tv Book Discussion on Negotiating the Nonnegotiable CSPAN May 23, 2016 7:10pm-8:12pm EDT
i have had my name carried in the street in protest but rascal is new. thank you, i think, tony for that introduction. it is a privilege to be here with you. >> it is a pleasure to be here. thank you to the world affairs council. to be here, i met some members at our embassy, we had had honor of hosting one of the events. it was a great experience. we decided to do it twice. >> it is an interesting evening and interesting days in the news. before we go to the hard stuff, which i am sure will occupy most of the evening, the size of the youth population was mentioned and a great deal of the hope of
afghanistan is in its youth. while you are not quite youth, you are still a representation of the new generation that comes from a different background but has lived through a lot of the tragedy of afghanistan. if you could make a minute to talk about your background. >> in brief, i would say that as child no one believed that would
be in this position. the people of my country gave me the honor of serving in the most important diplomatic position. that is a showing of where afghanistan is. we have had over 30 years of a difficult period but the afghanistan people are hard working and they have turned the table around. today afghanistan is a functioning democracy, it has, as president mentioned, opportunities for our youth, for our population, and the opportunities that we didn't have, we have pulled out selves out of the rubble and built our country. a democracy we continue to build on. >> you and your family went through a lot in the process getting here.
>> the vast majority of afghans suffered through this war. we had to live in refuge camps, leave our homes and homes being destroyed, we have had to live through war, civil war, and a lot of difficult periods. those, whether it was outside of afghanistan, those of us lucky enough to be able to go find shelter outside and those who stayed in the country all went through a very difficult time. we survived it. that is where, i think, the afghan resilience comes to mind. i just shared a story, not to take away from the subject, but a couple months ago a football team won -- well we lost the finals to india in the south
asia cup, but the people were so proud they wanted to go welcome our football team, our heroes. that morning, a bomb exploded outside of the airport. there were threats of a second one. but that didn't stop thousands of afghans to still go and receive oour heroes with great joy. and just a couple hours later, another one did go off. but the message was nothing will stop us. we will rebuild this country. >> i know in the years of dealing with afghanistan, i can hardly think of an afghan friend, colleague or associate, who has not had either
themselves, or in their family, death, torture, imprisonment and keeps going. this last year was another violent year. i think it is important for americans to understand that afghan security forces have more people killed last year alone than america has lost in its 15 years of warfare in afghanistan. it took some hard knocks last year as well lost areas for a while and got them back. what would you say, how you think the security forces in afghanistan will do this year? it is dangerous to pro dict -- predict battle, but people are worried it will fall.
how do you foresee the ability of the afghan forces to make out this year? >> the counterphrase our presidency, in one year it military is now 20 years old. we made huge leaps of progress. coming back to the determination, we have seen so much so despite the upsets last year, i know many people were predicting we would fail. but despite a difficult year, security forces not on the main shore with the enemy doesn't meet strategic objective, of withholding land and capturing land. this year the number of attacks or the amount of attacks that were expected or predicted, reports suggested 75% more than last year.
we were egg able to do this because coordination became better, we had a defensive plan on how to defend our territory, also what is important to understand is the role of transition. last year was the first year where the security forces had to responsibility for securing afghanistan and our territory for the first time ever. we are providing support, and assistance, and fighting shoulder to shoulder with us and all of a sudden we were on our
own. it was a testing time. it was a very difficult time. but we pulled through. we hit rock bottom and on our way out. this year, we are in a better position and i am confidant we will be able at a defeat any attacks that are on our territory this year. >> well the united states seems to have made a rather critical attack this last couple of days. how do you rate what happened? we have not heard much from the pakistani's about this attack which was in a point in pakistan we never attacked and the significant blow of killing the taliban leader. speculation is dangerous so here is a diplomat encouraging another diplomat to speculate, but how much would you like to speculate on what happens as the
result of the death of mansour? >> he was in impediment to piece and we welcome president obama's bold actions to eliminate a person preventing taliban efforts and refusing to respond to the calls for the peace process. it is not just about the action. it gives people hope our most important partner, the united states, is serious about peace in afghanistan. it creates an opportunity to build on that and like those who are leaning toward peace but were prevented from it. it has created a sense of hope in the afghanistan community
knowing that the sancturies provided to the taliban are no longer safe and they will be eliminated no matter where they are. that is a very important step for us in afghanistan. >> if that is really true it would be an important step. personally, i am out of government, i don't speak for anybody but myself, but it wasn't clear from president obama's comments whether we actually have had a change in american policy that will put the sanctuaries under pressure or if this is a one-time action that will not be done again. we have lost a lot of people because of the sanctuaries that
provide medical care and their leaders but i don't know if the american policy has really changed or not. i don't know how much confidence you have in that. >> like you said, speculation is difficult. but what we are hopeful, what the opportunity this event brings to create peace in afghanistan and i think we have extended the hand of peace once again to all of those taliban who might want to take the opportunity and join the afghan-led and afghan-owned peace process. >> you have an interesting possible reinforcement of that with all of the talk about a peace settlement. i know a lot of people are wondering will that settlement
seeming to be almost there, is that going to have an affect on things like the progress woman have made? or the afghan constitution? >> absolutely not. we don't make compromises on our constitution and that has been clear from the beginning. this peace process is to provide an opportunity for those who may have legit grieveiances and if they are willing to drop guns and negotiateate the government would be open to negotiate a peace deal with them. but not at the price of the progress we have made. not at all. >> we often, i am sure you get the question, i get it occasionally, about whether this holds out a threat to the progress that women have made. >> absolutely not. that has been a very clear message that we have always put on the peace process.
we are not ready to compromise on the progresses we have made in the constitution. this has been a message we have always given and we are not just delivering to the deals we are currently making but to the taliban and those willing. i don't think anyone has a problem with the constitution. this is the most islamic constitution a country can have. we are confidant that would not be an issue for at least the progress that women made. it is not -- it is not just the progress that we have made and the gains in the constitution. today, the afghan society is demanding that change. that change has happened because the people want it.
and the people implemented it. the strong women who themselves stood for themselves but the men they accompany. you may remember the case in where the men came out to protest for the woman's right and that is a positive change that cannot be turned back. >> i am happy to hear that and didn't expect to hear anything less. one of the images in my mind when i think of women in afghanistan is one of the pictures from the last election. you probably saw it. there must have been 50 women all in burka's holding up a piece of blue plastic, covering the long line standing in the rain, waiting to get into the polling place to vote. i thought that was such a powerful picture of their
determination. when you look at this evolving demomeracy of afghanistan it is a picture that is so -- democracy -- one hand and the other hand. people get carried away talking about whichever hand they want to shake. it all failed, it is one thing. you have seven million people that voted in the last election despite threats of violence they came out, despite being warned they could be killed or have their fingers cut off if they voted. there is an appetite for democracy which would be very difficult to put back in the bottle. in a sense, for all of the problems afghanistan is more corrupt than any -- not more corrupt, more democratic -- not more corrupt. it has much more competition for
corruption, but for democracy it is clearly more democratic than any one of the countries that touches its border. that is something we don't reflect on. how do you see this balance between the old politics and corruption on the one hand and democracy on the other hand? how do you see that balance tilting in the future? >> i will paint the picture. i worked at the american university of afghanistan. it was a difficult period because we were just building -- this was before the first graduates. first of all, finding the brave professors who would come to afghanistan and go through a difficult period without having
infrastructure of the internet to connect with families and we knew how difficult that was. i left and went to get my phd and saw in the news, the headlines said the american university of afghanistan graduated its first class. to many people it was just a headline. to me it wasn't a headline. it was an emotional moment because i knew how much difficulty we had to go through to get to that stage. same with hospitals. when you had to go across the border to treat malaria and you have hospitals today that separate conjoined twins, kidney and heart transplants, that progress is very difficult to cover in a headline and see. i think one of the reasons we
have so much glue in the media is because it only covers the war and not the progress afghanistan made and the unstoppableness of that. we are making progress and will continue to do that. we have instew -- institutions to maintain that progress. we have more educated youth and opportunities and infrastructure than we had before. and we were building on the legal infrastructure to make sure that everybody has their rights preserved. this would not have been possible if we didn't have the bases to do that. today i would say we went through a political transition. that was our biggest test for any democracy to survive you have got to build in and transition in.
that is where, in a country that is used to having revolutions and the leaders changing and all of the loyalty switching to a new leader rather than loyalty being aligned to an institution. when we had our first transition, a lot of institutions in afghanistan had trouble adjusting themselves to their institute and loyalties to the presidency rather than a person who left office. it was made more complicated by this being a national unity government. we pulled out oft tha. the institutions are more aligned, and working -- of that. over the past few months, you would have noticed a lot more progress in afghanistan. you don't see the same questions. there was a question of survival
for a while; whether we will be able to survive and we passed that test. the few people were doubtful but once they saw the progress made there is a lot more confidence i ever boy -- i have seen. we can see the changes that we bring together because there is no continuing and the media way only see the war covered people's connection to afghanistan is only through the media. it is an abstract and that abstract is defined by whatever you read.
whereas, for afghans, we live it and we know what progress has been made and we know what we are doing to continue to make that. >> it has been a very difficult year. let me ask you one more and i think it is time to go to audience questions here. but, the national unity government has not always been distinguished by its unity. it has had an enormous difficulty filling positions. it has no real policy differences among leaders, it has a lot of other issues. what do you see looking out at this next year? are we going to continue to see this sort of endless squabbling or can they play better together? >> again, i think people don't
give us the credit for forming a national unity government. a country that has no precedent or sharing power. >> it is not a social -- >> for the first time, we shared power and of course it is not easy. national unitty governments or coalition governments by nature are not easy. it took 11 months, almost a year, to form a government after their coalition. it took germany six months. australia struggled with for a long time and every six months there was a new prime minister. that is part of a national unity government and part of the phase that goes into the trustbui trust-building to build it. and our population was not used
to this. some wanted a different form of government. so while the two leaders got along, their teams took time to be able to trust each other and i think the trust will take time to built. i am not saying we are there. it will take time before it is fully established. but we are in a different place today compared to 18 months ago. in a better place. >> having lived through, i think, nine transitions in my careers, i can say the habit of thinking transition teams should be immediately employed is not only in afghanistan. i think we should go to the audience here. when we recognize you, i would ask you to give your name, if you have an affiliation give your affiliation. please try to make them questions. that is a statement that
wednesday a question mark. -- ends. and not of too great in length. we have one back here with a mic already. there you are. >> hey. >> sorry, i have lights in my eyes. >> doug brookwise the board of afghan american chamber of commerce. here in the united states, we have representatives, senators and congressmen on both sides of the aisle that support a long-term afghanistan policy but we have about to go through a very interesting presidential election. as ambassador, what are the two or three u.s. policies you would like to see continued into the next administration no matter who is elected? >> that is a question we always ponder. we are lucky to have bipartisan support in the united states.
we see that through congress and hope to see that through the campaign teams. once they become more defined and working with the candidates and their teams to explain and understand their policy toward afghanistan and if they have any questions about it. so far, we don't have any concerns. i think -- like you mentioned, there is a lot of support for afghanistan. we are in an extremely fortunate position to be the made -- to have made so much success. i think we are very close to -- afghanistan is going through a decade of what we call the transformation decade toward self reliance. we have received a lot of support for that -- for our policies throughout and on both sides of the aisle and
throughout the policymakers we meet here in washington, d.c. >> i think the signal i am getting is we need people to go to the microphone for question. >> also, when i turn this way, i feel like maybe you don't hear. >> we have a microphone standing in the corner and i have to ask people who want to ask questions to go to the my microphone. mr. ambassador, while they are getting there, i hope you are right. we have 10,000 american sold areas in afghanistan and i have not heard any of the three candidates say anything about afghanistan. everybody talks about iraq. everybody talks about syria. we have twice as many troops in afghanistan as syria. it is where we were attacked from and we don't say anything. if you could explain that to me i would be happy but let's go to
the next question. >> my name is dominique. i have no affiliation. you made a statement that is troublesome to me. you made a comment saying afghanistan has the most islamic constitutions. how do you interpret that? sh sh sharia law? >> it may be the version of sharia -- it is not the strictest interpretation but our constitution is based on sharia and it has been for the past 15 years. >> but you signed a whole variety of international human rights agreements, laws. >> absolutely. it is not to say that sharia is not complying with human rights. it is complying with that and that has been our constitution
since it was formed 15 years ago. >> but also the constitution, if i remember, has some good careful wording about based an sharia law but it is not the only law. it leaves room for a broad base. >> where there is doubt, we refer to sharia for that matter. and that is what is acceptable to the afghanistan population. we have been able to include pretty much all of the afghan population. my reference to that is if we are negotiating a peace process we already have sharia law in afghanistan and our constitution is based on it.
we don't see that being a problem. [inaudible question] >> absolutely not. so the question was whether it would bring or put us in a position where we would have to make compromise on our constitution and i said we don't have oo make compromises on the constitution because we are compliant and it is acceptable and implemented by our government and accepted by the population. so we so far, we have not had any issues with -- although there have been no substantial remarks about what the taliban would want, for example, we have not had those negotiations.
but unofficially where there have been discussions there is no question about what is changing the constitution. so that is what makes us even more confidant that we don't have to make compromises on the gains we have made and those have been strictly addressed and communicated. >> ambasber, thank you. i am a sigh with george washington university. is it possible to work with the taliban and negotiate? >> you are talking about is it psychologically possible to have this? >> i guess the political issues but then understanding the psychology of the taliban and
what they want and who are they as a group. are there elements of the taliban that are more cognitive reflective, if you will, than others? there could be soil to till, if you will. or are they all this monolithic entity that can only be dealt with with drone strikes? >> peace is a process. it is not one dealing. as studying what has been going on in other places and studying the peace process in other countries it is not a one-time event. when a conflict drags on this long, many different elements become part of it and invested. we see a lot of people who are involved in the drug trade that have become part of this insurgency. it begs to question whether it
is the drug trade that is fueling the insurgency or the insurgency fueling the drug trade. so the question here would be those who have legit grievances with the government, and if there is any we have not been able to include, we are open to negotiate with. those who are criminals we would have to go after them as criminals. >> thank you. >> sir? >> thank you. my name is ronald wilson with the united states government. my question is from an existential perspective, do you think democratic principles as they are known in the western society, particularly the united states, are truly viable in an islamic state? >> afghanistan is a democratic nation by culture. we are very democratic and all
of our decisions have always been made in a council that was formed. to this day, most of our biggest decisions we cannot make, that are not allowed within the constitution, are made by a grand council. it is enshirined in the afghan culture. we are democratic by design. >> good evening, i am sarah and not affiliated. but i am impressed seeing your technology background and i am interested in the comments about surgery. can you tell us how the intersection of technology and development perhaps in the education and health sectors specifically.
thank you. >> i have to say afghanistan made great strides in technology. 90% of the population has access to at least a cellphone. we are coverage in 90% of the territory. it has been a vocal society with people getting connected. last year, people acted as journalist and continued to be very active through social media. we are working -- our government is looking into how we can bank on that accessibility and
interest to be able to deliver services such as education. >> we had three different contracts and if you were northern afghanistan you didn't talk to the south. in afghanistan, they went to the free market. i use my phone all over the country in afghanistan and it works. it is one of the best at paying the government well. >> it is our second largest income for the government; the telecom sector.
as it builds or develops, there are many new ideas and innovations that are being implemented. things like e-payments, for example, where some of the salaries for police officers and teachers are being paid through electronic payment, mobile payments. and there are e-voting and other ideas are being looked at for elections and the media sector has been using it for a while where they vote on shows and other things. >> sir? >> thank you for having my question. my name is john banks and i am not affiliated with anybody. my question is this, a couple times tonight you have mentioned cutting back on the international drug trade, or eradicatti eradicating it. eventually america will pull
back militarily and financially and without the opium trade doing what it does, what do you see as the economic gap filler for those two influxes of cash? >> afghanistan has many riches including mines. we have over three trillion worth of mines alone in afghanistan. we are currently working on the legal infrastructure to make that accessible. we are also building infrastructure to be able to physically deliver it. but we are working to make sure afghanistan doesn't get into what happened in africa, for example, as the resources of the situation. we are also -- afghanistan is at the cross roads of what was mentioned. a linkage point between south and central asia. we are working on retail projects, where gas for example, is being transported from the
resource rich central asia to south asia. we are a land bridge also for transport of goods. our idea for afghanistan or vision for afghanistan is for it to be the round about of south and central asia where ideas, people and goods flow freely. that is an afghanistan we are working on building. we are also increasing our revenue through different industries. last year alone, despite the very difficulty, we were able to increase our revenue by 22%. now, making our security improvements in infrastructure is much more attractive to investors. we will be able to invest and attract more investment into afghanistan. we have a ten-year plan that is
working on making afghanistan totally self-reliant and that includes increasing military cost through streams of investment in the country. >> time for the media. >> thank you. correspondent for rnf television in afghanistan. as you mentioned, fellow people in afghanistan are worried about women's achievements in afghanistan. do you think there is any guarantee from the united states that women's achievement is going to be held up? and one of the conditions, of the many conditions, you keep saying that foreign should leave afghanistan, and this opinion of
measures. what do you think? >> first of all, let me repeat we will not make any compromises on the achievements women and our society in general has made. we are not making any compromises on the constitution. and second, the conditions -- i think that condition has been refined where to say a deadline or timeline for the security forces, international security forces leaving. we are working on -- we are not counting on afghanistan to always are the required assistance that we currently have. we are thankful for the assistance we do have. but as you are aware, the afghanistan security forces are in full control and they are the ones responsibility for protecting territory and are providing us with advise, train and assist there.
>> i would like to see us provide a little more air support. we dropped 300 bombs in iraq and 30 in afghanistan this year which is a very strange approach. the taliban seems to think they are still at a war with us but we keep saying we are not at war with them. >> thank you. i am doing my paperwork as a master student with the international peace and security interest. before coming to my question, i want to clarify something for the gentlemen, i think he left, but was sitting over here. the minute you mention sharia law in america or the west you think of something extreme and like the saudi arabian government. because in saudi arabia there is no constitution. the source of information, like legal, social, political, economically, all derive from the holy koran and that is based
on sharia law. but in afghanistan, in 2004 when the constitution was modified, it was drafted and modified, it is of course equal rights for the women. just for the gentlemen not to worry. when they mention sharia law not everything is based on that because we have a constitution which is in align with international human rights and we have our parliament, 28% of our parliament are women and that will not be taken back, if everything was based on sharia law. >> and you had a question. >> yes, just for the gentlemen. i think he left but hopefully he can see later. my question, mr. ambassador, i have been in the uk for the past eight months doing my masters and coming from a very poor background but if not for the 15 years of the recent government and international community i would not be standing here.
so just one example of what has been achieved in the past 15 years. i know we have done some amazing work in the last 20 years. one of the things i was very impressed and it is my first week in washington, d.c. is the opportunity for full-breed scholars when done here in the united states they go back and i think it will be some opportunities for them and thanks so much for that because they didn't have that opportunity here. you finish your full ride and go back and look for work and some would leave afghanistan again. so i am a peace scholar studying in the u.k. and when i finish my masters my hope and goal is to go back to afghanistan and serve my country in any way i can. and what will be the opportunities for me when i go back? what are some not guarantees, but how hopeful can i be when i go back to afghanistan? >> this is a great opportunity
for announcing we have a jobs fair this friday at the embassy and that is meant to address the very questions you have. in the past, with many ngo's and international contracting companies that worked in afghanistan, it was easy to find a job from abroad. with the draw down, it has not been easy for many people to fine jobs and we noticed there was that very same question for many people. so we have organized a job fair. we will have recruiters in afghanistan connected with their technology of video conferencing and phones to provide the question on what can be expected in the current job market in afghanistan, where the jobs are, how to find them, and again how to adjust yourself to be able to get that job.
i think we are -- afghanistan is looking forward to people like you returning back to our country and contributing. sometimes with your education and the opportunities that were at your disposal it means you can create jobs in afghanistan. we are attracting or trying to attract more and more investments, more businesses who would not only provide jobs for themselves but also provide jobs for others. those are some of the discussions that you will hear on friday. i think it is this friday at the embassy. it starts at 8 o'clock. 8 a.m. >> thanks so much. thank you. >> sir? >> i am john rosenberg, currently unaffiliated but i was part of the civilian surge and worked with the usa today at the
time. do you think the civilian surge was successful? or unsuccessful? and in what ways? >> the civilian? >> when obama sent americans to work in the provinces on prt's? >> again, to say, well, afghanistan has made a lot of progress and it would not have been possible without the support from the united states. the institutions and in fustruck we have managed to build the credit goes to the united states and i have to mention other international partners as well. there are, i think we focus on challenges and this is my point earlier, we focus so much on the challenges. we do have them. we don't want to hide them. every government has challenges
and we may have more than any other but we don't want to undermine the progress or the progress that was made in the last 15 years and with the surge. we built over 7,000 kilometers of road in afghanistan alone, built hospitals, built schools, over eight million children attend school in all of the districts in afghanistan would not have been possible without the support of those individuals who served it there and we thank them and owe it to the service of americans and afghans who made it possible, that woe continue on that path and build on it. >> the civilian surge was like a roller coaster taking a while to get to the top, peaked and then went down. i know there has been any
academic work. there is an enormous amount of an an antidotal and everything district is different. i don't think there has been any significant academic work or study to do real cross comparison. >> i want to let you know i have a friend and she and her husband spent a year in 2000 in afghanistan volunteering doing medical work there. and i want to tell her that i had an opportunity to tell you how she really found the afghan people so wonderful and what they needed was just an opportunity to explode. i am sure we will be delighted to hear the progress made. so i congratulat e you and your county and wish you the best. >> thank you. it is wonderful to hear i have
been able to convey that first of all. >> we will let you go right now. >> i would like to thank all those who served. i feel we are lucky as a diplomatic nation compared to other countries. we have so many friends in the united states. over a million americans served in afghanistan. i think afghanistan is the type of country where if you are engaged with it, even if not being there, it is captivating. i think it has to do with the opportunities because you see the potential and you see there is great opportunities to be able to build on. we are thankful to those people who served in our country and we take every opportunity we can to do that. we call them friends. and i think they tocontinue
helping the country by advocating for the cause that is afghanistan. and i think they put their lives at risk to help us rebuild our country. thank you. thank your friend for me. ... i think in the beginning there was about 50% of afghanistan's publishing under the age of 27. can you tell us very briefly
what the international community can do to further the progress of investing in education and in the use of afghanistan, furthering over what it has accomplishing the past 15 years? >> more investment. we are working like i said on a decade that wants to get to self-reliance and it would not be possible without us being able to build an economy that is sustainable now. their number of things that the afghan government is doing to achieve that and that is by making sure we sell are produced locally. a lot of our imports are an agriculture country but sadly we import a large quantity of agriculture produce from outside and the government has set a rule where for our own security and their own purchasing that those be produced locally so that we can create more jobs.
we can also create a sustainable economy. we are also working on attracting or investments so one of the things we have been working on over the past 18 months is putting in the legal infrastructure in place so that we can attract investment. talking to many investors including american ambassadors, they didn't leave afghanistan because of insecurity. they left because they didn't find the infrastructure supporting their investment to protect it and we have been basically passing laws to be able to protect that opportunity. if we want to attract investors we need to have the ground not just the physical infrastructure in place. we also need to have a place to be able to, for them to be able to feel safe and be able to feel secure. we join the world trade organization and the
availability of international ports required. we are also passing laws to be able to protect, let's say if you have a technology business, if amazon was to invest in afghanistan, while their immediate needs may be making sure they have internet connectivity and electricity and perhaps location the other would-be privacy laws to ensure that the government is not going to when they show up and say a want to look into -- so we are preparing for that investment while we are tracking smaller businesses meanwhile. okay, stop there. >> thank you so much. i have come from the spanish embassy. i. in an interview that you were a requisite two times in pakistan; and as what is your opinion
about the union's behavior with this refugee crisis? senior examples that a refugee camp to come an ambassador of this country. >> okay. right to the point. you know, it's not easy to be a refugee having gone through it several times. the first time when we were escaping the ussr of the soviet invasion in afghanistan and the second time was due to civil war each time brought its own challenges and the third time because we had lost hope, and that's the most important part really don't want our people to lose hope. we want to be able to create an opportunity that's where the international is so important because the afghan public has
seen so much turmoil over time. we have seen different factions come and take over and they themselves have witnessed in our generation their entire wealth, their houses and everything they have loaned so it makes the afghans a little concerned when we see that we are headed towards insecurity in the international soup -- committee supports. so much tragedy happened so the international community continues and afghanistan will continue to stand by afghanistan as we develop. it's extremely important given the afghans who are maybe thinking about leaving and those who have left to be able to return who feel there would be opportunities for for them. you would know and everybody knows that there's no better place in the home. that's where you feel comfortable and that's where your family is and that is where your friends are.
that's were you feel, you were not a foreigner. you belong at home and we want to make sure that afghanistan has those opportunities for all people so that they can come back. as that's one of the reasons we are negotiating to be able to get those who are not in afghanistan and perhaps worried about the insecurity there or the lack of opportunities to come back from the larger refugee population in pakistan and i ran as well as those who may be outside. also those of the people who have studied abroad and does work sample who have been in the united states or europe or they have been able to learn skills that we need to rebuild. and thank you for staying the course in afghanistan. >> on behalf of with world
listening to pat talking about routes four years ago and i was saying golly, four years ago i was working at ncta and so my relationship with the cable industry goes back a long, long time and it was always great privilege i thought to be associated with this industry at that particular point in history and you know my goal for powell was kind enough after he became chairman to ask me to calm and meet with the ncta board and i sat down and i said you know folks, everything that i believe