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tv   Panel Discussion on Race in America  CSPAN  March 31, 2016 8:00pm-8:56pm EDT

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states to working families all over this country. we have received now over 6 million individual campaign contributions. [cheering] that is more contributions than any candidate in the history of this country, up to this point. [cheering] anybody know what the average contribution is? right. 27 bucks. to paraphrase abraham lincoln at gettysburg, this is a cam -- campaign of the people, by the people, and for the people. [cheering] secretary clinton chose to go in
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another direction in terms of how she raised her funds. she had several super pacs. her largest super pac reported raising $25 million from special interests, including 15 million from wall street. [booing] now, in addition to that, as some of you know, secretary clinton has given a lot of speeches on wall street behind closed doors. and she has received 250,000 bucks in speech. now, i kind of think that if you're going to get paid $250,000 for a speech, it must be a brilliant speech.
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it must be an earth-shattering speech. written in shakespearean prose. [cheering] bernie! bernie! bernie! bernie! bernie! bernie! bernie! bernie! bernie! and, and if that speech is so great, i think the american people have the right to hear it. [cheering] now, i don't know why but i myself have not gotten an invitation to speak on wall street. not for 250,000, not for 25,000, not for two dollars, they
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haven't invited me. but i got my cell phone on and i'm waiting for the call, and if it comes this is what i would tell those people on wall street. i would tell them, i would tell them that their greed, their recklessness, and their illegal behavior have destroyed this economy, resulting in millions of americans losing their jobs, their homes and their life savings. i would tell them that they were bailed out by congress against my vote. because the big banks were too big to fail. but today, three out of the four largest banks are bigger now
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than they were when we bailed them out because they were too big to fail. and i would tell them that when you have a handful of financial institutions with so much economic and political power, now is the time to break them up! [cheering] break enemy up! break them up! break them up! break them up! break them up! all of you know that learning and growing intellectually is a part of who we are as human beings. and all of you know that we live
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in a competitive global economy where we need the best educated work force on earth. now, 50 years ago, you got a high school degree, you were doing pretty well and the likelihood is you can go out and gate good job and make it in the middle class. but the economy and the world and technology have changed. and that is why i believe that when we talk about public education today, it is not good enough just to talk about first grade through 12th grade. we need to make public colleges and universities tuition-free! [cheering] my mom, my father and father, never went to college, but i
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want everybody kid in the south bronx, and i want every kid in america who is in the fourth grade, the sixth grade, freshmen high school, i want them to know that if they take school seriously, they study hard, they do their work in school well, i want them to know they would be able to get a college education regard log of the income of their families. [cheering] and together we're going to reduce the very high load of student debt that millions of people have. we should not be punishing people for getting an education. [cheering]
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we should be rewarding people. that is why we have legislation in that would allow people with student debt to refinance their loans at the lowest interest rates they can find. now, i have been criticized for this, unrealistic, too expensive. let me tell you how we're going pay for this. when wall street's greed destroyed our economy, the middle class bailed them out. now it is wall street's time to help the middle class. [cheering] and that is why we're going to impose a tax on wall street speculation.
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now, another difference between secretary clinton and myself is the issue of foreign policy. i listened to what george w. bush had to say in 2002,. [booing] i didn't believe him. i voted against the war in iraq. [cheering] secretary clinton, then u.s. senator from new york, heard the same information, she vote for the war in iraq. [booing] i have opposed every one of e dithesstrous trade agreements, nafta. normal trade relations with china that have cost us billions
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of decent-paying jobs. secretary clinton has supported virtually all of them. so we've got some very real differences. this campaign is listening to our brothers and sisters in the latino community. [cheering] what they are telling me is that with 11 million undocumented people in this country, they are tired of living in the shadows, tired of being exploited, tying of living in fear. they want and i want comprehensive immigration reform and a path towards citizenship. [cheering]
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and if congress does not do its job, i will use all of the executive powers of the presidency in order to make that happen. [cheering] bernie! bernie! bernie! bernie! bernie! bernie! bernie! this campaigns listening to our brothers and sisters in the african-american community. and they are tired of having their kids go to broken down, inadequate schools. they are tired of sky-high unemployment rates. they are tired of their kids breatheing filthy air and getting asthma. they are tired of paying half of their income for housing.
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they want and i want major investments in inner cities throughout this country. and by the way, when we rebuild our housing, stock, when we build affordable housing, when we rebuild our roads and bridges and water systems, we create millions of good-paying jobs. i am a member of the u.s. senate committee on the environment. i have talked to scientists all over our country, all over the world. the debate is over. climate change is real. it is caused by human activity. it is already doing devastating
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harm to this country and countries throughout the world. together, we must have and accept the moral responsibility of leaving this planet in a way that is healthy and habitable to our children our grandchildren. [cheering] and together we will take on the fossil fuel industry. [cheering] we will transform our energy system to sustainable energy and energy efficiency. [cheering] brothers and sisters, we live in the wealthiest country in the history of the world, but very few people know that. and the reason they don't know that is almost all of the new income and wealth goes to the
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top one percent. [booing] all of you know that the history of real change in america never takes place from the top on down. it always takes place from the bottom on up! 100 years ago or more, when workers were being treated like animals, working seven days a week, had no rights on the job, could be fired arbitrarily, workers came together, all trade unions, and began to negotiate contracts and working conditions. [cheering] for hundreds of years african-americans and their allies stood up and fought back against racism, segregation, and
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bigotry. we don't know how many of them died, were lynched or beaten but people by the millions said that in america we will not continue to have a racist society. [cheering] 100 years ago, not a long time, women in this country did not have the right to vote, did not have the right to get the÷÷ education or the jobs they wanted. but women and their male allies stood up and said, women in america will not be second-class citizens. if we were here, ten years ago,
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ten years ago, and somebody jumped up and said i think gay marriage will be legal in 50 states in this country, the person next to them would have said, you are nuts. but it's a result of the struggle of the gay community for decades against incredible bigotry and hatred, and with the support of the straight community, gay marriage today is legal in 50 states. [cheering] if we were here five years ago, no time at all, somebody jumps up and says, bernie, this 7.25 federal minimum wage is a starvation wage. we have to raise it to 15 bucks an hour. person next to her would have said 15 bucks an hour? you're doubling the minimum
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wage. that it is nuts. you have to go to $8, $9, not 15, but, but, people in the fastfood industry, people in monday monday and burger king and wendy's, went out on strike. they stood up. they fought back, and you know what happened? seattle, los angeles, san francisco, 15 bucks an hour! [cheering] california, 15 bucks an hour! and if i have anything to say about it, and if elected president, i will, 15 bucks an hour in every state in this country. bernie! bernie! bernie! bernie! bernie!
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bernie! bernie! here is my point. real change takes place, not when some president signs a bill and the supreme court makes a decision. real change takes place when millions of people look around them and they say, you know what? the status quo is unacceptable. the exploitation of workers, unacceptable. racism, unacceptable. sexism, unacceptable. homophobia, unacceptable. and we can do better, and where we are right now is a pivotal moment in our history, and all over this country, all over this country, people are looking around them and they're saying, you know what? we should not have more income and wealth inequality than any other country.
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we should not have the highest rate of childhood poverty of any major country. we should not have our people working two or three jobs to survive economically. we should not have women earning 79 cents on the dollar. we should not have young people leaving school 50, $100,000 in debt. we should not have a crumbling infrastructure. we should not be the only major country on earth that does not guarantee health care to all or paid family and medical leave. and people all over this country are looking around and they're saying, establishment politics
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and establishment economics, the same old same old, is not working.÷÷ some that is what this campaign is about. what this campaign is about is telling you that no president, not bernie sanders or anybody else, can address these issues alone. we need millions of people to stand up, make a political revolution. [cheering] and create a government that works for all of us. it will not be an easy fight. know that. wall street has unlimited sums of money. the insurance companies will do everything they can to prevent us from going forward. fossil fuel industry, more worried about their short-term
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profits than the future of our planet. corporations wanting to destroy public schools in america. i understand all of that. i understand it, and you understand it. but together we are not going to duck away from this fight. we are going to defend our kids and our parents and our grandparents. in a month or so this state, on april 19th, this state will be having a very important primary. if there is a large voter turnout, we will win. [cheering]
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and if we win here in new york, we are going to make it to the white house! [cheering] bernie! bernie! bernie! bernie! bernie! bernie! bernie! so i urge all of you to come out and vote, bring your aunts and your uncles and your friends and your neighbors. let win in new york. let's take this fight to the white house! thank you all. [cheering] [cheering]
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♪ ♪ >> the democratic primary in new york will be on april 19th. a new quinnipiac poll showing hillary clinton is leading bernie sanders in new york, 54 to 42% among empire state democrats. the "new york post" writing the poll finds this lead is only because of overwhelming support from black voters. the story says african-americans support hillary clinton by 66% of their vote, compared to 31% for senator sanders. >> during campaign 2016, c-span takes you on the road to the white house. as we follow the candidates on
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c-span, c-span radio and c-span.org. >> coming up on c-span 2's booktv, we look at race in the u.s. we'll start off with panel of authors from the tucson festival only books. then eddie glaude talks about his book "democracy in blank" then crystal wright on her book" con job." later we'll hear from author and journalist april ryan. friday morning, retired general westley clark will join us to discuss nato's role in the aftermath of the brussels attacks and the role that national security issues are playing in campaign 2016.
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then council on foreign relations senior fellow and journalist, talks about her "new york times" best-selling book, "ashley's wore: the untold story of a team of women soldiers" and discuss the u.s. military's integration of women into combat rolls which starts tomorrow. watch c-span's "washington down"on friday morning. join the discussion. >> next, panel discussion with authors before race in america. we'll have from professor linda alcoff. author of the future of whiteness. this i vent is part of the tucson festival only books healed this month at the university of arizona. [inaudible conversations] >> >> it's --
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>> hello. >> hello, everybody. welcome to the eighth annual tucson festival of books. i would like to begin by acknowledging and thanking the college of social and behavioral sciences and dean j.p. jones for supporting this terrific event.t thank you to c-span booktv, and to cox communication forns sponsoring this venue. i'll begin by reminding everyone that this presentation will last one hour, and we'll have questions at the end for the last 20 minutes of the hour so please hold your questions if you can until the end of the presentation. immediately following the session, the authors will be autographing books in the university of arizona book store tent, that's booth number 153. sponsored by the university of arizona book store. and filipe person unanimous dez ernesto will be autographing his books at 4:00 p.m.nj because you're enjoying the festival we hope you're a member
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of the friend of the festival program. your tax deductible donation allows to us offer programming free of charge to the public and support this critical literacyri program in the community. been a friend by visiting the student union south ballroom or by going to our web site. out of respect for the authors andure fellow audience members please turn off your cell phones now if you could, and i will now begin by introducing each of our ar-authors today. we have a terrific panel with us. the first author is the author and illustrator of a latino daily comic strip. he has received award including the latino spirit award. he as published two books.
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political cartoons on s immigration. our second peoplist today dr. linda alcoff, specializing in feminism, race theory, and ex-is send shallism. in 2005 doctor alcoff was recognize as a distinguished women foiler by northwesternding philosophical association, and the wrote other books, and the " newest book "the future of whiteness." our third panelist is dr. baptist, a professor of history at cornell university, specializing in american history with a particular emphasis on the south, the noon century and the history of enslavement in america. he is also the author of numerous articles and books, including creating an old south, middle florida's plantation
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frontier before the civil war,es new studies in the history of american slavery, and his newest book, the half has never been told slavery and the making of american capitalism. and our final panelist today, dr. philipe fernandes ernesto, the william p. reynoldss professor of history at the university of notre dame. studies the history of colonialization and imperialism. he received a huge number of awards and honors in this rear, including the world history association book prize. he has written over a dozen books, including most recently amerigo, the man who gave hisa, name to mrs., 1492, the year the world began, and our america, a historic history of the united states. so, please welcome our four very distinguished panelist is. [applause] >> i'm going to begin with a question for lola.
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how -- >> lalo. >> my sister couldn't make it. >> how do your illustrations convey messages in ways that prose cannot. >> i'm glad you asked that. we moved mountains to get the computers to work, and i brought a few cartoons to show very quickly, but illustrations, political cartoons are like the -- i think they're the ultimate sucker punch. when people send me hate letters i've already won the argument because unless they're sending me a hate letter with a better cartoon, i'm already inside than person's head forever. i've already ruined their day and -- so, i -- none question, what can illustration convey and the other is the prose can't and
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what are culture influences in my work. if i get this magic mouse to work i can show you. make sure i'm going right way. [applause] might reco >> you might recognize this as a cute version of the mexican card. except that's a fascist up there. and so i use my cultural influence to draw from my -- thi rich visual, the treasure trove of visuals from mexico, and also here's -- when donald trump hosted "saturday night live" after being fired by nbc -- i made the second pound that snl stands for still no latinos because there are no latinos on
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"saturday night live." [laughter] >> this one really doesn't need a caption or word bubble. se this is a caption you can't see that says: mexico built the wall for free. the history llanos the boundaries of the map. it's 1820-1840. and another -- the number one piñata in mexico is the trump piñata.r] and the u.s., of course. finally, the best selling halloween costumes last year were donald trump and chap o'guzman. say
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>> and finally, what you can say with a picture you can't say with words -- oh, no, this is -- and probably what you can say with pictures but can't say with words. >> ooh! >> done. applause. >> thank you. was a >> did answer that? each of those was a thousand-word answer. >> thank you very much for that. we're going to turn to -- alcoff, white house new book is called "the future of whiteness." i wonder if you can comment how the concept of whiteness has changed over time and what it means today. >> it's changed a lot over time, over who is which you had, right? we know that southern europeans and jews were not included. still uncertain whether the latinos are included.
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some are, perhaps some aren't. and the meaning of whiteness from the beginning incorporated an idea i call vanguardism, that whites were the vanguard of the human race, scientifically, telling nothingal issue militarily, esthetically, fill so is include, artistically, and that kind of idea that whites are the vanguard that we are the leaders of the free world, we can teach the world what to do with -- how to build democracy, is very much, i think, featurell of so-called american exceptionalism i think it's really a white exceptionalism. what's changed today is that whites can no longer presume that their point of view will go unchallenged.r our public cultures are more diversified than they have ever been so that more and more white people -- because of the demographic changes that are
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happening, a lot of white people live and work and go to school in majority minority areas or areas at least in which they hear from the points of view of others who are not white.[laughte so, -- [laughter] >> oh!ter] that came down from white command. know, >> you know, clearly, trump, who is my brethren from new york, queens so don't have any illusions about new york city. he doesn't represent all white people. the seen xenophobia and racism he suppress is nod uniform cross the united states so we have diverse public cultures and more and more white people, -- that
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means that more and more whitere people know how events are going to be seen or might be seen by nonwhites and not just by whites, and so there's a kind of double consciousness, i think, or triple or quadruple consciousness in the white population today in which you might tell a joke and then wonder how that might be seen by others, or you might be aware that a slogan like "make america great again" what does that mean, again? when was it great? for african-americans when thero were racial quotas on immigration or when there was legal gender discrimination? m and more and more wheat people realize that a sewing -- slogan like money make america great again "has a perfect constituency in mind and that's not historical.
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these haven't different meanings and we're all aware of thes different meangs these slogans have in our neighborhoods and our populations. it means that whiteness is inferment, it's changing, sort of like 100 years ago, when southern europeans were let into the club and there war a lot of ferment going on because the britts were not too happy about letting italians and jews into their country clubs. it was 50-year battle to create a large enough white community that would be inclusive of those other kinds of whites or border line whites today we're in similar foment, what does it mean to be white and not in charge to be white and not be able to assume cultural dominance of the so is scores political dominance of the government. a what does it mean to be white
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and one among agos. that's what is going on today. i think it's the elephant in the room of our political electoralf debates and events like in chicago. there's a lot of denial and people uncomfortable talking about race, who are not sure how to talk about whiteness a way that doesn't come off as antiwhite. that's why i wrote the book to try to make it safe for us to talk about these issues, and just.. if could say one last thing, the current situation in the demographic challenges that we're facing are causing sort of three elements, three sort of phenomenon, one is the white historia and reaction we see with trump and so forth, but that's not the only phenomena. the other one is this diversification of the public sphere, which is a good thing,
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so that we actually can begin to talk across our communities and come to terms to a better understanding of what is the true history of the united states? how do we incorporate slaveryve and the annexation of mexico and genocide and all of these things, into our collective history in a way that makes sense for all.se but i think the third element that is happening is that theli, wages of whiteness are falling. there's increasing unemployment, lower wages, more precariousness in the work force of even middle class jobs, uncertainty about people being able to keep their homes. the social contract that gave white people an advantage in this country, and made them feel like they could have a decent living and support their family, is now under threat, and this is what people like trump are appealing to.
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they're promising -- he's promising to renegotiate the trade deals and to kick out the mexicans and to keep out the muslims so is offering a racisto and xenophobic answer to the real problem's of white poor. this gives an opening there need's be a response, counternarrative to trump, that is directed at those large segments of the white population who are experiencing economic threat, and -- but we need a counter analysis that will show a way out of this without racism or xenophobia that tells a more honest story how we actually can lost the wealth and how they can make coalition to improve their living conditions for the future.>> >> linda, what about social abot
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description to whatwhiteness? you talk about joining the club and all the examples you have given us are people whose whiteness has been endorsed by i others. but i am familiar with a lot of cases in the -- people who ascribed themselves to this category, going right back to -- one of the earlier -- the story of his encounter with a black king who said to him, of course, the trouble with my people is they don't understand white guys like us. the king had the conception of the arab trader who wouldn't be classified as white. offered himself as a recruit to this white -- to judge from what the -- to judge from the way he responded, he was very happy heout this.
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he thought it was great.at we recruited another guy to our side, and in senegal, similar case happened when detachment of british troops arrive at the french empire, and the -- in charge of this black sergeant who said, i'm so glad you guys arrived, you're english. i'm so really glad to see you because i've just been the only white man here, and until he said that never saw him as a white guy, but they form this sort of band together in spite of the very market difference anywhere pigmentation, very happy to accept him. doesn't that happen so much now but how does that fit into your picture? >> well, whiteness is not about pigmentation. it is contextual so you might be
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seen in one way in one community, and in another way in another community. c many latinos and mexicanoser ana that, but it's not just about how the individual sees themselves. we could be mistaken about our history and how we actually operate in the social world. it's also about how you're seen by others. right? and sometimes others can see you better than you can see yourselves, but the way others see you is going to have a huge impact on your job prospects and your educational success and so on and so forth. so, i think we need both attending to the subjectivity of whiteness but also the objectivity of whiteness, and one thing that happened in the last two decades this wealth of social science research thatme empirically measured whiteness you can see the structural o differences of political power
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and economic power. and the social psychologist have been showing that there's a different way of interacting we have with other people that white people have certain habits and practices. all groups do that are group-related. who we pay attention to, whose books we read, who we attend to. who we take seriously. who we give credibility to, and just how we interact, formally and informally, social psychologist can now document this to show even if you think whiteness really doesn't have anything to do with you, you caa be operating in the world and interacting with others in a way that fits the pattern. so, i think this has to be brought to consciousness so that then we can begin to unravel it and change it.ank you so >> thank you so much. dr. baptist, can you draw on the research from your book to tell
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us how you think america would look today had slavery not been part of our history? >> so to answer this question i would really like to have lalos map back. that would really be helpful. do you want me to answer just about the united states or assume that the slave trade across the atlantic never happened? >> that would be great. >> okay. does because of course slavery doesn't just take place in the united states. takes place in the caribbean ann south america and every country that existed today in the new world, slavery existed. so, if there had been no atlantic slave trade from africa to the new world, and the years after 1492, it is certainly possible that spanish colonization might have gone on for a while, but i think that
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the settlements in north americ would have been a lot less successful. t they were the second european incursion into north america. the first one didn't last if you know the history of the vikings coming to the new world. they're eventually driven back, and i think something like that would have happened in the new world.d. might have been a few colonies that stuck, but the advantages of labor, the advantages ofes creating colonies that because of slave labor and the approximation of slave-made commodities gave them moreti opportunities for people who were defining themselves by their whiteness, because this definition of whiteness emergese in the united states in the context of slavery and the advantages of it really emerge in the context of slavery. but i think in the end thening issue settlements, would quite likely have failed, and even if they lasted for a little while, i think in the broader context,
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without slavery and particularlv slavery in the caribbean, but even more so in the u.s. ultimately, i think in the broader context european imperialism would have been a lot less powerful, a lot less lasting of a force in the world, because without cotton slavery in the u.s., think you don't have the industry revolution.ss it's not the only necessary factor for the industrial revolution but i think it is a crucial factor that removes some of the limiting factors on economic growth, and thus makes europe and european settler societies like the united states much more powerful. so in the end i think the map that lalo showed may be -- the mexican wall would have beenrt even further north and east than you actually saw it. there was even any american territory for it to go into at all. o and so most of what we think of also the united states would have continued to be dominated by the people who had inhabited
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it for so long, before 1492. >> what about the other side of the pick schnur -- picture? what about the effects in africa without the slave trade? >> that's an interesting question, too. a great deal of -- there has been great deal of debate about the long-term impact, but most i of the evidence is that it was profoundly negative. we know today that the areas in africa where there was a greatest impact from the slave trade are the areas where you have the most distrust of government, the most distrust of other ethnic groups, you havet l the greatest levels of interethnic violence, in somegn areas you have significantly high levels of poverty. so we don't know how things would have turn oust without the slave trade to africa if trade had not happened at all or had been peaceful, rather than violent, devoted to either kidnapping people or convincing
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africans to kidnap other africaon people. i think we can safely guess that the situation would have been better fork africans in 2016 ifn the slave trade never happened. >> my next question is for professor ernesto. >> i was trying to stop it from asking the questions myself. i guess i got to submit -- >> you can't avoid it. on your book, you explain that the narrative of english colonializize that -- >> i'm sorry -- -- >> the narrative of english colonization that we're familiar with has been misleading. can you explain why that is? >> i don't think it's necessarily been misleading as narrative about english colonization but misleading as narrative about how the united states came to be what it is, because it undervalues the
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contributions of other communities that have contributed to the making of the united states. obviously it undervalues native americans. undervalues blacks, undervalues all the communities who joined this country relatively late in its making, but nevertheless nev refashioned it and reformed it into what it is today. but i mean, in my book i focus on one really glaring omission in the traditional narrative, which is that of the community of european origin, which has been in what is now the territory of the united states the longest. that's the community which is now designated in the census as hispanic, because spanish was spoken in the territory of what is now the united states for 100 years before anybody spoke english within the what are now
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the limits of the territory of the united states.and and people practiced catholicism for 100 years before anybody practiced protestantism, and people followed moores based on the civil code for 100 years before anybody introduced the idea of common law, and you can't have a total picture of the making of this country if you only understand it as something made in a white anglosaxon protestant image from east to west, without taking account of the fact that it's like every fabric, the fabric of the stars stars and stripes hass and -- made in put pel direction s with plural contributions and in particular you can't understand the making of the united states without taking into account the
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south/north history of the making in which spanish speaking people, the hispanics, were the effective force, not just the vanguard. themakers of the entire story ot the history of the make offering the united states. >> i'd like to ask lalo a question. you have been documenting the political and culture landscapes through your illustrations and i wonder if you comment on race relations in the united states recently, have they improved as our country has become more diverse? have things been stable or a situation has gotten worse. >> oh, they're great. [laughter] do you >> you want to read my hate mail? before the internet i used to
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get hate mail from white supremacists and they would actually -- this is -- remember mailing letters, why actually mail them, and i swear they would write practically in crayon, always misspelled but always conveyed the message that i didn't belong and i should go back to where i came from, san diego, california. an and that -- so, i really -- i a get depressed when i look at cartoons that i drew back in 1992, during -- we had this thing in california called the proposition 187 and it's kind of like the grand daddy law to your sb1070 here, and i could almost take those cartoons, change the date, 2016, and they still apply.

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