tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN May 9, 2016 11:40pm-12:01am EDT
with the creation of large state armies it is indeed a reprivatization, people who study mercenaries now, the for-profit military service providers have made much the same argument that we should think about this as a reprivatization. the the book talks about that and i concur. more detail about the independence, the independence it refers back to the army's decision in the 1990s to pull back from its promise to take care of its own and instead emphasizing many of its support programs self-sufficiency. that self-sufficiency self-sufficiency came through retooling programs like family support and family readiness. readiness and pulling back then on the amount of support that is offered. it came to a new program called army family teambuilding which emphasized very much the responsibility of spouses and families to serve the military and know the military rather than to have the military helping them.
and through a variety of other things. today i see the echoes of it and the emphasis on resilience. so we could talk more about that because i think we are running out of time, i think it is a very important theme in military social welfare. >> on that note we have to draw this to a close, the conversations can continue at a reception afterwards. please note that the book is available outside for purchase. please please join us next week for our final session of this year's washington seminar with albert jones of saint anthony college talks about crimes against the security of the nation, world war ii the cold war and the evolution of mexico's laws. thank you thank you to our audience, thank you to jennifer [applause]. >> thank you.
[inaudible conversation] [inaudible conversation] [inaudible conversation] >> on capitol hill tomorrow the senate judiciary committee looks at the balance between national security, privacy, privacy, and civil liberties in a hearing on the intelligence act. that's life and 9:30 a.m. a.m. on c-span three. a house for the pairs committee looks at the treatment of critical prisoners in vietnam. we'll hear from the wife of a jailed human rights lawyer. >> author of a new book islam is terrorism in europe looks at why people radicalize and how
terrace view western involvement. from new america, this, this is about one hour 15 minutes. >> welcome, i am david sturman senior program associate at new america's international security program. we're going to be here and hear from the dr. senior fellow on research establishment on his latest book which encapsulates the research he has been doing on jihadist terrorism. the book is entitled islamic terrorism in europe. it is also available outside if you would like a copy. i'm sure he would be happy to send them afterward.
without further do, i turn it over to you to give us your presentation. >> thank you. >> so first of all i want to express my gratitude to new america and to peter bergen for giving me this opportunity to present my new book on jihadist terrorism in europe. the historical study. also think you david for organizing the events and moderating after my presentation. the book is based on within 12 years of research at the research establishment and it is with the harrison research group. i think one of the main value
add of this book compared to many other books on terrorism in general and also on terrace and she had a terrace in europe is the historical dimension of course. like the paris and brussels lately have historical roots both in and out of europe. you think it's important that we base our understanding and also think about counter policy, but when we do that we need to take into account the historical dimension. so the book examines jihadist terrace from 1994 and 2015. i gather information about more than 150 terrace and study more than 40 of them in detail.
i look at the biographies of the terrorists, how they are radicalized, and how they join forces to launch an attack. i examine in detail what they say, what they have said, what they have done on their road to militancy. i also look at how they operate, today i will focus on how terrace groups are formed which is the main part of the book. the book starts with the attempt by the al qaeda linked gia and to down in jet over paris. that was in 199595 and the bomb campaign the following year. or 1994 to 1995. i and the book with the attacks on charlie had to.
the slide shows the number of blocks per year, when i talk about plots i talk about failed, foiled and executed attacks by individuals and groups that could be defined as g heidi. by g hottie i refer to anything that emanates from the arab foreign fighter movement of the african jihad groups and also ideology. what i aim to explain in the book is basically what drives g heidi in europe. i want to explain why and how these terrorist strike, when and where they do. also by doing that i want to shed light on what goes on within the network more generally.
this overview of plots per year gives some indication as to why plots occur. it is also racism in questions about the perception for the term homegrown. we can see that the number goes up in an arm's in the country such as the jury and civil war in the mid- 1990s, the iraq war in 2,032,004, an overview there. also we see in uptick in plots in connection with the syrian uprising. i also find the escalation in the israeli-palestinian conflict may also have affected the threat pattern.
as may arrest of g hottie leadership figures within europe. i say this both because these events coincide in time but also because qualitative analysis of what perpetrators have said indicate. the only event inside europe that seems to have profoundly affected attack activity was the da'esh cartoons that were published in 2005. there is substantial increase in the number of plots in scandinavia following the cartoons. most of these plots were aimed at people and institutions involved in the cartoons. if you look at the distribution of plots in europe over time, it has been france and the u.k. that have been most exposed. france and the u.k. are the main
enemies of the jihad he's in europe. but what's interesting is in the period following the mohammed cartoons from 2005 and 2013 receipt the number of plots in scandinavia, mainly denmark actually is higher than the number plots in france. france is widely considered the archenemy of jihadists in europe. this event in scandinavia effected and it indicates the six that it is a homegrown driver. that's a difficult question. because many of the people were involved in plots to avenge the cartoons were under influence by pundits, jihad he leaders, al
qaeda's folks leaders and combat zones. they operated within the group of conflicts on so you could also ask the question of homegrown is this dimension of the threat pattern. overall the attacks are linked to western interference it's hardly surprising at all, it's completely in tune with what al qaeda is saying to the strategy and ideology, so this is not something that is surprising at all, however it does not explain terrace sell information. to find out more i explain art network diet namic which is the main focus of my work. so what about the work? nearly all the plot i study can be traced to one and the same
transnational network. this network was formed first in the early 1990s around arab of the african jihad, mainly in london and then it spread across the region. the network expanded to constant interplay with successive groups operating out of conflict zones. i ready mention the gia in the 1990s. various al qaeda affiliates throughout the to thousands and today. the hubs in the network as i interpreted are formed around what i refer to as critical masses of militant activists who have authority, experience and contact. this is where the hubs have been performing in a network. in principle, i argue that hubs may emerge anywhere and under
different circumstances, and they have. not only in suburbs like belgium and brussels, but also in university circles, capitals as well as small towns and even in scandinavian welfare state like norway, my country without suburbs and very few problems related to immigration. when you compare to a country like france. in my work i distinguish between two enter linked generations of terrorists operating in europe. the first generation was dominated by the veterans of the gia and al qaeda's afghan training training camp. this is the first generation. what i refer to as the new generation emerged in the mid to thousands.
in the u.k. and in london. the iraq war was the main mobilizing cause for them. they had a movement which pranced out in europe and it was the main platform for the new generation. most of the foreign fighters in middle east today could be seen as part of the new generation in islam for the movements. so are the people behind the breast attack, i argue however, at the same time first generation veterans of the network remain playing roles in them. in the shadows, behind the scenes in a sense, and also interacting with the new
generation. as an illustration of the network generation of the your pain jihad, this picture is very interesting, it has not been confirmed but it is likely portrayed the coordinator of the paris network embrace by a man named maluku. he was part of the very first g hottie attacks by the algerian in 1995, this picture is most likely taken in syria in 2014, most likely. maluku escaped prosecution attacks in 1995 in five in paris and went underground in belgium. soon from there he was operating support for al qaeda for which he was arrested, transferred to
france, prosecuted and jailed. this is another interesting picture taken by french in the region in the south-central france in 2010. at the left you can see maluku again. and together on the left side you can see one of the brothers charlie in 2015. besides him is another gia veteran who became another recruiter. this man supervised a terrorist network throughout the attack it in the u.s. and europe in 2001 for which he was arrested and jailed.
then there's another man who is linked to the network. i don't have time to go into what is going on here but it is one of the most interesting cases or episodes that i read about in the book. i think it is perhaps the best example of how the generations of european jihad collude in a sense. to explain terrace sell information i identify some reoccurring components. all complex motives, social grievance, as well as political grievance over western interference in muslim countries such as the invasion of iraq, near near and we all of the
terrace had ties to radical before engaging in terrorism. this this is a pattern that is reoccurring. the rather spend time together and socialized in mosques and imprisons, in the sports arena or online. social interaction seems to be highly significant factor in radicalization. it is also reflected in that the examples of people operating as lone wolves are independently some art for a few between in the material i have looked at. it is also the vast majority that at least one person has formed fighter experience. and nearly always there is a link to the conflict zone. this is the pattern. at the same time the scores of
european muslims drug with grievance related to the middle east and europe. a tiny minority of them resulted terrorism. many seek out without becoming terrace. all people meet face-to-face or online without having radicalizing effect on itself. and it's also true that it's a minority among foreign fighters who will want to international terrorism. so this is why i emphasized the injured dynamic of self to explain why it happened when and where they do. which is the main theoretical contribution i try to make in this book. when i studied biographies of terrace plotters i found as peter bergen pointed out work on
the american jihadists that very few generalization, young men dominate the picture but beyond that, exceptions from the stereotype were too many to ignore. many were not jobless losers, many many were not criminals are particularly young, and there is quite a few examples of women involved in relation to plots, historically speaking. i decided to focus on the roles and interpersonal dynamics rather than social profile. for this purpose i developed an ideal type model of a terrorist cell. it is based on my interpretation of what they said and did an how others looked at them. i distinguish between the entrepreneur, the prodigy and