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tv   QA  CSPAN  August 4, 2016 7:00pm-8:01pm EDT

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>> tonight a book to be a primetime, recent america. starting at eight p.m., carol anderson and white rage, the unspoken truth of racial divide. after that, david horowitz of progressive racism. at 1015 p.m., melissa and white backlash. immigration, race, backlash. immigration, race, and american politics from the san antonio but fair. at 11:00 p.m., d. watkins and abram kinde at the annapolis, maryland book festival. all of this tonight a book to book to be prime time on c-span2. >> book tv on c-span2, 48 hours of nonfiction books and authors this weekend. saturday at 10:00 p.m. on afterwards wall street journal kimberly stossel argues that the lab is utilizing tactics to serve the political process in her book, the intimidation game,
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how the left is silent and free speech. she is joining conversation by jenny thomas, contributor to the daily news foundation. >> government abuse is usually one-sided. i think there's a couple of reasons for this. when i started this i cared about free speech and the first amendment. amendment. a bit of a libertarian when it comes to this. i have no allegiance to one party or the other. i went into this, i had written a lot about the abuses of the left in my column in the wall street journal but i assumed going in that i was going to find a bunch of stuff on the right to. i didn't. >> on sunday, in-depth live with author and legal analyst jeffrey toobin will take your calls, text and e-mail questions from new-3:00 p.m. eastern. they will be discussing the latest book, american heiress, the wild saga of the kidnapping, crimes, and trial of patty hearst. mr. toobin is the author of the oath, the obama white house and the supreme court. denied inside the secret world of the supreme court. too close to call, the 36 day battle to decide the 2000 election. a vast conspiracy the real
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scandal to bring down a president. the run run of his life, the people, the o.j. simpson. an opening arguments, a young lawyer's first case, united states versus oliver north. join the conversation with your phone calls and tweets. beginning at noon at noon eastern. >> bennett seven eastern we look at the impact that hillary clinton presidency would have on america on in his book, hillary's america the secret history of the democratic party. go to for the complete we can schedule. >> this week on q&a, author scott christiansen discusses his book 100 documents that change the world. in the magna carta to wiki leaks.
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>> scott christiansen, what did you want to do with this book, 100 documents that change the world? >> i wanted to whet readers appetites for documents, historic documents that really have change the world. and to the world. and to show people what the actual documents look like and to explain a little bit to the context of those objects. a little bit of the story behind them and to put them together over time in a chronological order to give people a sense of how they played out in history. >> how did you decide which hundred to put in? >> guest: it was very difficult. i work with a publisher in london and while i am doing the writing the text, they are getting images. we work back and forth and we will work on the list together, they suggest things, i suggest things, we come, we come to agreements and in some cases it is a later refined and others are substituted for various
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reasons. it is a process that is ongoing. it really started when i set out with some members of my family including a very smart, young boy. i asked him, what you think of the 100 most important documents in history and he rattled off like 75 of the ones that happen to be in the book. >> c-span: how old was he? >> guest: he was only 14 years old, he is a nephew. the i ereforink tim and my acknowledgments and his parents for their contribution. >> c-span: how did he know 75 of these? >> guest: he is a reader of history. he studies history, he loves history, he has a very wide ranging interest in history. and encyclopedic knowledge of history. it was with his good graces that i came up with this list. >> c-span: if you had to pick one in this book that is in your mind the most important, what would it be?
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>> guest: i have a preference for the gutenberg bible. the gutenberg bible which everybody knows the term but they don't completely understand the significance of it, it was created in the 1450s 50s by a printer blacksmith in germany. he had a staff of 20 people, he was a very highly skilled artisan. he set out to print a new copy of the bible using movable metal type which was something that had never been done before. and that was with a project of that size. at that that time, there is only about 30,000 books in all of europe. it took years for scribes to copy one to make one bible. so he gathered his people
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together, they use very high quality paper and what was used it took over 150 -- just for one bible. they made 180 copies, a very wonderful product and sold it for a very high price. it revolutionized printing and a world of books. >> you write that scholars today think be between hundred 50 copies were printed of which 48 have survived. have you seen one of these yourself? >> guest: i've not seen an actual copy close-up. i have seen copies and video another images from the gutenberg bible. it is really an extraordinary, magnificent creation. that now a complete copy goes for something like $35 million.
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>> c-span: why do people pay that kind of money for these candid documents? >> guest: i suppose if you have that kind of money you are a collector and you have some particular reason for its. maybe you are somebody who is involved in publishing, books or religion, but i think very few people can afford that kindest thing or institutions that can afford that kind of price for such work. so there very few, very highly priced and extremely expensive. they were expensive were expensive when they are made at the time but today, they have grown up value a bit. >> c-span: when did you get your personal interest in this? spee2 i got my my personal interest in documents because i had a very career. i was an investigative reporter, i worked for governments in several positions in government
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involving criminal justice in the long. i'm a social scientist and particularly a criminologist and i am a documentary filmmaker and i have been involved in curating documentary exhibitions. also of course i am an author and have written many books,. >> c-span: how many books? >> guest: it depends on how you count them, probably over 20 books. in the course of doing this i have worked very closely with documents my entire career. as a a writer today we spent our whole life curating documents, moving documents run, archiving documents, we have a very different conception today of what a document is. so much so that i believe we live in the age of documents today. >> c-span: where were you an investigative reporter? >> guest: i was in albany, new
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york. the capital of new york. it was a wash and corruption, a glorious corruption, glorious place to be an investigative reporter back in the late 60s and early 70s. we have nelson rockefeller as governor. and we had a local kennedy style political machine those very juicy. i had a great time as an investigative reporter starting out at that place. >> c-span: it has nothing to change much. >> guest: it has not changed much. >> c-span: the former speaker and former majority leader. >> guest: the beat goes on. >> c-span: where were you in government? >> guest: i worked under three governors of new york state. i worked primarily for the governor caldwell in a series of criminal justice positions. i worked from the 70s through the 80s and into the 90s while i was completing my doctoral work. after i have worked for the
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universities, i'm also a a teacher and i've taught at several universities. >> c-span: one of the last documents out of the 100 was from 2013, and it is edward snowden's files. , what is this piece of paper here that you have photograph? >> guest: that is a letter that edward snowden wrote making it available to various people in the media and members of government in which she attested to the fact that he had acquired this information. he worked as a government contractor and work for various government agencies. he attained a great deal of information which she believed showed that the government of the united states was involved in illegal gathering of information, intelligence information from the massive people who were spying on government officials abroad and in very large measure doing a number of things that horrified
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many people when it was want to be disclosed. he believed it was his duty as a patriot to disclose this information and said that he thought disclosing the truth was not a crime. a question that other people have disagree. he was such cents charge with theft of government property in violation of espionage act and he remains a fugitive and asylum in russia. >> c-span: here he is in 2014. >> it doesn't stop with phone calls. it covers inking your tex-mex is, every every google search you ever made and every plane ticket you have ever bought. the books you buy on anything that is unencrypted in anything whether this any other
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form can collect and store for increasing. of time. now people who say this is unconstitutional. [inaudible] but the policies that change with every president, with every new director of the nsa really address the threat that in several country nonoaud's before you write in your book the full extent of the disclosures are no but you as intelligent a sources the number of files at one point, 7 million. what is your opinion of this? >> guest: it certainly is enormous and demands information. there has to be some scrutiny and exercise him part of the media in terms of what information is disclosed to make sure it does not endanger the
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lives of people. it really does perform a vital public service and i know that it remains a very controversial, there's why live criticism was distorted. there is also a very strong feeling that he is an american hero. he is viewed as such from around the world. it does really cause people to question who controls documents, who who owns documents, what is the power of documents, what are these things really about. >> c-span: let me ask you for another one of your most important documents that you have in here. >> guest: well i think there certainly many types of documents. i'm interested and i have given enough -- 1984 george orwell's
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book, 1984 and you, 1984 and you get a look at the manuscript of 1984 to see what it actually look like as he was making his final changes and about ready to retype it. it's very interesting thing to me that of course the work that he said big brother is watching. he really depicted a totalitarian state that could be a writer left-wing totalitarian state but he was warning people about either variety. in the course of writing this book he had a very tough time economically, his wife died during the course unexpectedly, his home in london was destroyed by a rocket bomb. he was very old, he almost died in a drowning accident.
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he was fighting tuberculosis. in addition to that as he was writing more and more about this totalitarian state he was becoming more and more paranoid. >> c-span: you say and that is usually just one page for an essay on each of these documents that the surviving manuscript of the novel is that the nonuniversity library and you have afforded graph of it here. how did you get this photograph? >> guest: all of these require approval from the institution, the library, the archive that holds them. there are very few examples of the manuscript of orwell's work that are available. but this this particular one was contributed to brown university by a alumnus. >> c-span: someone who talked about george orwell all the time was late christopher hitchens. let's watch what he says. >> i've been in this career, and
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one hopes to avoid clichés i'm going to try not to mention 1984. but everyone says -- in fact the great thing about it is a cliché. >> the same year that 1984 came out it's as if someone gave him the novel in korea. and said do you think wilshire given our best our best shot. >> did you read it? >> guest: most early. i think every kid that grew up in the 1960s red 1984 and animal form. i have read it since it's a great work and christopher hitchens of course was a great writer. >> c-span: where do you do your work from? spee2 i presently live in the berkshires of massachusetts.
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i spent many years in upstate new york. i work at home, full-time writer. and that's what i do. that's i work on books, articles, films, films, many different types of projects. >> c-span: how long did it take you to put this together? >> guest: i can do think that every book takes a writer his or her whole life to produce. it's not something that people just toss off casually. you have to learn how to write a book, it takes training to do that and you have to learn a lot. so it takes times to physically produce and type it. in this particular book i took some that was as long as 25 years or 18 years of work. this book was just a few months. >> c-span: i'm actually working from the back to the front. there is a 2001 documents and bin laden determined to strike
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us and here's the document, what is is it? >> guest: on august 6, 2001 there is a presidential daily briefing to president bush at his ranch in crawford, texas. it was being delivered by a woman by woman by barber suit who was a cia analyst specializing in al qaeda. prior to that time the new president, george w. bush had received 40 or more warnings about al qaeda and what al qaeda was up to and this particular one really said many things. warning about al qaeda being determined to attack the united states, their interest in aircraft, specifically specifically cited washington and new york, the world trade center. it said that was a rather urgent situation.
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of course when this was a disclosed in the 9/11 hearings it costs a bit of a stir. people were pretty much overlooked the fact that there had been these other 40 previous warnings as well. the bottom line line is, the bush administration really did not respond to it, very lackadaisical he responded by lisa rice and other government officials and of course the united states was attacked on september eleventh, 2001. 2001. that has really changed our history. >> c-span: back in 2004 condoleezza rice testified before congress and here's counsel richard -- cross-examining her. >> isn't it a fact to doctor rice, that the august 6 pdb warned against possible attacks in this country? i ask you whether you recall the title of that pdb? >> i believe the title was a bin laden determined to attack inside the united states.
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now. >> it thank you. >> know i would like to finish my point here. >> you asked me whether not it warned of attack. >> i asked you what the title was. >> you said did it warn of attacks? it did not warn of attacks inside the united states. it was historical information based on older reporting. there is no new threat information and it did not affect warn of any coming attacks and said the united states. >> when you hear that today, what is your reaction? >> guest: mumbo-jumbo. there were repeated warnings. of crows crows what is the government to do in response to these and vague threats without specific information. what do you do? but i do remember that very time being down in the area of the world trade center anoint a number of strange individuals walking on taking pitchers and i
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just had a feeling of unease at that time. i worked at the world trade center previously, is is where the previous attack in the 1990s. it made me very uneasy. of course there is not a response, john ashcroft was the attorney general at the time was asked to approve 400 more fbi counterintelligence agents. he refused to do that. in a lot of ways the bush administration really blew off these warnings and did not respond until suddenly the attack occurred. >> c-span: one of your 100 is the apple computer company. what is it? >> guest: in 1976, three young fellows in silicon valley, california got together and decided they were going to create a small venture by the skin of their teeth with very little money and the garage of one of these young men. they're going to try to manufacture the computers,
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computer parts and they formed this company called apple computer. you may have heard of it. since that time of course it is become one of the most successful businesses in world history. but it was really done on a shoestring and is short. of time ago. unfortunately. fortunately for one of these partners, mr. way, in this document he signed over his interest in the original partnership agreement for a poultry $800. >> c-span: after he this. it's amazing. wozniak and jobs agreed to pay and delivered to wayne, as their sole obligations under the term of this amendment, the sum of $800. does that mean that is all he god? >> guest: that is all he got. >> c-span: how available is this document, where you find something like this? >> guest: some of these things are available by the company.
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they're very interested and proud of this, their associations yet that make some of these kinds of things available. historians and others. in all of these cases it involves a search. i believe believe this one came from apple itself. >> c-span: go back to the 13-year-old that you talk to, what is his name? spee2 his name is joel gardner. >> c-span: where does joel live? spee2 he lives in hastings, done in hastings, done in the hudson valley of outside of new york city. >> c-span: was his reaction when he found out he named three quarters of the documents? >> guest: he was i really that interested. he was off 3-d reading more history. >> c-span: did you give him one of your books? >> guest: a day, gave him them one of the books and i let him know and let his family know that ines grabbed it and dedicated it to him. maybe someday it will mean something to him. he is still pursuing his interest, his his own interest
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in history or maybe someday he will be something at a grander scale the my book. >> c-span: where did he get his interest in history from what you know? spee2, he liked many of the people involved in this documents and some of the other books that i've done is kind of a poly -- is involved in many different interest, is a mathematical genius and he has many interests. but he just developed an interest in reading and history. he has been pursuing it on his own. he will go will go out and get a contemporary book that has just come out, five or 600 page serious history of the napoleonic wars, biographies, he will and he will sit down and knock off those books. >> c-span: here's another document, 1969, apollo 11 flight plan and he can sit right here. but before we do that, here some footage from that moment.
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it is not the normal, neil armstrong stepping up onto the moon. it is buzz aldrin and michael collins. >> during the three-day journey to the moon the astronauts kept busy. checkless, navigation and observation, housekeeping. they must work in a weightless environment keeping their spacecraft and themselves in good condition. data must be collected and reported, experiments must be performed. including. including photography both inside and outside the spacecraft. >> c-span: this particular document is also very interesting because it lays out the role of each of the three astronauts. at every moment of the mission. at this particular time it indicates what each of them is to do.
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it suggests that there is a possibility that perhaps the astronauts would have to be left on the moon if something was not working properly, they would have to be left behind. and the mission would go on. this was done according to a plan, you'll see that it says july 1, 1969. there is a plan that set out this a very detailed chronological time frame and it was according to this plan that they had to follow these instructions. each of them knew exactly what they were to do. >> c-span: in your book you write this statistic, the apollo program had involved 400,000 engineers, technicians and scientists from 20,000 companies and the military and cutting-edge research and logistic activities at a cost of $24 billion. >> guest: yes. it was an enormous investment.
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it had great political significance and some is a spiritual significance than the united states at that time. it had a relatively -- worked in the space who is a huge enterprise really following from john kennedy's that he was going to attempt to land americans on the moon and be the first to do that. so it was quite a triumph from the united states. the united states technology. >> c-span: how close did you come to the vietnam war question this is another document. >> guest: everybody my age came very close to the vietnam war i do not serve during the vietnam war but as a journalist i was involved in covering things that were going on at that time. like everybody, my generation i was very involved in the turmoil
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over the vietnam war. as a young boy in 1964 i was watching on television when president lbj announced to the nation and national televised speech that the united states have been attacked by the north vietnamese vessels in the gulf of tonkin. as a result, he was going to be authorizing the use of force and wanted congress to give him the authority that was necessary to effectively wage war against this aggressive power of north vietnam. this was during the presidential campaign he was going to be running against barry goldwater. of course it was really the beginning of a very long involvement, long war,. >> c-span: worded this particular document come from?
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>> guest: this particular document was from a congress congressional office. i don't remember exactly which one it is but it is one of the actual copies of one of the representatives who is voting on that at the time. >> c-span: you mentioned of earlier that you are responsible for the written word in this, did some some video set to go after the document? >> guest: yes, they did have to go after the document. in some cases would find find that there was not a suitable document available so we had to do something else, or they will come up with the document that was a little different than what i had written written about and i had to adjust my writing. so it is a back-and-forth between publisher in london and me in the united states, and the book is published simultaneously around the world imprinted in china. so it is really a global process. >> c-span: i have to read this though about the gulf of tonkin
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resolution that you write. by 2005 the release of more previously classified documents from national security agency put other new disclosures would review the high government officials had distorted facts and deceived congress and the public about what had actually happened . . congress was told exactly what had happened. and, this of course, is very
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unfortunate, not the only time that a war has originated from such a thing. >> but sensing that the words, lacked power, jackson cried out, tell him about the dream, martin >> martin luther king, during the march in washington in 1963 was up at the lecturn giving his great speech. but it wasn't going over that well. he had a prepared speech, that his speechwriter, and other people had worked with him on. and here it is handwritten, i believe by him. and, reverend king is up there, and, jackson that heard the speech some months before in
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which, martin luther king got into a whole theme about being on a mountain top. so he had a lipped and he -- he went off his prepared remarks and he began to add just a passage that became the most, the basis of the most famous speech in american history, which was an enormous immediate resounding success. it was the largest crowd ever, in any kind of mass meeting in american history. millions of people saw this on t.v. heard about it, and as he was leaving the lecturn, a young basketball player, who was sitting, nearby asked him, could i have a copy of that and he gave it to that young man, and
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off the copy went that document which is now very valuable. and it's still in his possession. >> you said that, they have not appeared in writing until august 1983. whole story of the speech, has been the subject of a look of study and commentary. but, we forgetting that it really took a long time for the speech to be fully out there, and, various forms. the king family, had copywrites to it. and, there's been a lot of contests over who controls and owns in document? whether or not it can be reproduced. >> but you point out, on the same page, that the family sold all of his works for 32 million to moorehouse college. yes.
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what do you think of that? >> well, i think that it -- it is very important that an that n institution that has some connection, that values such documents will step forward and agree to do the repossible a tori and keeper of such precious documents. i think it's good that that has occurred. and, i think it's fine that they are at the moore house, and only other possible place would be the national archives, library the congress. >> i'm going to give you another opportunity to name another one of your favorites. >> gee, it's really hard, there are so many, i think that, the art war, which is so old, it really, dates back to, many
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centuries, bc. ancient chinese text which deals with the nature of warfare. how to wage war. how to win a war. and the trials and tribulations of war and offers a lot of very sage advice. so sage that many, many commanders since that time, norman, and douglas mcarthur have followed these instructions very closely. tony sopran now, the mobster on t.v. talks about reading it. i don't know if dick cheney ever read it had but he should have. >> what is this? >> this is i believe a copy written, of part of this document.
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one of the things about such ain check works is that, the author- existed or was unde basement it's unclear when this was written. and how long it remained a verbal transmitted document, before it was then copied, and, it took many centuries for this document to be preserved in a copy. so we don't know a lot of things about the document. but it has existed for a long period of time. >> some saying there's no instance after country having benefited from prolonged warfare. >> right. that is something that has some meaning to us today. >> 1953, d.n.a.
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>> d.n.a. well, it's an interesting story because of the discoveries of d.n.a., described and watson. described was the senior researcher. it was the building block of life and he realized how important this was. and at this time, before the discovery was going to be published in the journal, he wrote a letter to his 13-year-old son, laying out what this discovery was really about, explaining it to him very carefully and saying, i want you to study this and understand what i have done. >> he also, enlisted his wife, who is an artist, who special live in doing nudes, and, he got
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her to a drawing, with this double heal licks. and, and it was used. it was a family affair. >> what's this? >> that's an initial drawing that he had done, trying to convey what this thing was really like. and, what d.n.a. was really about, this look of d.n.a. and, of course this was one of the great discoveries in the history of science. >> let's listen to france siches cricket speaking. it struck an empass just how beautiful it was. because there, before us, was the answer to one of the
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fundamental problems in biology, how do geerchs replicate? it was very simple. you could not miss it. and just look at the molecules and thinks how beautiful it was. >> what do you think? >> very simple to them, but not so simple to us. [laughter] >> it was 1942. proknow -- protocol. >> the protocol, early in 1942 involved a meeting of top nazis, and the departments, including the ss to carry out hitler's requirement for what was called the final solution, the exer minnation of the jewish people. this was to be carried out by a
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nazi official who was at the meeting, and, copies were districted to all the members, and notes were taken by aikman and it was determined, that there were 11 million jews in europe, in countries that were under occupation, and the plan was laid out in great detail how these people were going to be eliminated, murdered. killed. removed from the face of the earth. unfortunately, for the nazis and for the revisionists, one copy of this document survived. they tried to destroy all the copies and one official, in the foreign office, and this is his copy, left a cop which in the file and it was used, in discovery, in war crimes trials and the trial of eickman for the
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murder of millions of jews. >> near berlin you point out, here, that it was a 90-minute meeting. >> 980 minute meeting. like a typical government interagency meeting. some notes and afterwards, cigars and cognac celebrating talk about how everyone was doing. but, this horrible event, meeting, that was shown in this document tells us what happened. >> where did you get your initial interest in history? >> i probably got my initial interest in history as a young boy growing up in connecticut and learning what some of mayan sisters had fought in the civil war. i was given some of the letters,
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correspond corresponding with other relatives and my granltdz mother started a habit of collecting newspapers when something important happened. so we would collect the front-page and doing this, her whole life and i did it, and i had many thousands of newspapers, the election of all the presidents and assassinations. >> besides the protocol you have other things based on germany and world war ii and we'll look, the cousin, let me doublecheck. it is the cousin, ann frank and here him speak. >> was liberated, and afterwards returned to amsterdam one month later, and was informed that his two children had died.
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he then received ana's diary, the brave playeddy who together had supported the people in the secret annex for over two years. he started to read, very slowly. he was overwhelmed, just as i was overwhelmed when i read ana's diary for the first time. always said i didn't know my child until i read her diary. it was ana's dream that some day, something she had written would sometime, maybe be printed. and i say to myself almost everyday, ana, if you would know what became of your diary. >> you say that it's sold over 30 million copies in 67 different languages. >> absolutely. it's been just an enormously
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influential work. it was very, very instrumental in introducing many people in the 1960s, and since to the holocaust and to come into terms with what it meant for ordinary people at that time. has continued to be questions, and controversy surrounding this book. many people tried to suggest that this was something that a young girl could not have written. it was too much like a litter rare work. and it was found that it was authentic. but her father, was involved in bringing the book to publication in 1947. in the process of doing that he cut and pasted various versions that she had written together, into the final work that was published.
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more recently there's been a copywrite dispute involving the foundation that inhair ritted ownership of the ann frank diary which has made a great deal of money from it, as you can imagine. and they have attempted to say that, a co-out for of the work should be adddolf frank which would extend it another 35 years. other people have said that would not be appropriate and they questioned what that really means for the book. so, so everyday there continue to be controversies in the news. they are living things that go on and on and questions always being asked about them and their meaning. >> war and peace, the very large book written by to city, 1869.
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you quote him saying you know i hate your plays, shakespeare was a bad writer and i consider your plays worse than his. [laughter] >> why did you include war and peace? >> i included it because, i thought it was one of a great epic works in history. but, also, i was very intrigued by the fact that this work, could not be read or understood by anybody because his hand writing was so atrocious, that had it was recoup pid and she did this so.
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she recouppied what he had written. the book was published as a series, in a magazine. but he was not pleased with it. so he started from scratch and rewrote the whole thing with his wife. >> blending fact and fiction. >> have you read it. >> i have read it. i read it years ago while i was waiting for airplanes to arrive when i was involved with somebody who worked for the airlines and there were always delays. i would always read it. >> how long did it take you to read. >> it took me, i would say days, to read it. many hours. it's not something that you read very quickly.
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although i can read, be a speed reader, i try to read it and take notes and study what to city had done. are there a couple documents that you wanted in there but you never made it for some reason? >> well, sure, there are many. i think that the pentagon papers, which i don't believe is in there, is a magnificent set of documents that had an enormous effect. of course it's not, as a set of documents, that's one example. there's some others, popular things, i try town included a song or two, i was partial to
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bob dylan's rolling stone tune. but, that was not in the final version either. >> 1861, fort sumpter telegram. >> yes. >> how things have changed. because back in the day, in the beginning of the civil war, fort sum tor was there and then, the fort surrendered, and there was an evacuum wasting of the troops, 68 troops had been, and there were 10,000 confederates against them. they finally surrenderders. two soldiers were killed when there was an accidental explosion. and, it took almost a week to receive this telegram notifying
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the government, of the united states, that the confederate forces had attacked the force he was of the united states and the civil war had gun. >> you say the original telegram is kept at the national archives. yes. >> we have some video, beginning of the civil war. >> bombarded from north, south and east and west. and, the confederate, as well, to the west, at fort johnson, and, on the shore line and also from cummings point to our south, three were there. 43 would bottom barbed it for 34 hours. over 3,000 round he have ampumission. when it was all over with, we found there was about 600 scholars, on the walls of the fort that had done some damage.
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>> what caused it to cannonballs, and until it became red-hot, and high degree of angle and come up over walls, and crash, and, those red-hot cannonballs would set the buildings on fire. >> had you ever heard about that before? >> i have heard a little bit about it. i think that caused some explosions of the ammunition and resulted in some of the fatalities. but, it is an interesting notion that they used these weapons, the union side, the federal troops had guns, that were very ineffective. they really, before, they tried to respond, led by a commander and admiral doubleday, who was credited with i nventing baseball, which he really didn't do.
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he was an officer in the union army. so there was this destruction of the fort. >> from 1776 the wealth of nations. i'll quote you say, if government would refrain from interfering with >> why did you pick the wealth of nations? >> well, this is really the foundation of capitalism. it's the foundation of modern economics. at that time, adam smith was known as a philosopher, a curious term. but he came up with a theory and this was produced, by them in which he laid out his theory and he really said that self interest, ambition, competition,
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is in the interest of the general public. this is something that should be embraced, that it was moral for it to be self interest and dare we say greed. and he called for free trade and he said that, his -- he supported natural rights and liberty. and this was done at the time, the beginning of the american revolution. it was a time in the world. >> when he completed the work, he had always kept the manuscript close to him. he was working on it, and, he carried the manuscript with him, around, whatever he went, and always kept it within his view because he was so attached to it.
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it was like a friend. but when he when he died, heed it that it be destroyed. so it is nowhere to be found. this is the basis for trickle-down economics, and the basis for a huge economic systems that existed for hundreds of years. but it was a system of new ideas that adam smith developed at that time. >> 16 years to some video we shot in 1999. david was the director of the library and he's talking about another one of your documents. shakespeare. >> this is the famous first follow leo of shakespeare, in london by isaac jag guard and ed ward, and, the famous shot
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portrait of shakespeare. not clear whether he saw any of these editions or not. but, this edition that was produced, in 1623 was the first real attempt as it says in the subtitle here, published according to the true original copies. now, what they are, scholars have debated since this book appeared. >> why did you pick shakespeare. >> i think he is a pretty good writer. he's had a enormous effect. and this was one of the great achievements and of course, this particular volume here, we would not know about him in large measure because more than half of his plays have never been published b. they have not been an edigs of his works
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preexpentsd this is just the dramas, it is not his poems, it is a full presentation of his comedies histories and tragedies, and it was compiled by members of his drama company who revered him and worked with him and presented these plays and they have stage instructions, that they used as these plays were being staged. so it is "ah-huh" for a tative version. >> you know we just scratched the surface. we haven't spent a lot of time on american documents. but, i can pick out everything from the constitution to the declaration, 14 points of woodrow wilson. how did you balance that off? how much do you expect to be sold in the united states versus around the world. >> i don't know what the sales are going to be. it is something that's very
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interesting in english speaking countries, in australia, in great britain, and the united states, and, a number of other countries. i know it's in the national archives, in london and in the united states, libraries are beginning to pick it up. so, hopefully, it is something that we'll circulate, the first part of the question, again, i forgot what -- what it was. >> the american documents and how many of those and how did you decide the difference how you chose them? >> it required trying to strike some sort of a balance. we wanted to have a variety of things that would cover the whole world, over the course of the history, over 5,000 years. a real variety of things and this is not say these are being 100 -- one and only greatest
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most important documents that ever were. but, many of them are. they are fundamental, to understanding, history. >> about out of time. you have the koran in there, and you say that, the angle gabriel revealed the very worth of a lay, and, would be the most of many revelations muhammad would receive until his death. the current environment in the world does that have something to do with picking this? >> it certainly did. it's a very interesting thing, in the case of mohammed, and i assume,, the angel gabriel, these accounts were transmitted verbally. and they were memorized by00 drefsd follow loss, and transmitted for several years and finally were set to writing.
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there was an authorrized edition of the koran that was produced, shortly after the death of muhammad. >> our guest has been expoot christansen and the name of the book is 100 documents that changed fred the world. thank you very much for joining us.
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>> after that, marissa looks at how immigration policy is shaping views on race and politics. in her book, white blacklash. and finally, a discussion between authors not state of race in america. >> in her book, "white rage"


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