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tv   Panel Discussion on U.S. Naval History  CSPAN  April 3, 2016 6:30am-7:41am EDT

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mostly english, irish come in scandinavian and german, but also south asian pacific islander along with a few born and raised yankees and several african-americans. most have never set foot on american soil. the officers drove to earn the steelers loyalty and balance disappointment humanity and they succeeded. most sailors are the shenandoah
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served loyally and energetically through difficult and dangerous cruz. shenandoah destroyed eight yankees vessels on the way around the cape of good hope and the storm india notion. and melbourne she caused a sensation. the people are fascinated by is not entirely informed about the faraway cousins conflict as word spread of her arrival, hundreds of sites tears streamed along the shore. those centers seems common sale in or descend from every direction to be there first and only confederate visitor. the ship was besieged by site traveling as far as 300 miles from invoking a carnival atmosphere an estimated 10,000 came aboard in one day. the people of melbourne split in a contentious political camp. one welcomed and celebrated their gifts. the other demanded immediate departure.
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this was the war down under. william blanchard, u.s. consulate in melbourne carried on a fierce diplomatic war, a barrage of protests. and must be evident, blanchard intended, but all presumptions of fact and law are against illegal carrots to the vessel which had no legitimacy as a commissioned warship of a recognized nation. vessel and men should besieged for piracy. upon the advice of cromwell, the governor responded. there's no evidence of her radical acts and whatever the previous history of shenandoah, the government was bound to treat her as a ship of war belonging to a belligerent power. the people of melbourne like their english counterparts in many foreigners did not comprehend complexities of the war, but an age with dramatic notions of honor and valor they
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related to her famous predecessor. the css alabama had been tangible manifestation of the confederacy. corrects widespread the contest at them in the language of ocean commerce in ocean conflict which they understood very well. having no particular stake in the success of the union or understanding of concept, net effects on as valiant heroes fighting great. captain sands was an international celebrity, at least as much as lincoln, grant and lee, despite vehement protests from the united states, confederate cruisers have been welcomed in colonial ports such as jamaica, trinidad and gibraltar. the alabama caused a stir in springtown in august 1853 with parties in her honor. later, rumors of her appearance created a flurry of excitement in melbourne.
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much of the glamour transferred to shenandoah which was precisely what the confederates intended. a significant number of influential people in melbourne, however, were acutely worried about visitors. there appeared to be little discussion or public debate is essentially she is paid union, succession, states rights, slavery and the prounion sinemet focus on the progress for commerce raiding commit dangerous for them to local courts of trait of europe and america and local issues such as land reform in taylor's. the civil war generated economic uncertainty even in australia with wildly fluctuating prices and availability affect in huge quantities of import. despite these concerns come up apartments of sympathy was for the south perceptions and misperceptions of many of great britain and europe. conspicuous in great inference
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from the shenandoah officers were approached on the street in the shower to social invitations come represented free up in by the railway company, but members of the cricket club in the prestigious melbourne club and attended the theater gratis. repairs completed, shenandoah once more attained her national element shared by a crowd of spec caters on the chase of lawyers. the colonial steamer work doria and a few other vessels tipped their flags in the loop the last international banner would receive. the melbourne herald proclaimed, pieces of the southerners asked for. peace may name recognition and a new empire. the federal clicker shall be no peace consummation of dictatorship. it's a war of independence. tonight the summer chance to
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conquer them and had cornwallis. europe had acknowledged the confederate states of belligerent, concluded the editors and the south empire. but can sympathy for the confederacy and great britain was concentrated in your ruling the identifying aristocratic southerners entering the yankee democracy. on many subjects in colonial melbourne, more in tune and the expanding franchise as a champion opposing to radical central government. they were in the wrong side of the war and the right side of history. february 1865, confederate troops evacuated the confederacy charleston south carolina encircling the host of general sherman. on the same day the css
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shenandoah south from melbourne, repaired, resupplied with 45 new crewmen. really but he melbourne commission and a salad pacific and on april fools' day 1865, approached the island where she captured for american whalers. bringing yankee vessels eliminated alien surroundings of richmond went up in flames. this uniquely american conflagration players simultaneously at both ends of the earth. the young officers that shenandoah river fascinated by the island and one of them are followed of the green and white aquamarine which gave the cool refreshing appearance to the harvard. their pilot and a translator with the yorkshire englishman who had been on the island for 13 years after escaping from sydney as a convict.
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he claimed to have read of the war in newspapers brought by visiting ships and employment chiefs about it if they were according to have great admirers of jefferson davis. cap general adel recalled in his memoirs the class of southern arms electrified the minds of men in the remotest parts of the earth, harry winston were born upon the wings of the morning and drafted by the breezes into the very habitations of the isolated barbarians. the downside of the local chief to visit shenandoah. they shared a pipe and schnapps in the captain's cabin which put the chief quite at ease. their astonishing to me it's, and they seem to comprehend and appreciate functions about confusion with ear.
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meanwhile a fleet of canoes surrounded him which some point down upon their backs, many holding up large green umbrellas are large green leaves as umbrellas. the chief departed in the best of spirits and fighting all ashore already about the bishop received quantities of coconuts, pineapples, tapes, chickens come up in msn planting giving tobacco in pay. southerners consider the whole affair ridiculous, but the chief would have been greatly pleased. he was leader of one of the most powerful clans could the weather section and two of shenandoah a privilege that whalers and traders did not extend as a significant enhancement of the chiefs prestige. guess on the promise of lift ran whalers were especially affect the confirmation of its authority. the people were constantly around the ship ordering fruit, shells and curiosity as well as pigs and chickens.
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shenandoah officers amused themselves to ring, hunting, sailing, swimming a trading tobacco for native carriers will unbeknownst to them the guns fell silent and mathematics. one of the lieutenants was particularly entranced by a young girl so small, so sweet, so innocent. she had an open and intelligent encounter, her dark face lit up with joy and such eyes. words cannot picture them. i looked upon this poor innocent little savage admiration had td. cap general al qaeda final currency visit informing the chief said he would convey to the confederate president the kind of shown shed no embers that paid to fly at good to cap, president of the chief of seltzer which he admired and received interim and artfully wove and built a fibers and
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will. the chief bestowed to dead chickens wrapped in coconut leaves and a dozen coconuts as gifts for president davis. the host responded. tell geoff davis he is my brother and a great warrior and that i very poor and the diary our tribes are friends and a few ascender vessel for me i'll go see see him in his country. waddell preserved the coconut milk as a memento from the only sovereign who hadn't independence it carrots and fearlessness of disposition to perform a common duty two is a righteous people and a just cause. it could be noted that the confederacy had finally three days after appomattox achieved its primary for an policy of active. recognition from an offered assistance by a foreign power. with morale restored direct
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creation and destruction, shenandoah sailed once more, leaving an enduring legacy in the faraway place. 120 sailors left behind from magistrate whalers, hawaiians, other pacific islanders and a few new englanders were caught up in politics and more good the descendents are there today. while the worst struggle to conclusion in the nation began to bind it's a commission in delhi gate at the north, the deep call to the bering sea. she fired the last gun of the civil war, 10 weeks after appomattox and set the land of the midnight sun was flaming yankee whalers. shenandoah captured 24 vessels in one week an unprecedented accomplishment that a few months before would've been greeted with jubilation in the south and despair in the north. in the preceding four years, a rebel commerce raiders have destroyed over 100,000 tenths of
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union shipping were $17 million. the major impact had been psychological. the real damage done by fear of capture. the marine insurance rates soared. only one in 100 yankee vessels actually was taken but another 800,000 tons or 1000 ships were sold into foreign ownership to sail under the protection of a neutral flag, primarily great britain's. this is called the flight from the flag, a blow from which the united states merchant service never recovered. despite these losses, local rivers but not at dent in the united states for the burgeoning trade that supported it. , she shifted in mutual sheds and well and without a nanny whip the blockade progressively followed the south. most were pending to show for
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it, confiscated before they could get underway or decommissioned after unproductive cruises. seven enough howls of protest from northern ship owners and shippers, and secretary of the navy gideon welles diverted only a few warships from the blockade to hunt confederate cruisers. they think of them after she completed the most destructive cruz of the word was too tired to continue. the uss virtues that took beyond suspect the unprepared florida only by an egregious violation of brazilian neutrality. shenandoah circled the globe without being called a dollar. but this is also a deliberate economic and psychological warfare. not unlike strategy of wind to come fishermen torturing his faith through georgia and the carolinas. in the fall of 1864 when shenandoah began her career as,
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northerners are pessimistic. the union desertions urged in the government was deep in debt. bloodbaths in the wilderness, and still made in the trenches around petersburg brought a chorus of condemnation town of president lincoln and general grant. pressure to initiate peace was intense. the press despaired of winning reelection in november. but if shenandoah had cruised a year earlier achieving the same result on top of that traction already rocked by her sisters. how would news of another alabama in the pacific summer doldrums of 1864 have contributed to northern malaise in lincoln's reelection prospects. they they confederacy might of been as close to independence that summer anytime during the war. this is not an irrational strategy. by the spring of 1865, when
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shenandoah breached the bering strait, however, there could be no such hope. after destroying a good portion of the whaling fleet and scattering the rest, shenandoah headed south. off the coast of california they deliver news at the end of the war. former confederates became pariahs. man without a country, profession, fortune or feature presumably subject to imprisonment or hanging this pirate. their fear is amplified by great distance, the southerners could only imagine homes destroyed, families destitute and starving, and prison, jeter executed. on six november 1865, shenandoah leaped into liverpool. cap general bell lawrie last confederate banner without defeat or surrendered and been in his 10th vessel to the british. he and his officers from the sure to reconstitute their
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lives. i claim for officers and then they triumph over their enemies and over every obstacle and for myself i claim having done my duty. the shenandoah combine the epitome of an ancient maritime heritage of the most advanced technology at the time. she represented a new concept in an old strategy of naval warfare is a good example of what a week or naval power can accomplish and what we today call it asymmetric warfare. the men of shenandoah heeded the call of their leaders, putting their lives fortunate honor on the line. they sought to serve in the best traditions of the united states navy from which several came in which they take as their model. judging by their accomplishments, they succeeded. the confederate navy was the paradigm of innovation creating strategy and professionalism under nearly unmanageable circumstance is. the shenandoah and her men
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deserve to be remembered along with their union counterpart. this is its utmost this is as at most and describes biography of her cruise and a microcosm of the confederate american experience. thank you. [applause] >> let us know if you have some questions. one of the perks i get if i get to toss out the first couple. raise your hand. charlie, talk a little bit about my favorite guide, joshua bernie, how we got there and how did he and his flotilla then fair enough battle? and that bernie almost missed battle you may have heard or no. after his flotilla was destroyed in upper marlboro, he brought his men back to the navy arc where he was assigned to guard the navy yard bridge which goes over the lore in the house of representatives eastern branch of the potomac. he starred in this bridge and
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really not doing much of anything in the british had the british have decided at this point to attack a new and affirmed on the lower bridges by literally costing work could be forwarded in maryland. there's a reason there was no other place that is easy to cross to burn the bridge of the east capitol street and on a stoppage bridge we could bring the napier bridge and they'll never get across. it is almost obvious they would go up there. nonetheless, they are guarding the bridge and stuck there when they ride off to the battle just about an hour north by horseback, but very close to where the navy yard jason williams heard. as a result what happens to cut to the chase very quick way here, james madison is writing by. he sees a very tiny guy in a black frock coat. he's got these two massive horse
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pistol strapped to his waist. some people said it was a good kid playing a war. he runs up and said the actions from the north is here wanted to allow us to come and be a battle. and basically gathers up the flotilla men and sailors as well as the marine company in washington d.c. still there to this day they all had to get. but they go into the battle. that's one reason why they're in the third line is they literally get to the battle one hour before they arrive at the battlefields. >> how did they do in the battle? >> they were the only troops that turned an incredible performance of the battle. the militia ran, the army without firing a shot. the navy and marines were stuck in guarding the road to capitol
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hill. it is estimated that maybe they stayed there because they didn't believe it was in the purview is the commanding officer to give orders to the navy so therefore they received and as a result literally left alone to guard the road on his own and they do fairly well. the only troops that they will be affected by the u.s. marines and navy flotilla men at the battle near trackless bridge. >> wow, wow. i was taking notes as you are talking and i found interesting some of the crew. he mentioned african-americans. and you mentioned men who were descendents -- descended from people who i thought with george washington. can you talk a little bit about those? >> well, concerning the crewmen, one of the most vexing concerns is getting a full crew. he needed 120 men to fully membership in the god.
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he tried to recruit when he bought the ship he tried to recruit from his crew that was from the supply ship. he didn't get nearly as many as he wanted. so we also recruited from captured vessels and he recruited in melbourne illegally, by the way. but he would take anybody who would come on board and he had some goals. he would pay them two or three times by the merchants animate and offer them prize money at the end of the war which of course they never got. but he recruited at least three and maybe a couple more african-americans and one of them -- at least let them he paid as an ordinary seaman. and he also recruited many other nationalities. this is a long-standing tradition in the united states navy since the resolution.
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he was much work cosmopolitan, much more diverse and necessity because the sailors and it doesn't matter where it comes from our history has the skills. so there were -- there was no issue of slavery on board the ship. >> of a person could do the job, he could do the job. >> although been a sailor was about far different from being a slave anyway because of the labor involved in the authoritarian structure. the authoritarian structure in the british navy picked up by the united state navy. i was struck in the officers who were of course all americans with the widespread representation of. sydney smith junior was one of you can and he was the nephew of
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robert e. lee, and mason was a great time of our founder, george mason. and there were other connections there. one fellow was really an anomaly. he was a middle-class historian. he'd actually been a drugstore clerk and got enamored with the ocean from the midwest. since i'm from iowa i can relate to that. he managed to get an appointment to the naval academy. there was the worst target but then he reported confederate yankee and worked his way of. being from the midwest, and he didn't quite relate to the aristocratic familial others sat there southern can feature it. >> interesting. do they have some questions?
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charlie, what happened to the colonialarines he mentioned? >> the colonial marines were only able to recruit 300 to 400 of them than they did serve with distinction in 1814 campaign, but cochran allowed them to be transported to the island in the british caribbean of their choice or they could go to bermuda or canada. many of them ended up in nova scotia, canada after the war with their families. as important to note that cochran made clear when you escape if you were a slave you are not required to serve in the colonial marines if you're an african-american male. you could literally popped out to be taken to trinidad or go to jamaica and you take them then. these are the folks that volunteered just day. they were paid a wage of a royal marine, saying wage they got the
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red coat. they got some training and they were used on rates and skirmishes against the americans. they would make landings, oftentimes they would make tributaries, the slaves to go back to their former neighborhoods and exactly how to get it. >> wow. we've got a question now. >> were they civilians than what happened to them? >> yes. they were entirely event merchant trading vessels are wailers ever captured by the shenandoah and the other confederate readers. to them and they were just removed from their ships and they would take one, the slowest of the oldest of the captured vessels and put it on what they call bond, which is an agreement signed by the captain and the
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name of the owners at the end of the were of the were the owners were paid the confederacy, the value of shipping cargo. this is a legitimate item of international dad assuming the confederacy had gained independence which of course it didn't. but there were no casualties during the entire cruise of the shenandoah except two of the sailors that they the sailors that they do not cruise from natural causes. but they removed the sailors and they were not allowed to touch the personal effects although if you are managed in simple way. but there are all either put ashore in melbourne and ships and sent on their way. >> way for the microphone. the microphone is coming around to you. >> james monroe had an important role from the armstrong for from the secretary of war.
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i was unclear exactly what his role is. >> that's a great question. james monroe was present on the battlefield amid a pretty significant role in the battle without consulting general winder, monroe maneuvered whole units of militia place in the 500-yard behind for a fact they were supposed to be. he did this based on the fact he'd been an armory officer during the american revolution and he believed he was capable general is anybody on the battlefield. as a result of the debacle, a lot of the american public rested upon secretary of war john armstrong. john armstrong was a rather -- at a rather unfortunate habit of saying what he thought at the time and he wrote a very condemnatory letter against the president of the united states or the problems they had and rather than take a hit himself,
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he blamed madison. very quickly, not a synonym broke out together and decided armstrong had to go. within two weeks, they are moving out the door and have to return to new york his home state never to be seen in american public office again. monroe then assumes the job of both secretaries day, which is jobless at the time. he then takes over as secretary of war. he's holding them down simultaneously. >> of the time it's happened in american history. >> and a kissinger was national security adviser and secretary of state. >> dwight, described the ship for a spirit how long was that, how fast could it move, how was it on? >> the ship is fascinating, too because he was sick clipper ship, which many consider and i tend to agree the epitome of the
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shipper clip era and it is a beautiful ship, but it was also heavy steam engine and does what they call an auxiliary steamer. it is intended to help it through contrary wins on its cruises when i was going to china picard was received. on a few clipper ships built for steam engines because they were not commercially successful. it turned out the advantage gained from having a steam engine pay for the loss of cargo space in the extracts and power of coal or engineering proven. but it was a perfect combination of the commerce raider. the alabama by contrast was still so is ideally suited. the shenandoah was very close to the alabama in terms of capabilities. the shenandoah had six main
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guns, to manage rifles, canon and 46-pound smooth bores. it actually was as well armed or close to as well armed as any of the opponent said might have confronted, but they really didn't want to do that because the crew are not well trained and they were not interested in fighting another ship of war. if there is one that yankee ship, the iroquois came closest to catching around the cape of good will and -- cape of good hope was a couple weeks behind. if they had met up, it could've been a similar engagement to the alabama kearsarge, but captain waddell had no real interest in
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doing that, he could avoid it. >> said the weaponry was the scare of the merchants. >> yes. the weaponry was to bring the merchant vessels under international law and they commissioned warship under international law to recognize belligerent, confederacy was not a recognized nation but a recognized belligerent and american law. they had to do this to protect the neutrality and those of a controversy between the two nations and almost brought on more between great britain and the united states. but the commissioned warship could fire a cannon when approaching another shift of any nation and they had to stop and inspect it. when approaching a prospective target, the commerce raider.
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follett fog in the shenandoah state. once they came close to the merchant vessel, the merchant vessel raised its flag in recognition and they fired a cannon to be shot across the bow and they have to put up their row flag otherwise they would be sub to to prosecution as pirates. once they did that, they could inspect the ship if they were an enemy ship or a ship carrying contraband, the never subject to confiscation. they would prefer to put one on board and send back to report for sale but that option wasn't open to them, so they had to destroy them. but they took out the cruz as they said. >> wow. any other questions? charlie, aside from the obvious fort mchenry, british were stopped at baltimore.
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aside from fort mchenry, would make a big difference in baltimore? >> samuel smith is not william winthrop and samuels was an an iron willed major general of the maryland galicia. he had the confidence of the sitting governor who happened to be the uncle of william commend the guy that lost the battle bladensburg in his uncle recognize baltimore is the prize in maryland and if they lose that, they lose a lot. as a result, smith requires within taken over the job, he requires the entire town to fallout. men, women, children, black, white, young, old archive to fall out and taken placements since come entrenchments, rifle pit, canon positions up and down the side of him said he'll get cards that used inside of the town. several out-of-towners come in. one guy named george douglas was from the maintenance and rides
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into town and says he would not believe how smith is converted to talent into a vertebral gibraltar and he really gets himself a gold star in my mind. he also recognizes the real vulnerability of fort mchenry is the ferry branch, which is the other side of the harbor and the bills to force behind fort mchenry. one called battery backed clock and the other called for covington. the british try on the night at september 13th to get around fort mchenry by rowing among both full of royal marines that man behind the ford and take it by storm from the rear. smith anticipated that and as a result, when militia captain said the british fired off a blue rocket light which gave away their position allowing to engage their longboats, driving them off with heavy casualties.
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we saw then that evening. worked out well. >> errico. mark. >> of bladensburg if there'd been better american leadership, could the battle has been won over the chips so inexperienced that was lost before it was soft? >> i looked up at the british thought and robert ross is absolutely astounded the americans love the british army to travel from benedict, maryland on the texan river all the way across prince george's county about 20 to 25 miles and not get harassed by anyone. not even a patrol. so we basically wonder with the inexperienced general officer betting the entire security and the entire outcome of weather in a washington d.c. survived on the role of the dice of a single engagement. ross was sane when are they going to start to attack us?
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why are they allowing us to get up close? at virtually on the border and when they lose, there's nothing between them in washington d.c. itself. but you are right. could the americans have one? these were for british. cannot play the maryland galicia and the virginia militia could have stood up even if there are better handled. what they could've done was they couldn't engage the british in a war of attrition in a campaign of attrition beginning in benedict, maryland, ambushing them at the american militia did at lexington and concord in 1775 so the british should be concerned to get too far away from their base of operation. one thing ross pointed out a number of times but they didn't feel comfortable going all the way up to washington d.c. and he kept reminding everybody that we don't have calvary. we are an enemy country. this could be bad for us to forget ourselves caught here.
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coburn -- i've got to keep correcting myself. coburn said not to worry. i thought these guys last year they won't stand. there was some thought to make uniform vacation out of the capital. there is just the two wings of the capital today. and on and in between may not afford was so the modern job part hadn't been built yet and it was suggested to winder in madison to turn this into a fort and defend capitol hill and basically came to the conclusion that all was lost. they all retreat to montgomery county, courthouse which is modern-day rock though and try and fight another day. the other day will come two days later in baltimore but a different set of commanders. i don't believe the americans would've done much better. >> joya, what happened to the shenandoah afterwards? >> the british during the shenandoah over to the american authorities in riverport and
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they try to sell it back to the united states, or ran into some storms, had problems and turned back to by that time they were sick of the whole thing. they put the shenandoah up for sale she was bought as a yacht. so she operated for a number of years until 1975 were six and then she was damaged in a typhoon and eventually sank in the now rested on the bottom of the indian ocean. >> you alluded to this earlier. there is a lawsuit brought against the british by the united states, correct? >> yes. the united states sued great britain at the end of the war in a large affair that came to be known as the alabama claims. the united states sued great
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britain for his support of confederate commerce raiders during the entire war. it maintains that they have no -- that they violated neutrality by building and supplying and manning ships that they then sold to the confederacy. the british of course didn't agree with that under international law, should spur legitimate articles of commerce and trade. the british didn't actually find the ships in british territory. the confederates are very smart about this. they managed to acquire the ships so under the radar and sell them outside british territory and then armed them from splash chips. but still, the british were interested after the war and recovering better relations with the united states in putting the whole thing behind them. and so they allowed it to go to


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