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tv   Book Discussion on The Smartest Places on Earth  CSPAN  May 14, 2016 1:30pm-3:01pm EDT

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[laughter] >> so the backlash was swift and congress enacted the pregnancy discrimination act in 1978. the general electric decision was 76. the pda definitely cleared things up to an extent but two cases that are in the book about pregnancy, three cases in the book about pregnancy are after the pda. it did not clear everything up. >> you can watch this and other programs >> good morning, everyone. hoping you are well. i am delighted to welcome you all, also those of you in the twittersphere, this event is being webcast, we will be taking questions later, they start coming in now.
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use the hashtag artist places. fire up your smart phones if you get a chance. i am mark muro, senior fellow at the metropolitan policy program and my privilege to kick off today's auspicious event. i say our event today is auspicious for several reasons. it is always auspicious to welcome and help launch a book into the world, given it is a red letter day for fred bacher whose excellent book the smartest places on earth is just out and if i do say so, rush to pick up a copy, we have some out beyond the back, on the way out please do that. also two experienced economic observers focusing not on the standard inside the beltway with
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spin cycles, and at brookings, the most fundamental elements of national well-being, r&d and stem worker advanced industries from aerospace, regional technology clusters, regional technology ecosystems, critical, that is part of their focus, and collaborations they accelerate. the fact that cities and regions themselves can become incubators of growth. they traveled the world for decades, now come back to embrace the local, granular and micro-blooge i find this a welcome directive for the disembodied economic debates we specialize in in washington. none of this gets what is the most auspicious aspect of the session which is the fact that
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and one -- antoine van agtmael and fred bakker have good news to deliver. this is a settled brand of good news at a moment many commentators have surveyed the global scene and conclude in that america or at least its industrial tear is done, antoine van agtmael and fred bakker are here to flip the narrative, where conventional wisdom sees crime driven by low-cost mass production in china, antoine van agtmael and fred bakker see reinvention being driven by specialized rust belt cities, increased focus on high technology. others tracked the collapse of mass production of tires and steel, antoine van agtmael and fred bakker see the center of polymer research and all over these growing stature in nanotechnology, others have seen hopelessness, fred bakker and antoine van agtmael have identified a reinvention playbook in which transitioning
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regions have turned local universities into open innovation hubs and civic alliances built promising new injustice strategies in regions, in short antoine van agtmael and fred bakker have traveled america and europe and returned with an optimistic view the dozens of old places are becoming launch plans for the new. i find that extremely exciting. clearly this is a welcome counter to the scary decline that is now dominating the presidential campaigns for example. this is especially noteworthy given antoine van agtmael is a man who when working at the world bank in 1981 coined the term emerging markets. in a previous book declared the onset of the emerging-market century. at that time he wasn't saying it was the beginning of the american century, it was a different century.
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now he is back with a different view as you will see. i would like to introduce our two esteemed offers who as you can see from the agenda will also participate in a panel discussion that will be moderated by brooking centennial scholar bruce -- bruce katz who will introduce the panel after antoine van agtmael speaks. let me introduce antoine van agtmael who will present the book's story and then fred bakker, the co-author, you will meet him shortly. antoine van agtmael, brookings trustee and senior advisor, policy advisor. until recently was the rentable founder and ceo of emerging markets management llc and investment specializing in emerging markets. he is also a supporter of metro program and the office of centennial scholars at brookings. for his part, fred bakker
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specializes in monetary financial affairs with prominent outlook, the financial times, he lives in the wonderful city of amsterdam but enough, we will hear from antoine van agtmael. [applause] >> thank you, mark, for that wonderful introduction. i am glad my wife is here. let me start by saying we could not have written this book -- prepare the presentation, this forum, for the past couple years was really influential in our thinking. brookings, i am talking about bruce, amy, mark, passed
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breaking work on all of this. very good work and we have been standing on your shoulders in making this possible. thank you for that very much. when you listen, let me take this thing here. when you listen to some of the political candidates on the left and on the right, don't you get depressed? when you listen, it sounds like this country has run out of steam on innovation, that our best times are behind us and all we have is problems. as mike already said, that is not what we found. start by saying if you look in the rearview mirror, things look
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bleak. employment down 7 million people. people don't write about the fact that there are 10 million jobs in high-tech injuries -- industries, 4 million jobs were created in that period. what is good is you can see that line at the end is starting to reverse. it was not just competition from my emerging markets. it was also we were doing is much more productively and the devastating impact of the 2008 crisis we are coming out of. but the bad news we found is not the whole story. this book really started when i went to asia and fred had a
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similar experience. i went to asia meeting with many and i have been doing this for 30 years, many entrepreneurs, ceos and what do i hear? i hear them complain about american competition. i have not heard that in 30 years. why were they complaining? labor costs were going up. shell gas was cheap, but the most important thing was they couldn't keep up with american innovation. and so we, after this trip in which we visited a dozen cities all over northern europe and particularly the united states, and there is my daughter, we came to a very different conclusion. the american and northern
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european economies are not on the decline, no. they are in fact regaining competitiveness. why there is a new paradigm, for the last 25 years we have been trying to compete on the basis of making things is cheap as possible, losing battles. certainly against china and other emerging markets. we have learned particularly after the 2008 crisis that it is much better to compete on making things as smart as possible and here we are really good, we have great universities, we have this freedom of thinking that promotes thinking out of the box that is the basis for all real innovation. we have a great legal system and
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so smart innovation is beginning to replace cheap labor as the key competitive edge. this rests on two pillars. the first is what we call sharing brainpower. this is collaboration among university departments, universities climbing out of their ivory towers, and small startups and old legacy businesses and we have seen this all over the country. in the past, things were done on a very hierarchical basis, not very efficient. we learned this from the whippersnappers in silicon valley and cambridge, but it is limited to that. we learned to do things in a
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collegial way. it is no longer close innovation, your own thing but open innovation. it is no longer sideload. today's problems require multidisciplinary solutions. the trustees of brookings, i went to see shirley jackson, from polytechnic institute, she said nothing is invented anymore within academic departments. it is all invented between economic departments. an important lesson. it is no longer top-down. it is bottom up. no longer alone in your garage. it is some collaborative. and finally it is no longer done in isolated research centers, it is done in vibrant innovation
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districts. that is where young researchers like to work as we have seen. the second pillar, we are creating a whole new branch of the economy. had this old industrial expertise. we added new production methods, new discoveries. on top of that, the stuff you are really good at. and while this information technology and the ability, didn't have that ability before to use big data and analyze the big data to help us, and it is connected through a tiny little chip and that is the sensor. that makes various things possible that were never
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possible before. and future is all about connecting and connectedness. take self driving car. this will be a revolution in transportation. my picture here disappeared. self driving car. wearable devices. this will be incredibly important to the future of healthcare. you will wear them. you can even ingest them. the smart grid, fred can tell you a lot about it. all of this was impossible before. this is the smart economy. the combination of the physical
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and digital economy. you might think okay, this is nice. we have lost all these industries. think again. we have new production methods. we have robots. robbie brooks for example of mit with a second-generation robot and north carolina, invented a way to make 3-d printing 1000 times faster so they could not just use that in production, doctor chang of mit who found a new way to make batteries. all of these will make it possible to bring back industries like socks, shirts, shoes. phil knight said they are already making olympic shoes with robots. this is one thing.
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the other interesting thing we found is this innovation we talked about, collaborative innovation is no longer limited to places like silicon valley and cambridge. it has spread all around the country. to more than 30 brain belts we call them, in the united states. to 15 brain belts in europe. let me illustrate with one example. you have heard of akron. would you have thought this was one of the smartest places on earth? maybe not. what did we find? you had four old tire companies gone, practically overnight with the loss of a lot of jobs. a life-threatening challenge. all of what you see is based on
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a life-threatening challenge. then you get the second element, a connector, the president of university, who got people together, to collaborate because they had no other choice. what stayed in akron didn't disappear, was world-class polymer research that gave us contact lenses that change color when you have diabetes, tires that drive on all kinds of road conditions and i needed for the self driving cars and i can give you hundreds more inventions, they have 1000 little polymer companies that have more people working for them than before old
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tire companies. so you have a life-threatening situation in universities. it is always university centered. each of these rust belts that are becoming brain belts have universities with world-class research dealing with problems of our century, no longer simple problems. they are complex expensive challenges that require multidisciplinary approaches. there is an openness forced by reality and necessity to share brainpower. they have a connector and an infrastructure that retains talent and the infrastructure includes affordable housing. that is why people move from silicon valley to other places like akron or whatever. finally of course you need
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access to capital. these are the key characteristics. albany, new york, did you know in albany, new york, outside the nanotechnology complex and leadership of the former christian fighter from lebanon who became a great physicist, they are at the forefront of silicon valley research. global foundries have thousands of employees working in one of the most modern plants in the world. i was in the clean room, that little machine cost $1 billion. the most modern machine to make semi conductors in albany, new york. the research triangle is here. let me tell you a story on the sidelines, the old rookie strike factory, no more secrets being made there. now it is an incubator in a very lively place. portland, oregon, the old waterfront, phil knight gave
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$500 million and brought together the university with intel that was already there and together they do things they couldn't rule on and now you have basically the university brought back from the mountain to the city, to make my dutch heart warm, bicycles. from light bulbs to the world's smartest cities, the old phillips and now you have technical university that became really an open innovation platform. 30 places from all over the world, two thirds of them former rust belts and in europe 15 as well. we describe in detail ten of those in our book, rust belts,
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building on forgotten strength. you couldn't be at brookings without some policies so let's go through them. there are a whole bunch more. the first is this. we are measuring it with 20th century statistics. we have to stop doing this. we are miss measuring our productivity. google search is not one of the statistics. we have to find a better way to do this. second point is terribly important. why is there all this anger in the country? a number of people cannot find jobs after they lose them in this new world. we have to develop programs of training for jobs based on a really good model which is the german work-study model. it is a great model. we could do it. we probably will.
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we have to reward sharing brainpower through the grants we give. support and build innovation districts, build political support for more basic research. the united states does two thirds of basic research but we have to keep doing it or we lose out. finally venture capital has the leeway not to make profits the next day because they invest in social media. more leeway to invest for the long term. in conclusion as you can see, fred and i are optimistic. we think the united states and northern europe has a very good future. innovation is not dead. competitiveness is not dead. in fact we are regaining it. maybe the best way to sum it up is if you look outside it is no
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longer winter in america. spring is coming back. thank you. [applause] >> could i get a welcome for polly? >> i am bruce katz from brookings. how does that work? i am just playing around here. absolute pleasure to moderate the panel. an absolute pleasure in this season of despair to be optimistic about the future of our country and the future of many similarly situated cities in europe. fred bakker and antoine van agtmael have done all of us a great service. almost like it is a hopeful
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book. it takes two dutchmen to come to america and remind us what we have. very very helpful. two other people on the panel i will give a brief introduction. they are two of the top economic development thinkers and practitioners in the united states. rebecca bagley is vice chancellor for economic partnerships at the university of pittsburgh. she took us on a tour last week. if you want to feel optimistic about america, go on a tour with rebecca bagley. she worked for nor attack, northeast ohio, pennsylvania state government. i may have a question about that. really the iconic science park in the united states prior to that, worked with clemson, north carolina state. these folks are at the cutting edge. i want to start with fred
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bakker. four years ago, mark and i took a trip to the netherlands, you took up -- i never heard of that before. neither had mark. we had a remarkable day. we saw a turnaround story, electronics at the heart of the city had lost tens of thousands of jobs to asia. 15 years, this is a city that voted one of the most innovative cities in the world. what happened? >> the short version is a long story. originally was built around the one you mentioned. now a subsidiary of the portland
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base. they came in the 1990s. phillips announced they would ship their manufacturing across country. and have 30,000 jobs. in the same year, they went broke. there was a horrible scenario. for the netherlands. phillips is a phenomenon. we are proud of them. we are critical. dutchmen are always critical. they are also proud. it was a trauma. there were people who went quietly. they thought of a very ambitious
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plan. to make from that region high-tech hotspot on a specific item that is building high-tech machinery. how do they do it? technology is too complex so people knew you had to collaborate. in sharing brainpower you need collegial teams but there was a problem at the time, the companies and the university, and nearby communities were all side load, hierarchically
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organized and if you want to build the multidisciplinary teams you had to break them and there was not one connector. early this century, the ceo of philips took the greatest step to open up the silo, the research lab, it was similar to bell labs and there was much resistance from people around phillips, but he offered it up and did something more. he invested a lot of money in building an open high-tech campus. he put his own research on that campus, opened up facilities for startups and invited companies
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to put part of their research. and all over the world working on campus. with technical university, and to the companies. what are the skills our students need to pass those jobs. so with the information from those enterprises, able to break out of those silos that were inside those universities and the first step was taken by the mayor, it was not eindhoven alone anymore.
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they were 21 other communities. like philips healthcare, doing their research and manufacturing. so instead of fighting each other, he invited them and gave up this proposal to spot a foundation. ..
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when we go to parts of the united states you see one of these actors and then they'll tell you, when you see so and
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so, half of what they're saying isn't right. the biggest surprise to me was what you now call sharing braun power -- brain power, but in almost a frightening way. how much there was a consistency of focus and vision, and by the way, the high-tech campus that we now know from the book in 2014, had 50% of the patents of the netherlands. this is relatively small. but the synergy and the open innovation is really working. so that's what my main takeaway watches by the end of the day you had convinced me. antoine. you coined the term "eamericanning market." you must be receiving a lot of e-mails and phone calls from some of your former colleagues, what happened? describe the transformation. >> what i always say is that
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i -- moynihan said we're all entitled to our own opinions. we're not entitled to our own facts. so when i look back at the americaning market century, still think we live in the emerging market century because the center of gravity of the global economy continues to go toward thursday emerging markets. it's no longer the american but the emerging consumer that is king. that stayed the same. i had a third point in the book and that was cop -- competitiveness is shifting to emerging mark. that's where i changed my mind. competitiveness is shifting back. some people don't like that but facts are the facts. i'm an analyst like you're on analyst, and you call the issues as you see it. >> some other questions in terms of the acceptance of this perspective, both in the netherlands and other parts of
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europe. you're an observer of the american political scene like a reality tv show. to what extent do you feel local policymakers, national policymakers, broader networks of civic and university and business leaders, accept this premise, either in the netherlands or some other country? >> depending on the parties you look at. the established parties under it, and they also see -- understand it and also see the challenges. our whole social system is -- one of the main conclusions for me is that the situation we describe is bottom-up development, and all the policies of the past 30, 40
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years, are vertical. and you see in -- it is not working anymore. so they are involved with people in our capitol city who changed that and that's a positive thing. you see the risk, the same in europe as here in the united states, that globalization is felt by certain groups of people who find -- they feel threatened, and there are politicians who are -- well, -- try to picture a future in which we can go back and close our own
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borders, and become -- we are in a process of uniting in the e.u. and people thing of the old days, that we have a sovereign government, we have didder and not a euro and the deutschemark and not the euro. people are lost. there's not yet a new identity. and they are looking for the new identity. and a growing group is thinking that turning back is the solution, and i completelitive agree. -- i completely disagree. >> i want to add something to that. i live in washington, and you hear everybody bash washington and we describe this process as really a process that is
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bottom-up. people are not waiting for washington anymore. but, but, -- this is a little-known secret -- the environment that makes all of this possible, all of this collaboration possible, was created by washington. 1980, the bayh-dole act said you can take research funded by the federal government and universities and researchers can use this and profit from it. well, they did. and that is what made silicon valley possible. where did google come from? a national science foundation grant. how did we get to the moon? by an earlier form of collaboration. so the government has a part of it and then who is the most innovative venture capitalist in the united states? it's darpa. why do we have a self-driving
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car, because darpa did a competition that allowed stanford to participate and then google bought the whole team. here you see the collaborations, often by buying and stealing and then collaborating, but places like darpa and intel are -- the act was absolutely critical importance. >> i want to come back to that. want to bring rebecca and bob into the conversation. if you listen to antoine and fred and the words they're using, the connections, the connectors, connectedness, brain-sharing, in many respects the institutions you work at now are almost the antithesis of this. it's like a group of isolated companies out of 7,000 acres of pine forest. >> pine trees and possum. >> and university of pittsburgh, and upnc and carnegie mellen, an
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old academic tradition that antoine described as breaking down, and the discipline is within the discipline. is this shift happening? in your institutions and how is it manifesting itself? start with rebecca. >> so, yes. a short answer, it is happening. i think it's interesting because the connected network that we have been talking about, they heavy have been fast in the industrial time of pittsburgh when steal was large. it was that top down you talked about. so 15 guys or 25 guys in a room and decided the critical things for community. it was important to collaborate. one of the big changes is the complexity of the economies, which is a good thing. has created the need to really
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look at connectedness and look at opportunities very, very differently. one of the things that pittsburgh did with the crash of steel and when the economically basically overnight fell apart, they really had the foresight to bring together the university leadership, the government, the industry, all together, instead of just looking to industry or one segment to solve it. and they really re-invented the economy through that town. now i think we're in an accelerated rate of transformation, and pittsburgh, and actually it's a moment in time for our connectors, our sort of networks, are sifting very dramatically. really over the last year and a half, where we're seeing an
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influx of young people. google has outside of silicon valley, located in pittsburgh. their autonomous vehicle work is there. an explosion of companies moving in, of neighborhoods pushing out so places you could not go into ten years ago, you know, have a dynamic technology hub. and talk puget sound what it used to be like and what is it, i think we are in this accelerated transformation stain of the networks -- universities play a critical row. there's $1.2 billion in research. we can't keep that inside the institution. it really needs to benefit not only pittsburgh but i think the other revolution is -- evolution is we are globally connected.
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we have global influence, global connections, and we really need to take advantage of that for the region and share the knowledge with the globe. >> like rebecca said about her region, it was a very deliberate decision in north carolina in the 1950s. a very deliberate public policy decision to develop a research park, and it was described at the time as very audacious because not only were 49th out of the 50 states well-can't have any comparison. stand standard was only a couple years old -- stanford was only a couple years agoment but there was deliberate and conscious agreement where the gunfight would -- the government would fund infrastructure. we have always operated as private, not for profit, create meaningful work and lift up the
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people of north carolina. that's our job. then there were the universities who were basically instructed to educate a work force, and what we're seeing today -- i think this is where the creative energy -- i think it really is more energetic than anything else -- a shifting away from the top-down or more directed approach, to one that is wildly more organic, and it is hard for people to sort of let go of that in some ways, and i think we're beginning to see that in rtp itself. we're taking a 7,000-acre site -- that about half the size of the island of manhattan -- we don't have a starbucks anywhere here. think about that. we may be the only 7,000-acre site in the world but we were not designed to be that way. and so there's this interesting idea of, well, do you -- how much do we master-plan it and
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site-plan and it how structured can it become? in many ways the most exciting things we're doing is opening it up for wild interpretation, and letting the actors create their own play, and that is becoming very exciting. it's very innovative in terms of changing the old model. it's very disrupted. but it's also creating the great opportunity for amazing convergence, and in a park like rtp that isn't -- we're not a bio park. we have all those technologies. 60% of the company here have 20 employees or less so people think -- you have this great big pot of things going on, and now when you start connecting them, the convergence opportunities are huge. so it really is about letting go of the older structure and letting it be much more organic.
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>> let's follow up on that point. antoine and fred should come in seems like as we move towards this open innovation space, which requires collaboration, requires people to really engage seamlessly with each other, where reinforcing and validating cities in a way, right? proximity. density, vie -- vibrancy. when i was in pittsburgh i saw the neighborhood beginning to change to something that looks like a city you. got a much bigger challenge in the park, right? how do you think about placemaking as it reinforces innovation? >> so, we're sort of the hole in the doughnut. we have a great city in raleigh, a great city in durham, and
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chapel hill --, which is villag- >> we're going to get a text from chapel hill. they are a village -- >> we have this growing region all around us. i was just at the future of suburbia, and the whole conversation is we love what is happening in our cities. remember, the cities were dead 30, 40 years ago. i believed in why rtp was successful in the 1950s and '60s is because everybody was leaving the city and didn't want to be part of that. but we can't let the suburbs -- the suburbs have to be re-invenned and we have to rethink the way they work. so i think there are three things going on. yes, urbanity matters because it creates fun activities and engagement. but if you look at silicon
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valley outside of san francisco you have a lot of suburbs but there you have tremendous element of culture around risk-taking. it's okay to fail and start over. one of me favorite places i visited was the imagination studios of walt disney which are still in the same studio he nicked 1956 therapy. highly innovative in tump products but what drives them is not urbanity, is brand. people who worked for disney, would have worked for disney to matter where it was. so you have to think in your own space what is the way you can embrace? is it your brand or your urbanity, your culture? whether it's suburban or urban, ultimately you have to embrace what is true and authentic and genuine to you, and really celebrate that, and i think the placemaking is so important but
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not important devoid of the people. >> respond what the people want. give them a chance to shape and it own it, and you will be amazed what will happen and that's something we can do in america, and in western europe. not as easy in a lot of other cultures in the world and that's where our great optimism lies in our future and our economy, the sense of freedom and exploration and the dynamic nature that is part capitalism and part democracy. i think are things that can't be duplicated in some places of the world that have strong economies but aren't necessarily the most innovative places. >> bruce, we have done it before. bill lap was a fantastic -- bell lab was a fantastic meshing and really friction of brain power, and how did we get the jet engine?
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how did we get to the moon? it's always through this collaboration. we sometimes forgot about collaboration, and if we make that a focus, as you are very much doing now, i think it will make a real change -- not will -- it is making a real change. >> i think one of the things that came up last week in pittsburgh was relationships and transactions and we were thinking about -- there's those relationships that you get through the synergy and through the work and a lot of things are built on relationshipses but there's also a lot of things you can transactionally now. an example somebody gave at the meeting was if i needed a prescription quick i used to call a doctor friend i know now and now i go on upmc and e-mail any doctor and they'll write me the prescription, assuming it's within my medical plan. so i thought it was -- you didn't have to use that
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relationship anymore. so, i also think that an overlay of all of this is not necessarily top-down but one of the systems that you're putting over this to enable not only the regional and the placemaking but the global connectivity, and we need to not only thing about these collaborative spaces but how to create the system for that to scale. >> that's a great point. by the way, if you visit upmc it's not for the faint of heart. i saw a mouse having open heart surgery and i'm still recovering. >> i was going to ask the question because -- i'll just make a statement. you go back to your state government being the vanguard of creating one of the most innovative spaces the world, and then at your state government today -- >> thank you for bringing that up. >> we all know what is happening
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in north carolina, if not, just like at the "new york times" this morning. perhaps we don't need to dwell on that. one last question before opening it up to the audience. all this innovation and collaboration and openness work for a broader segment of our citizen russian from employment and jobs, particularly in the core cities. if 0 you go to most of these innovation hubs in the united states and walk five blocks you're in an area of high poverty, high deprivation. are those connections being made. >> guest: n do we have the right tools? do we have the right system? >> i just think there's a whole series of exciting policy opportunities around that, abuse i think that -- because i think that in fact the hardest thing for universities and for cities and traditional people doing economy. development, is how to measure that. it's so organic and so dynamic, and most these institutions only
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get rewarded based upon a more specific set of data points. so, one of the things i think institutions like universities need, and others, is how do you begin to evaluate whether or not you're seeing success out of that? that's a whole set of policy questions, i think. i think we also look at economic development in the past as event oriented and structured our governors and others to celebrate the singular event. the 400 or 500 new job. the truth is the whole economy is far more dynamic than that today. we're going to see companies grow and lose employment and doesn't say anything about the place you live. and economic development is less about specific events and much more about a longer term process. so, how you reaction to those new pieces and the policies that you need, both in cities and in
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universities and in government, to really take advantage of that process-oriented approach. >> bruce, clearly the answer to your question is, not yet. >> right. >> i mean, clearly, a lot of people feel left behind. and they have good reason to feel left behind. because there is this -- we are no longer in an era of job losses. that's the past. that's the rearview mirror. because just as we lost seven million jobs, we created 4.4 million jobs. there are 10 million jobs now in this high-tech sector. brookings research has shown these are not just jobs for ph.ds and college graduate, but by the way that employment has grown. half of the jobs -- if i remember the numbers -- are for people with post secondary skills. the problem is those who have less than postsecondary skills.
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we need to activate and, durham, you're doing that. the community colleges to go back to what they were founded for. not to get you into college. if you can, fine. but to work together with corporations, to work together with the government, and finally there is going to be -- for those left behind, in the end, this is not an economic issue. in the end this requires a political solution. do we as a country have the guts and the sense of solidarity to do that? and that is at the moment very much an open question. >> i think in economic development we really embraced rising tides lifts all boats, for many, many years, and i think over the last year or so, too, there's been a real rocky mission and i think it's still
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evolving and changing but that's not working. certainly lifted some boats but did not lift all boats. so dedicated strategies and staying connected in communities where you can connect to the new economy, and a lot of the work i have done, we're leveraging the work that already happens at the university of pittsburgh -- a current example -- we have a social work program, we have pharmacy programs, dental programs. they're working in the communities, connecting and bringing opportunities for next economy, where appropriate. i think that's an incredible way of a university that we can tie that in. so, i think working with the people that are already working in those neighborhoods, and figuring out how work force development -- what are the needs, educating parents, so that they're counseling their children in a way that leads
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towards opportunities in the next economy. those are some of the things we have been working on, but i think there's definitely recognition that rising tide does not necessarily lift all boats and you need dedicated strategies to do that. >> to add something to the remarks of antoine about solidarity, i think that's a big difference between united states and europe. that in europe, in this point, local communities, companies, are -- have set up programs, work study programs, and more part of our culture and our structure, and that doesn't mean that people are not feeling left out. that's the same in europe as well. so we have to put a lot of effort in it. it's a very important middle class group that is needed and
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that must not be left to its own. >> just strikes me what antoine said, as we looked at the innovation hubs in the united states and europe, increasingly latin america, asia, they're not just platforms for economic technological product or process innovation. what we see happening is social innovation. the community colleges are collocating. labs are opening. pre-k opportunities for people in the community are being launched. it's much more substantial social effort going on than i think is well understood, and we're just early into that. >> i think we'll open it up. we'll start over here, and just state your name and then provide a question, not a statement, and then there are some folks on
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twit aerosphere who may want to send their thoughts as well. >> the flight from the cities caused land values to collapse and this creatorred opportunities for startups that are risk averse and don't have cash. a lot of cheap rent was probably key to this happening. so what extent is there the danger that land speculators will move in, jack if rents and kill the goose that lays the golden egg. >> that's an interesting challenge. we have rising housing confidents in pittsburgh, and i do think it's -- somebody said earlier, affordable housing will be a key element, and to making sure that it is sustainable.
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we still have a lot of opportunity to work in certain neighborhoods, housing situations that could be very affordable and could happen with what is going on in the neighborhood. a lot more development needs to happen. that's a very high-class problem to happen for a city that has been in decline, and we're not, at least in pittsburgh, at the point where we'll have that problem really, really soon, although we are seeing in the most coveted neighborhoods very high -- the prices going up. >> i think one of the most exciting things that the suburbs have to offer -- if you look at rtp, we purchased -- the foundation purchased 100 acres, two years ago, and on that was half a million square feet of
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old, 1980s buildings. the first thought was, let's tear them down. and then me wife and i -- give detroit my wife, always has the best idea dish she says take one of them. one criticism about the park is you're not able to get young people back in. she said open up the space. so we opened the space, called it the frontier, and book ended the pie years, dreamers, believers. we made the whole first floor of the space completely open. there's nothing precious about it. i say to people in the real estate business the day of marbles and ferns is done. keep it flexible and affordable. we dead some fun things in the lobby, but the space is completely full. over 30,000 people use it over the last year. it's completely open to anybody who comes in the door. you don't have to have membership or anything. what happens is we have teachers
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mixing with artists and meeting with startups and we have a bunker, an entrepreneur group. a shared newsroom collaborative for journalists and free lancers and bloggists and it's one of the hottest co-working spaces. so i think it doesn't take anything away from our urban, but let's be honest. we have all these build nugget the suburbs issue we can't tear them down. we have to think about recycling them. the question is how too we do that and also connect everything everybody wants in terms of services. most of these are located in island but it's an opportunity where suburbs, play a role. >> transportation comes, too. >> i must say coming from a very small country like holland, i'm always surprised how vast the spaces are, and as a businessman
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i learned first you fix what needs to be fix and then worry about what can go wrong ten years from now. >> university city in philly. philly is 138 square miles. university city is one square money. mid-town detroit, downtown detroit, seven square miles. jobs flew out of these cities. so the days of marbles, ferns fountains are done. no more trump towers. >> thank you very much. i'm paula stern, congratulations to the authors. the gig economy. didn't hear it once, and i think about the jobless match, which you talked about. how do we fill in the blanks besides affordable housing, for those who are in the gig economy and move around?
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and also would love it if you would address places like portland, maine, doesn't have large university, and -- >> great food, to the. >> exactly. and very attractive from all the other demographics you described here today and doing a lot of the same things. they better hurry up unless you have some other answer and that's what i'm asking. >> answer on the gig. >> on portland, first of all, phil knight gave 100 million -- from oregon. i asked -- >> i asked about maine. >> i don't know enough portland, maine. you're not going to turn every little town into a brain belt. there's lots of work to be done in lots of different places. but to know we have gone from basically two spots where things were happening to already 30
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spots where things are happening, that's already a very big change, and so this will grow if you see -- talking about batesville, mississippi and this will spread and spread. >> in north carolina, we have a rural economy that is struggling tremendously. there is no way that the success of the research triangle region in charlotte can carry the whole state. so, we need -- we talk to these communities -- one thing we talk about is, one, leveraging your community colleges. they're tremendous. number two, public university system has an obligation to serve the state. connect to them. it doesn't have to be physical. you have the virtual world. you can connect elm universities
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would love to do more connections. take advantage of that. number three, if you want to create an rtp zone that's 50 years old. what you have to do is go back leveraging your own assetes. what is lovely about your communitily. sadly many communities have physical ton the walmart and the suburb approach, where they're starting to look like everyplace out but they have to look back, what defined the character of your location and embrace that. not everyone entrepreneur wants to live downtown. some like to live in places connected to the world, and brook examination other policy placeses -- brookings and other policy places can help provide communities a set of things to strive for, the measures they can reach for. many of them need the tools and
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resources. we won't get everybody but we can get some. >> the example of leveraging -- i moved from oberlin, ohio to pittsburgh. oberlin doesn't have a research institute but have a strong university, but i really leveraging their reputation as sustainability, of liberal town, into entrepreneurial co-working spaces, sustainable focus. that might be a model to look at if you're passionate. >> i think portland, maine is it a great entrepreneurial states. but it does not have state government, literally. there's no state government in the state of maine. question over here. >> i'm -- great panel. when i think about the geographic features, rust belt cities in america, they're
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inland, sufficiently high elevation, access to fresh water. to what extent do you think rust belt cities can leverage their resilience to climate change to compete now and in the future with the coast and the sun belt? >> i think it's a huge opportunity. harkening to my cleveland experience. we started the cleveland water alliance. to really leverage some of the assets there. there's a path for the great lakes states with the governors on climate change and climate issues. it's definitely a challenging issue. you saw huge manufacturing region, still a lot of the old industry. you really need to figure out how to bring policies together that can both embrace that -- that's the bread and butter of a lot of the regions. while you can take advantage of the assets like fresh water and
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other assets we have, but i do think we -- and the other thing is, we talked about this. i think the cities are cool. they just have that -- the history of that movement, of that industrial look and feel, and then the rennovated spaces. some of the newer towns just can never capture that. so just as a quick side note. >> at rtp we're obviously nowhere near the ocean and we have lakes but we don't have a port there, but if you look at the park, one of the things our -- is interested is, is organic food and natural growth, and as we look at climate change, how do we take better advantage of the land we have and use that efficiently. so within our research park we're can go us, all the green grass we're mowing, can we turn
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those into garden spaces and make that living experience and can the food in our restaurants from out of the park? this gets back to regulatory issues that don't give communities the ability to be that flexible and that's where we can do some work as well locally to make it possible for to us be more creative and imaginative within our urban and suburban spaces. >> rebecca we should have called the book from from hot spots to cool spots. >> i have some twitter questions here. >> this is a question from laura, 'owho is a staff writer at industry week. will the new job friday these cities approach the number of jobs lost to offshoring and automation? >> i think, again, brookings has done more research on this, but
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will it? yes. has it? no. this takes time. we did a lot of outsourcing. we did a lot of damage. and to repair damage you don't do overnight, but as i said, we have an economy now that is 10 million, 10 million, of high-tech jobs, advanced industries, et cetera. and that's a lot of jobs. and when we went around -- there are lots of anecdotal examples. in portland, oregon, you go to a place that was one of those rennovated places. used to be a factory where they made ropes for the boats. and about 350 people working there. gone. empty. drug use in the lobby. now it's a new building, lawyers
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and small companies, everybody sharing brain power and now 400 people working in the building. it takes time. >> just to build on that question, let talk about the elephant in the room, china. is this changing our relationship with china? rebecca, you talked to me last night about this very interesting partnership that you picked on how that's beginning to really evolve. are we now talking about a new collaborative relationship with chinese companies and industries? >> i think we can have an incredibly cooperative relationship. we have a deep history of the university of pittsburgh in 2011 helped the university in china start their medical school. so we have at any one time 20 to 40 medical students on our campus, working with our -- in
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our research labs and with our researchers. so that's the relationship created the opportunity that now has technology commercialization and transfer discussion so we signed an mou with -- just a few months ago with the university and with test park, related park, and with our offer to be able to really connect opportunities that need -- because life sciences -- so we employment markets and where consumers are and regulations, is slight his different, and also chinese could i entrepreneurs entering the u.s. market. we are talking about leveraging the relationship even more, to really create this global connection. so i think those relationships that you can look for that can be creative, that can have your
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connector role, but not just in your community but across the globe, can really help us leverage. >> bruce, just as we said in the book, don't count out the old economies. don't count out china. this is a really important country for the future, and will remain a really important country for the future. what i found interesting what when we published our -- when we had the book ready, it went to the frankfurt book fair, and the publisher called me and said i've never seen this. on the first they the book wag brought for translation. asked, by whom? the chinese. they got it. they have been the manufacturing center of the world. now they're just a manufacturing center of the world. they get this, that they know deep down in their hearts that there are very, very good. much better than we are at thinking inside the box.
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now how to see there's a threat from thinking outside of the box and there's a bit of glass ceiling. and believe me, i've seen this transformation in china. they'll catch on fast. >> last question. right over here. >> sorry, twitsphere. >> thank you very much for a great presentation. i'm a former world bank and intelligence community and state department person. you did-i think, mention driverless cars, and the current issue of the economist magazine there's an article on china's progress in pioneering driverless cars. and chinese is also very good biotechnology. so what does this kind of competition offer to rust belt centers? >> the sands of competition shift all the time. read that article. and, sure, they're beginning to
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develop the expertise. but going has been at it for ten so -- ten years so much when it comes to really smart products, i think the united states and to some extent various european places, have an enormous head start because of this sharing of brain power. what we sometimes forget is that political revolutions are noisy and bloody. economic revolutions kind of creep up on you, and this is what is happening now. what we're seeing is an economic revolution. we just don't get it yet. just think how you learned to live with your smart smartphone. how you don't go to the library to look something up in a book. no, you do it right in your pocket. it just happened and you didn't
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even notice it. it's a revolution. >> i will tell you, working in the research triangle park you have people say to you all the time, what do you think about what they're doing and china? or what do you become about what they're doing in boston or silicon valley? >> and we get -- >> look, teddy roosevelt said it best. comparison is the seed of joy. you can sit around and obsess about this. just get on with it. just get on with doing stuff. make a difference. work with people. make things happen. it will -- i'm a great optimist and a great -- and i just believe that i have faith in the people and your effort, make your investments and just get on with and it things will happen. >> i want end on an affirmative note and bring rebecca into this. rebecca was art of the effort --
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>> safe, science and technology. >> they came up with a fictional federal policy or federal program or set of federal initiatives that probably everyone in this room would support and. build directly out of this book, and then the polled this fictional program. and what were the poll numbers. >> incredible. >> i stopped with the name of the program, innovation science technology for economic prosperity, and basically university research, the commercial engine, and i could get those things out, and then the intermediary organizations, we have been talking about and polled a lot of different elements of that in battleground states it was 92% approval rating, 87% across the whole. and then interesting thing is we said, would you pay for it? and then the most different one
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we tried was gasoline tax. they would pay tax to found increased research development and increased commercialization so it was really interesting. gibb both democratic and republican polling agencies, and the whole polling methodology. so, i think it's an incredible opportunity to be able to leverage the -- innovation advocacy council, now that we formed, with that polling dat into these conversations, and i end with the book. think we have been talking about these types of things for a long time, and i think the book gives a lot of credibility in the way that antoine wrote it to be able to bring back to our city governments and city leaders and be able to talk about what needs to happen as we accelerate this
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transformation. >> the era of cheap is over. the era of smart has begun. thank you, panel. [applause] [inaudible conversations] >> you're watching booktv on c-span2. television for serious readers. here's a look at what is on african-american tonight: we kick off at 7:00 p.m. ewith former fda commissioner david
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kessler, talk about the history of mental suffering. then at 7:45, former u.s. assistant secretary of state argues liberals have abandoned their core principles, and at 8:45, historian on his biography of entertainer paul robinson the u.s. relationship with haiti and the dominican republic. then a discussion on income inequality. the book is "equal is unfair," and then at 11:00, a veteran who talks about theodore roosevelt's citizenship in a public address. that happens tonight on c-span2's booktv. >> retired army colonel patrick murray, why did you write a book. >> i spent 25 years in the army. i was honored to do that. and then ran for congress and that was my proverbial, look behind the curtain and it scared
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me straight with the state of our political system. and when you look at polls about three-quarters of americans are unhappy with the direction their country is going in with government, and i as a constitutional conservative, count myself as one of those, and i believe that comes from the fact that our founders set up this system where the individual has the starring role and government plays a supporting role, but it's sort of flipped on its head, and that led me to the title of the book "government this problem" because i believe our government has gotten way too big and i believe both political parties, career politics on -- politicians on beat size of the aisle, facilitate that and you're seeing that play out right no in the republican primary in the fact that so much of the conservative base is rallying around someone with no political experience, completely outside of the republican establishment. >> host: is that a good thing? >> guest: i think it's a very good thing. think the republican party needs
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to have this crucible. we already have one party of big government. the democratic party. that's what they espouse. the republican party as ostensibly is supposed to be the party that is intellectual descendent of our founding fathers and she be channeling mill to be freeman and stan for limit government but they don't. you can go to back to the two terms of president george h.w. . bush, we had a republican controlled senate and house, double the debt. created a gnaw entitlement. we created a new government agency. they're not governing as conservatives, and i think that's what led to this situation now. >> host: when people talk about, colonel murray, constitutional conservative. what exactly does that mean? what is a real life example of that? >> guest: i'm a real life
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example of that. i have stopped calling myself a republican, even though i am a conservative. i'm a constitutional conservative. it's very simple. i believe our constitution is something along the lines of our owner's man -- manual as a nation when i zuo to support and defend the constitution, there's no statute of him takes on that -- limitations on that. our politicians do the same something, and to me being a constitutional conservative meaned adhering to that. limited government. individual liberties, the tenth amendment. we have gotten way away from that out bone sides of the aisle because our career politicians have broken the code that the bigger, the more powerful, the more extensive the gordon government is, the better for their incumbent si, so they're supporting and defending they're incumbent si as opposed to the constitution. >> host: you refer toker book as
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an after action report on to the 2012 election. >> guest: i do. i started writing that -- whenever you do any kind of mission or objective you finish and write an after action review. you look at what yao did right, and what you did not well and how to improve things. that's what this started as. the more i looked into it, the more i realized i don't believe a political cycleiryou're not happy with the direction the country is going don't think a political cycle finnings that. i don't think electing the next great person fixes that because i think it's systemic, and so that's where i came up with solutions. whenever you do an after action review, you can't just complain. you have to provide solutions, and mine is -- it's right in the constitution. article 5 of the constitution, which affords us the ability to call something called a convention of states whereby the states can propose constitutional amendments separate and distinct from congress and the federal
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government. >> host: what was the self-publishing process like for you? >> guest: well, it was -- i'd never written a book before but never ran for congress before, either. so i had some -- i was blessed with some wise people who have done those things, and so when i found a couple of editors and found this publishing house, there's a step above self-publishing and they were helpful, and so it was about a one-year process to go through the whole thing to write it, edit and it refine it but it was terrific to codify your thoughts and get them down in a book. >> host: retired army colonel patrick murray. the book "government this problem." this is booktv on c-span2, and we are at cpac. >> here's some books published
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this week. greg abbott talks about being paralyzees at age of 36. then a look at the history of the gene. princeton historian examines the history of egalitarianism and partisanship. also being released this week, the exploration of the history of paper and its changing role in the digital age. in the book, drive, a look at the automobile through to the eyes innovate temperatures -- innovators and engineers, and then an investigation of the life of jill gould, believed to be writeing the longest book every written. after he died in a mental health, people said the book wag
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a figment of his imagination. [inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations] >> welcome to book court. wore into excited to welcome louisa thomas in conversation with louisa hall about her new books "louisa." a searching biography of louisa catherine adam. louise shall is the author of two novels.
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-- examines the clash between soldiers and conscientious objectors in world war i. ellis says of louisa, the extraordinary life of mrs. adams, for a long tomorrow i have been waiting for a biographer with sufficient style and emotional range to tell the quite extraordinary story of lieu louisa cath -- catherine adams. please join me in welcoming louisa and louisa. [applause] >> thank you for coming. i'm so happy to be here and talking about the group and glad to be part of this group.


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