captain said there's going to be a nation of islam rally in detroit. why don't you come, i will come pick you up will drive up to detroit and you can meet malcolm x. malcolm was a spokesman for the nations of islam, and he said that was fine. and they went to the rally and sitting at the back of the table facing the door was malcolm x.
cassius goes up and says hello, my name is cassius clay. , he smiles another ac a dignified, strong, powerful man and he has no idea of who cassius clay is. he has never heard of tran1, he doesn't follow boxing. he just sees a very a very impressive, charisma attic man. but he picked up boxing, he learned it. the nation of islam at that point did not allow their members to participate in what they call sports and play. so why was it that despite the fact that this guy had a profession in sports as a boxer did malcolm x. see something there that he thought needed to be developed? >> that is an excellent
question. by that time, malcolm and elisha mohammed who is the head of the nation of islam were starting to split apart. there was a power struggle, elisha mahatma was older, he had been in chicago but he was had a sense that maybe malcolm was too powerful. there was a division taking place. malcolm was beginning to under the constraints of islam. malcolm wanted to become more active in the struggle and elisha mohammed said no, you stay away from it. we do not deal with members of the naacp, you stay away from king, we are own separate organization. this was not enough for malcolm. i think in the back of his mind
it was taking shape that he was going to start his own organization someday. he could see the charisma of this person, athletes could have a potential political use. >> he has charisma, he talked all of the time, he never seemed to listen, but he listened very closely to malcolm, why? was this outgoing, talkative person the real cassius clay? >> that is several questions there. let me first say who knows who the real cassius clay was. this is a person who was the most wonderful mimic possible.
he could inhabit another person. one person said cassius clay would say something he liked the next day he was a better and then the next day he would say it better than you set it and then it was his. he could become whoever he wanted to become. there is a poem that i like, the love song of j . in that there is one line where the poet, he is going to the nation and he said there's time to prepare to meet the faces you meet. the idea is maybe we are a bunch of different people. maybe were friends, maybe we are colleagues, this is the way cassius was.
in rome, olympic for example he was the representative of america. when a russian reporter said and asked about racism in america he said don't worry about that we have important people taking care of that. it may be hard for me to get a dinner sometimes and the district of columbia, but it's been taken care. america is still the best country ever, including yours. that's one face. then he turns professional, there is a moment, and i ha moment, he was interviewed early in the morning by radio in las vegas. also at that time in a wrestling match was or just george. they
are both there early in the morning and the interviewer turns to mohammed first and he says cassius, how are you going to do in the fight. and he says i'm going to win the fight, i am trying, i'm in shape. it's going to be a good fight i encourage our brothers to come out. then he turns to gorgeous george and says george, how are you going to do? >> i'm going to murder him, and going to rip off his arm, if i lose, i will crawl across the ring on my knees, i will kiss knees, i will kiss his feet, i will ask for forgiveness. and cassius was like wow. then so i forgot the original question. >> he realized that was the performance that could enhance his career and so he developed that performance but in fact he
was a young man looking for knowledge and that is what he found that malcolm x. was able to provide. so it turns out that this young man just listened very carefully to everything malcolm x. told him. he had never never seen a man so strong, so proud and so outspoken, he said after meeting malcolm for the first time, he said how can a black man man say that and not get shot? he could not understand it that this guy could speak his mind in such a forceful manner and that strength appealed to him i think. >> that strength appeared appeal to him, the religious religious appeal to him, but his relationship with malcolm was so close and you have to read the book to find out a lot of details but at the most crucial
fight of his life, the heavyweight championship fight is when the relationship with malcolm became closer than ever. why? >> cassius clay, in february february 1964, was probably the most fearsome man in christian heard. or beyond christian hood. he had won his title with one round knockouts, people would assume this other man was going to and cassius clay career.
they said look when i was sent down there as a young reporter from the new york times to cover the fight the senior at the time said here's what we want you to do. you you are going to cover the fight because they're not going to send a top-notch reporter because it is only going to last a few seconds. they said this is what we want you to do, number one, find the fastest away from the arena to the nearest hospital. we want you to get there first and to be able to interview cassius clay or when they pronounced him dead. so every reporter thinks he's going to lose, everyone thinks he's afraid, that this kid will not last. but malcolm gave him strength. malcolm said, look all our has not brought you to this point for you to lose.
this is ordained. you are part of all laws plan. >> this is a battle between the crescent and across. >> malcolm went to the dressing room and if you've ever been in the bowels of a big auditorium and try to find out to where exactly is east, which way is east, they did the best they could. malcolm said the crescent on the cross. >> what you find out in the book is that this is the time malcolm and elijah mohammed were drifting apart. until i read this book i did not know that you lisha mohammed and
his son in chicago really believed that cassius clay would win this fight, malcolm would appear who in the nation of islam believe that he was going to wins. >> i am certain that is true. maybe cassius has an inkling that he can win. he said everyone has a plan until they get hit in the face. and then plans go out the window. he had a believe but by this time malcolm has been silenced by the nation. because, we are talking novembes assassinated and we're talking
about a fight that is now february 25. we are just a few months away from that. america is just coming out of the morning. one of the great stories and we talked about a pipit in our culture at that time, mohammed was introduced -- there is a beagle. here we have cassius clay dealing with each other before the fight. you can almost foresee the direction of our american spivak the two of them of the two most important cultural phenomenon of the 1960s. the beatles and cassius clay. >> well that is my opinion.
you're not going to convince me they were not the two most important. >> at this point malcolm and elijah mohammed are having their differences. not only because malcolm wanted to become more politically active but because he was becoming disillusioned. elijah mohammed having defended him would live with that. but when cassius clay went to fight these two men are very close together, what pulls them apart? >> what pulls cassius and malcolm? now suddenly the nation of islam is in bracing him and saying brother we knew you were going to win that fight. we did say anything, we did not want to jinx it but we knew all along you were going to win the fight. malcolm is going another
direction. eli shall mohammed does not care about malcolm leaving. but he wants cassius clay in the organization. now imagine cassius clay has been meant toward by a man who says anything to you he begins it with the phrase, the honorable elijah mohammed teaches. the honorable elijah mohammed says that the source of all wisdom, the source of all power, of malcolm's' power come of allee's power comes from you lisha mohammed. but now they're saying he is a hypocrite. he is is not practicing what he is preaching. he is doing all of these things wrong. what do they say? have you been lying to me all of these years, i'm not sure i believe that.
also, malcolm is is venturing out into very dangerous territory. if you leave the nation of islam at that time, things could happen to you. and members are saying to cash -- cassius, and so what is he going to do he tries to play it safe. so then finally they give him his name. his first name was cassius clay and the nation believe that your last name was your slave name so what you did was you got rid of your last name and you used acts. x symbolized your lost african culture.
that's why have malcolm x. >> psychologically i guess malcolm knew he had lost. malcolm was listening to a sermon and when he heard it malcolm said that is political. >> he realized he had lost. >> and once he had lost him and he also lost parts of islam they veered away from one another and they tried to see mohammed ali and they cannot see them. and then he had become more international, what happened in?
>> the last time that mohammed ali and malcolm x saw each other was in ghana outside a hotel. malcolm was leaving, mohammed was arriving. in africa is when mohammed ali starts to think of himself as the king of the world. but malcolm, malcolm, throughout his business in africa people sometime continued to call him mohammed ali and he would say no i'm not mohammed. he was a this is mohammed ali, my very good friends. so malcolm still cared about mohammed ali. and when he saw him he started to say mohammed and started going to him and mohammed looked at him and his eyes and he said
he should not have said that about the honorable elijah mohammed and he turned around and walked away. and my angelo and she said that malcolm said i've lost a lot, maybe too much. it broke in. it almost broken. >> and ultimately in the case of mohammed ali he stayed in the nation of islam for another decade or so. >> 1975 after elijah mohammed died and he moves into a more orthodox islamic direction. >> so he becomes a more orthodox muslim. >> right. a couple of things about the
book. >> several people thought they were brothers and that certainly part of it. one person said they were like blood brothers but beyond that, beyond blood, boxing is a sports of blood, politics was a sports of blood. this is a violent time for america. we are trying to get that sense of america. yet how do you maintain your relationship between two powerful people during that time? >> where almost at the point where we are going to take question so if you have a question please raise your hand. the other thing that is fascinating about the book is the cover. i have never seen malcolm x look
this playful before. he is looking down at mohammed ali with a camera in his left hand, he had his hand on mohammed ali's shoulder, mohammed ali is looking over the shoulder and he is trying to figure out is this the same serious leader that i have known ? why is he been looking so playful? >> what they were playing with each other at the time. they were celebrating. that was taking the nights right after cassius clay won the heavy heavyweight championship of the world. and instead of going to the hotel in miami they went back where there is supposed to be a celebration, the problem with the celebration as nobody had really planned one because everybody thought he was going to lose. they. they had to throw it together at the last minute. that is where his wife and
others went and they went back to the hampton house of the black hotel and black section of miami. they were playing around, joking, smiling at each other and malcolm was taking pictures all along this thing. the interesting thing is they go get serious and go to malcolm's room and they are talking. also in the room were jimmy brandon, the great football player and sam cooke was there too, the great singer. change is going to come. and at one point malcolm leaves the room. cassius says this might be it, might be the last answer for me and malcolm, we may be forced apart. >> so he confided it to others
and not to malcolm. by 1996 when mohammed ali in the olympics with atlanta was carrying the torch for the united states he had become the most beloved athletes in the united states. from a. when people were routine for sunny against him because of his religious belief. his religious beliefs have never changed, he still a muslim today. what changed to cause mohammed ali to become so love to. >> he -- he took a controversial stand on vietnam in 1966 or so. or so. after a few years it became mainstream. he was seen as kind of a martyr for the antiwar cause.
also, he became debilitated. he lost that verbal gift, he lost that power that he once had and maybe a third thing is that it may say something about the power of american popular culture to absorb. we have read wallpaper out of eldridge cleveland in the black panthers, we are able to absorb. >> okay, if you have questions please raise your hand. >> thank you both, i'm a big fan of yours and said thank you for being here. i know when you approach projects when you are writing something historical like this there's a lot of research and an investigative process. you probably had none on --
[inaudible] >> during the course of writing this book the point of view on anything as a result. we wrote acknowledgments for the book, all of these people who helped us read the book and research, i realize now there is one person i did not think and that was j edgar hoover. [laughter] without jager hoover, and investigating every black man in america, to express a controversial controversial opinion. i would not have had all of these wonderful thoughts because anything that was taking place in the nation of islam, there could be for people, for leaders
of the room talking about important decisions and i have my guesses of which one it was. what surprised me is i thought i knew who mohammed ali was. he turned out to be a much more different person than i ever expected. one person interviewed and said figuring out mohammed ali is not easy. there's just so many different facets of this person's personality. >> anyone else? just raise your hand. >> you mentioned that mohammed ali, so when mohammed switched to more orthodox islam did that
have issues for mohammed ali? >> you mention that mohammed ali had separate views on the nation of islam. so when elijah mohammed sun decided to take the nation in a direction of orthodox islam, why did mohammed ali choose to go with him as opposed to going with louis? >> i do not think he had any problems going that direction. in many ways he always lived in an integrated world. the first group was white, his trainer was white, he had many white friends, so in some ways
he was moving the direction in which malcolm had started to move when he was assassinated. so there's never any reservation that i was able to ascertain. >> you talk about the process of writing the book, it's the first book you've had a co-author on. how is that process for you working with a co-author? >> actually. >> actually worked on a co-author with several books. >> my bad. [laughter] >> it's okay. although you probably heard me give interviews before and you hear me take all the credit. if it's the right co-author it's a little bit like a marriage, so if it's the right wife it really works out well if it's not it doesn't. i like it because when you are writing a book it is an intensely solitary thing.
even your family, they pretend like they're sort of interested in what you are doing but they are really not. they may be able to take a minute or two but it's like listening and other people talk about their children. give me the brief version. when you have a co-author you are both interested in it. you go and research, when you go on a research trip that can be boring. you spend your time all day long in the archives and then you are alone at night. when you're going was someone else you're talking about it, you're working through problems together. my co-author johnny smith was a fabulous co-author. we learn to complete each other's sentences, trying to figure it out, trying to piece the puzzle together. i recommend co-authors. i think it is great.
>> how long did the process take you? did you first conceive after thinking about a book about mohammed ali and then deciding it was going to be a book about the relationship between him and malcolm x? how long after that did it take you to get it together? >> i would say probably, from the time we really started hard work, we spent a lot of time thinking and not doing anything, drinking coffee, i don't drink coffee, should drink coffee. maybe about two and half years, maybe three years from the time we started doing hard-core research until the book was finished. >> any other questions? >> i grew up at a time when especially my father's generation -- i remember when he
lost the fight against lewis. these are men who are not emotional people. so my relationship with him goes back long time, but interesting things seem to be talking about here. one is the issue of who is mohammed ali. i don't want to over do this but he was like jesus christ. how do you think, and that
situation at a time when african-americans are massively protesting the silver rights movement, demanding change, et cetera. women are demanding change. you have the beginning of the vietnam war but interesting you do not touch on it is the fact that, the other important black leaders -- martin luther king, while mohammed al lee reflects the speech very quickly i'm not doing this, but it was tremendously controversial. how do you see all of these changes reflect into this kind of character who on the service were trying to figure out where
he stands about all of these changes taking place and maybe then trying to find who he is. >> mohammed ali was a multifaceted, complex man living in multifaceted, complex times. how did he negotiate his way through those times? >> i am not sure. but he spent a lot of time thinking about it, he just moved forward. he took every hurdle as it came. in some ways he was a paradoxical person. he represents today peace and love and fellowship, and brotherhood. i know people who talk to him and said, he was a wonderful
person to be around. he would would never really ask questions about someone else. he just kept moving forward. so most think he picked off reflections from the society. we cannot even get partially created the mohammed ali that we wanted to believe was there. i do not think he was working on it that hard. >> you he kept a hit by refusing the draft. what gave him the strength and fortitude with sam at. >> number one i don't think it mattered to him at all for money. when he was asked if he was involved in a controversial political upbringing he said well republicans by nikes too. mohammed ali refused to be
driven into. money was not important to him. therefore after winning the heavyweight championship, the next day he gave a famous declaration of independence speech where he says i don't have to be who you want me to be. i'm free free to be who i want to be. to me that resonates with and we just went to the super bowl and beyoncé and everyone saying why did she sing that song. why did she sing put a ring on the finger or something like that. to me she said see you pick me for the super bowl, you want me for your agenda, fine but i'm going to use you for my agenda. if it cost me an endorsement okay, i'm overly worth 1 billion, i can live with it.
>> i'm not going to be who you want me to be. a final question. >> going back to when you are starting to read the book. [inaudible] >> when you start a book and at first to see it this way and that by the time you realize it's no this is the book i want to write, that's not that unusual. >> but you are writing about it. during which you pointed out there is a great deal of conflict taking place, lots of violence in the relationship between malcolm x. and the nation of islam which is a very scary time, i'm wondering if writing the book the people you talk to about that.
, were there still people reluctant to talk to you about what went on during that period? or as time passed have people been willing to be frank and open about what happened because a lot happened. >> most of the people who are in a position to know what was going on are gone. but for example captain sam is still around. we talked with captain sam and he was a wonderful interview. he would still hold pretty hard views about malcolm. time has not softened all the edges. >> and did you attempt to interview -- >> we attempted but we were unsuccessful. >> at this point lewis acts was chosen by elisha mohammed to replace malcolm x. >> but the main replacement in
terms of recruiting and if they used all the time was mohammed ali himself. spivak. [inaudible] >> a typical southern christianity. his mother was a baptist and went to church. i do i do not the get it. i think probably this father influenced it and his experienced influenced it. you cannot been told from his upbringing, it was traditional. [inaudible]
>> did he use -- gloves? >> most of the main files we looked at had already been declassified. for example elisha mohammed, malcolm x's file, and some of the other files. also please files and please files in new york. most have already been declassified. a lot evening you can get on my. the the hard thing about using those is they are so redacted. we knew where the two characters were day by day that helped us to see when they are close to each other and helped us to provide a key to decipher what the documents were say. if you look at an fbi document the back to back, we were able to get a great deal out of them.
>> we have time for one more question. >> the first one is obviously mohammed was fighting at the very top of his career, and it was a magnificent career. second thing being stopped by someone who is challenging. do you see it as radicalizing and in such a ways civil rights movement? >> i see mohammed. >> i see him as becoming the
patron saint of liberal leftist and there is one great image that was on the cover of esquire magazine showed him and his boxing gear, stretched out, obviously a takeoff from the famous painting of sebastian. he he was a martyr for the cause, yes. >> i'm afraid that is going to wrap it up. what is your next book? marco rubio? [laughter] >> well something should be done. we talk about celebrity, now celebrity is taking over politics. so we will see. a few words about wm you as we wrap up and randy gets ready to
sign your books. if you're not not familiar we are the npr news station, more importantly we are your public radio station and you can find us on 88.5 on your radio dial. if anyone is interested in talking about the station or the radio generally there are quite a few new collects here in the audience, there usually the ones with wineglasses in their hands. please raise your hand if you work their way but they would be happy to chat with you. thank you for coming out tonight, i had a good time. [applause]. thank you very much. >> thank you all so much for coming. please please do us a favor and fall up your chair. please come up and say hello, get a book and get it signed.
thank you everybody. >> when i tune in on the weekends it is usually author sharing their new releases. >> watching the nonfiction others on book tv is the best television for serious readers. >> on c-span they can have longer conversation and delve into their subject. >> book to be weekends, they they bring you author after author, after author. it's the work of fascinating people. spivak, book, book tv and i am the c-span fan. >> book to be takes hundreds of other programs out the country all year long. here's a look at some of the events will cover this week. on monday, we are at the new york historical society in new york city. for the presentation of the guggenheim lemon prize awarded laman prize awarded to the best of military history. then on tuesday from our studios in washington d.c., on