tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN August 31, 2016 4:03pm-6:04pm EDT
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>>t's not, a matter of difficultyit aatr igning theare design wit eir nes. feinthem toroamwhh ne tbereivth will meet tse nee. sohe goal is to ea aodel which can be trans formed and avlable evebo. fo sators, have introded nn bill 3130 whi iakg f te d tranorm it in anaonal progr. >> let move here. >> kaitlin conley, this has been fantastic. it's hopeful to see such great reforms and proposed delivery models. but i wonder if you have looked at what the i would say would be the greatest barrier, which is
workforce shortages and vacancies. with the direct care homework force, we could argue that, someone who sees a individual five times a week is going to be the best champion, to prevent reopenings, and, prevent unnecessary complications, so how is that integrated into any of that model? >> in addition to the project that we're working on right now, high need high cost individuals, by partisan center is looking at long-term services, financing long-term receives, and one aspect of that is finding caregivers, and providing appropriate support for caregivers, and, i will say, the leaders for that project are
senators dash she will, and, thompson. and when we had discussions about these issues it's so difficult. the question of we're trying to find ways to help support family members, if you look within the existing system of care would you allow an individual, a plan to provide support for a family caregiver? there is the issue of, as you know, the labor laws, that have come out, with respect to reimbursement. there are so few easy answers. we're looking at them. at the same time, the issue of buying out existing care which is so difficult. so much of the long-term services and support are provided out of pocket by family members. the consequence of trying to pay
for that, and buy that out seems almost overwhelming. >> you have som great suggestions, we would love to hear them. >> i think, you suggested this, in your question. but, what we find when we look across the country at some of the successful evidence based models it, requires a different kind of team. it isn't, and the doctor talked about this, when he listed it, and, it requires social work, and capable at home. handyman and putting in tub bars. where we see, when we think about workforce we need broaden our perspective, not that you were suggesting that, think
yondle doctors and nurses to the complex care managers and, social workers, and community health workers, and i think we're still learning, very much in transition about it. what kind of licensing, and accreditation, and how does that work? do we need better training programs? yes. maybe what we need more is not necessarily at the physician level as much as training of physicians and nurses, and pas, to work in these teams that are bigger and broader. >> there's lot of intensive t/a, to get to it, and, also of care and delivery and of training. >> amgoing follow up on that. it raises another question.
that was a question about workforce. but the kinds of care you're talking about raises a question about non-medical services, which they raised today. we have a need for non-medical services, and i would like to ask them to dig into that. we talked about what kinds of non-medical receives, housing, and nutrition and how much of the current movement towards new delivery systems, models, is helping to find new ways to pay for those non-medical services? how far down the road are we until getting there? >> all of those services are important, i tend to focus, personal care, receives, and certainly for people who can't take care of themselves.
that's the number 1 issue. >> the community choice program which for people who meet the qualification for nursing home placement can qualify for personal care receives in the home. it can be family members, other than the legally responsible guardian. and relevant to the points that was made earlier. >> those services, are provided through agencies that the state, in maryland certifies, that the people providing the personal care receives are trained, and, qualified, to perform that role, as well, as providing the labor requirements whether it is over
time or other types of labor conditions. so, community first choice, using an agency model, to employ personal care workers to assist individuals who otherwise would qualify for nursing home care. >> i wanted to point out in your packetses you have a number of materials, that list various models that we're referring to today. so,
this is one of the reasons we started with dual eligible individuals because so many of these services are covered to ty under the medicaid program, targeted case management services in particular help get through a lot of these issues and take care of a lot of these issues. in addition states have a bill to provide home committee-based services. there are a number of waivers as well as state plan options that are not currently being used at this point. one of the things that we looked at in our february report which would lead to long-term services and support was the needs of streamlining those waivers and state options to make it easier and to encourage more states to offer home and community-based services. that is for the medicaid program, that addresses looking
come populations but, frankly, a small percentage of individuals who need these types of service are receiving them. this is a time in which states are being asked to expand just acute-care under the affordable care act and to expect them to reach out and provide additional home and community-based services. at tough thing to do right now. looking at when you look at the medicare program or whether your looking at medicaid, i think it's important to address those services. >> question at the mic. >> i'm a registered nurse and a data analyst. i guess my question is for dr. boling. for your program is a close program, meaning that no more new participants can be enrolled? also visit a local program? if not, do you have plans to actually have some sites locally in the district and the dmv? >> fantastic question. thank you.
is still ongoing and will be for another year or so. there are 15 sites operating around the country including the district and i can put you in touch with friends who work in the district. we would think of ourselves as open and we have most of the programs have been involved in seeking contractual relationships with ncos and acos and other entities that are current to provide this kind of model because we think what we are providing is valuable not only in fee-for-service medicare but also in other kinds of finance models where people are a certain risk for high risk populations. so there are lots of opportunities, if you contact me i can put you in touch with colleagues and friends. >> i'm children, director for the center of elder care.
i have to tell you that this type of meaning is just so exciting. it has been so long since we took these issues seriously, and now there's demos and exciting ideas bubbling up everywhere. i think i met for today already. this is really a very positive set of developments. when we look at the horizon, i want to throw out three very important ideas of how they haven't quite made center stage. one is that we are all duals in training. it would live long enough, sir so disabled, almost none of us are protected against the costs that we will run. one of the first patient i picked up was the woman who had her disabled stroke in her 40s, and the whole time i was growing up the whole time i was going to medical school getting ready to be her doctor, she was living in a nursing home. no one has insurance that covers that. we are all duals in training and duals is an accident of how you
work in your lifetime and how your state deals with medicaid. we need to have those medicare only reports that katherine is planning to bring out soon. because we will be medicare only and some of us will be medicaid. the second big idea is that the biggest political force and the one we desperately need is those very frustrated caregivers. we need to mobilize that not just as a service destination but as a political force. it's really unlikely that modern pharmaceuticals will step right up to lobby for a cheaper medicare system. or that hospitals and health plans are. but caregivers could and caregivers could be really looking for a balanced approach but we haven't even talked to make them a political force and get almost everybody here has been, will be, or not it's a family caregiver. it will be the biggest kind of
leveling force among us. if it stays as bad as it is now it just cries out for organizing. the third thing, i'd be interested, peter, in what some of your teams running into is so much of what people need is really community-based. melinda was mentioned this a minute ago. if your town has said universal design in housing for decade, you've got places people could live. if they haven't you've only got nursing homes. so much of what makes it possible to live well is actually in the housing, food, nutrition, workforce development as the fourth that is geographically anchored. what could we do if we freed up a dozen communities to really move ahead and show us how good it could be, and how inexpensive? i am sure if we took the savings on the medicare waste and put it into the social services in any community in the country we
would end up coming a much better. i'll bet some of your teams are running into this because they are geographically anchored. they are not doing telehealth. they are going into peoples peos homes. i'll bet some are starting to show up, county council hearings on meals on wheels allocations and things like that. convert all of medicare into a kindred anchor, but some degree needs to go into a community priority setting and some funding that the communities can use to meet those needs. if we did those three things as well as the clinical service delivery, we can build the care system that would be adequate to serve the boomers in the 2030s when we all get sick and frail together. it seems we have about 10 years to do our expectation, and then if we don't we will enhance our ability to walk away. i was just in detroit. the 800 people on the wait list for home delivered meals.
most of them will die or go to nursing homes before the ever get a meal delivered. why isn't that shocking? 800 people on the wait list for cardiac valve surgery, we would all be up in arms. there isn't a lobbying group for hungry old people. work with us a little and tell us if some of those things are starting to come up in your work. >> thanks for those comments. certainly by virtue of being out in the community you do see what works and what doesn't. there are lots of things like which were talking about starting to occur. buildings that were intended for another reason and then repurposed to provide shelter for older individuals in an affordable price with governmental support would be an example. our team, scored to speak to the workforce question that was put forward earlier. part of the workforce issue is about money. people need to get paid well and
have an opportunity, but part of it is being part of the collective effort where you feel like you are making a valuable contribution. it's not just a job. it's a mission for a lot of the best people who work in this field and they do better when they're in a game with someone else who cares about it, who also is engaged in the kind of thing like joanne discussed whether you're looking to find the right place for a person to reside safely in a community. people don't necessarily like to go in nursing homes. my team has been around a lot of nursing homes. i have a pretty good feel for that. people would much rather stay in the community. we are better off if we find ways to empower people to remain in the community, which often require some transformative work because not everybody is in a circumstance where you are not think it is what 1950, 1960 and house were built and the streets were laid and the rest of those things were done.
we will have to do some changing of the way we've got things organized. the way you figure out how to do that is you go to where the action is, which is the community itself. you understand what looks like and how things really run. >> i'm going to turn to some of the questions raised on twitter. there have been a number of questions that asked about i need high-cost children. i just want to say when we designed this panel we did, the intention was for it to focus on high-cost medicare beneficiaries. but to those of in asking to what extent is there transferability, certainly and this is based on years ago and worked the commonwealth fund supported around child development and complex care for children.
the integration of care is equally important, particularly when you're dealing with children. again both for the physical health, behavioral health and also on the social service side. when you start turning to the policy solutions, it's very different from the conversation that we organized and structured for today. so i apologize to those of you who thought we would talk more about children but we really had intended for this to be a conversation entrance of the policy solutions focusing more on medicare, complex patients covered by the medicare and medicaid program together. there have been a number of more detailed questions actually. karen, particularly on your proposal. in particular one person asked that nine months of medicaid, the 112 billion in savings for nine months medicaid come if we
could keep them off of medicaid for those nine months, and the question is, do you know if that's savings to the federal government or state? is the federal only, state? is a combination? >> let me make two points. first of all ou on children, i o think i mentioned the medicaid committee first choice program, medicaid has a lot of experience dealing with children with developmental disabilities. that's a good model to look at. the limitations are income eligibility. it's quite low, so the need to expand that up to release the poverty level in order to reach and help more families. but to turn specifically to the savings of dealing nursing home placement. first of all we picked nine months because we are involved with the cmmi health care
innovation award for maximizing independence for people with dementia, and the early pilots of this intervention with the memory care coordinators doing home visits and providing, trained to provide specific support to family members caring for people with dementia found that this on average resulted in 9.5 month delay in nursing home placement. so we didn't just pick this nine months out of the air. wouldn't it be nice to do that. there is an innovative model that has achieved that. but let me just go over those numbers again. it's 112 billion in nursing home savings over 14 years. a lot of that is savings to the family who are paying out of pocket. so 35 billion of the savings are to medicaid, and that split
federal and state roughly, 55-45 split financing between federal and state government. for medicaid. >> great your sense some of the work being done by karen and our colleagues as pointed out, the importance of protecting medicare beneficiaries from kind of spin again and going into poverty to avail themselves of becoming duals because of lack of home and to meet basic services, one of the questions really is the bipartisan policy center's work in long-term care insurance. doesn't present an opportunity to address at risk beneficiaries from becoming duals? >> yes. we are looking actually at a
number of different proposals. i think that when our leaders began looking at options for covering long-term care they realized very quickly that in the current political and fiscal environment, it's going to be a very difficult thing to do. and that it is going to take a range of solutions, one of which -- >> we will break away from the last 15 minutes or so of this event and take you live to the annual lake tahoe some in nevada. president obama will speak about conservation and combating climate change. nevada senator harry reid who we see stepping to the podium has been a host of this lake tahoe summit for 20 years, and this is his last year in office so he as president obama to speak at the event. also at the summit, california governor jerry brown and california's two senators dianne feinstein and robert boxer. live coverage here on c-span2. [applause]
>> twenty years the celebration because we help lake tahoe. two decades ago we came together to present the beauty of this breathtaking place. and for 20 years we have worked just to give it. we want to make it better and we have done that. one need only gays at these emerald blue waters to see the progress we have made in keeping tahoe blue. [applause] >> we envisioned 20 years ago what we wanted to accomplish, and we've done that and maybe a little more. lake tahoe is now more pristine than it has been in decades. because of the work of a lot of people, including these wonderful people that are on the stage with me. but, you know, like a baseball
team, who wins a world series, they can't rest on their laurels. finish the series, and what did he do? they figure out what they did well and try to improve from that. so that's what today's celebration is all about your we have reached the goal and now we have to build on progress. look at today's all-star lineup. look at it. first of all, first of all, nevada's own internationally renowned band, the killers. [applause] they will not be a no-show. i met with in a few moments ago. it's our privilege to hear in just a few minutes from nevada's friend and my friend, california governor jerry brown.
[applause] this good man who has spent his entire life, his entire life leading california and our nation in improving our environment, among other things. governor brown sandoval can't hear today. we have to change the schedule that. he had a long-standing commitment and an opioid conference in las vegas. but brian has been good on lake tahoe and i appreciate it very much. [applause] in fact governor brown and sandoval have worked together to strengthen the lake tahoe regional conference which has caused bistate collaboration, and it's quite frankly a force in many instances. what does it do? it protects the late. part of the all-star lineup is california senator barbara
boxer. [applause] barbara boxer and i came to congress together 34 years ago. we have been together 34 years. and i have four brothers. i have three brothers, i'm sorry. [laughter] i never had a sister so she is the sister i never had. our mc today is going to be the most dignified member of the united states senate, diane feinstein. [applause] diane feinstein has said a love affair with this beautiful lake for a long, long time when she was a little girl. she and her good husband, dick, have been generous in their support of the lake.
they both love the lake tahoe, if they have a homier to prove it. we will have a special presentation today by janet schneider, assistant secretary of interior. [applause] but with every lineup, every all-star lineup you need them most valuable player. you need somebody who's going to bat cleanup your and today that cleanup is not bryce harper. it's barack obama, president of the united states. [cheers and applause] i'm happy to recognize head of the dom -- [applause] it protects every day 250 million acres of federal land. one of my favorite congressman
john garamendi of california. [applause] marcia mcnutt, president of the national academy of sciences. [applause] and the chairman and council members and elders from the washoe tribe. [applause] and special guest of mine today, math instructor patrick fleming, and 50 of the students from the lake tahoe school. [applause] i look forward to the presentation today. i look forward to the concert. i'll be back in will bid to save a little bit more but i want to turn the program over now to today's master of ceremonies, senator dianne feinstein.
[applause] >> thank you, harry. well done. thank you. are we here to save the lake tahoe? [cheers and applause] all right. we want to give you an opportunity to participate in doing just that. it was about 20 years ago when harry reid brought bill clinton as president to the first summit which was not tahoe comments beach. all, i would say maybe six, 700 people turned out. much excitement. the president of the united states was a bear, but what it began was a federal-state, and the states are by nevada and california, and a private sector partnership, to begin to rehab and prevent this lake from going the way many lakes go. i'm proud to say that
$1.9 billion has been spent on the renewal of this lake so far. [applause] 500 projects have been completed, and some 20 more are in the works. but here's what's amazing. it's the people that have helped. and let me just give you these numbers. the federal government has put in $635.4 million. the state of california with the help of our governors including this great governor jerry brown, 758.6 million. [applause] nevada, because both harry reid and governor sandoval insisted on nevada's participation some 123.7 million. [applause]
98 million by locals. is the most impressive part. the private sector. $338 million has been provided by the private sector for the rehabilitation of this lake. [applause] so we think this indeed is very, very special. we and you walk down a new trail, that's a product of these dollars. when you see the road work going on to keep the particular material from going into the lake, that's a product of these dollars. the hazardous fuels treatment that you see going on, that's a product of these dollars. more than 16,000 acres of wildlife habitat have been restored. 1500 stream environment zones restored. and 2700 linear feet of shoreline has been added for
public benefit. so i am so proud of that. [applause] our first speaker is a key member of our team tahoe. if not governor jerry brown has attended every summit since he took office. governor brown, along with governor sandoval, hasn't everything possible to support the lakes restoration your window to governors took office in 2010, they be committed both states to the bistate compact. under their leadership we negotiated the entrenched issues holding up the regional plan of state. that effort ultimately saved the compact between the two states. governor brown has been a leader on environmental issues throughout his career, and no governor has done more to combat climate change than jerry brown.
[applause] i asked him last night what do you think is your best achievement in the climate area? and here's what he said. electricity is 25% of california's power today. it will double to 50% by 2050. that is unique and it's really like special and wonderful. without further ado, would you warmly welcome the governor of the great state of california, jerry brown. [cheers and applause] >> thank you. thank you, diane. and thank all of you for being here to help us safe lake tahoe. a lot to say. let me just an end your remark
there. it's 25% electricity from the sun, the wind, geothermal and other renewable sources today. [applause] it will be 50% by 2030. so we are on our way. look, as we stand here just next to the most beautiful lake in the world, we are here because, in part because of that duty, and that judy unlike other lakes in the world that become nothing but dumps and dead zones, this is still a pristine wonder. and the human imagination is so encouraged and nourished by it that republicans and democrats actually work together to do good for tahoe. thank you, lake tahoe. [applause] beauty transcends politics, and
the beauty of lake tahoe enabled our republican governor ronald reagan and governor in nevada, and today myself a, governor sandoval a republican, we work very closely because we have a higher cause. and a cause that transcends deputy issues that often divide our political parties. so that's something to celebrate and that's exactly what we are doing today. [applause] and by the way, the cooperation continues. nevada is going to build a billion dollar electric battery plant, and california is building the cars that are going to use the batteries. so together that out and california are going to electrify and renew the world right from here. [applause]
>> we have over a quarter of in the electric cars in california. our goal is a building and a half in the next five years and we will have millions in the lifetime of the people here. at least most of you, not all of you. but anyway, the beauty of electric cars driving around the lake, they don't emit nitrates. one epic into being causes to the murky quality of the lake at a certain level of the nitrates coming out of the combustion automobile. someday the sun at electric battery made in nevada will be preserving the lake tahoe for generations to. [applause] so the paradox of power, the power of oil and the power of coal to light up our houses and to run our factories, that becomes the dark shadow of
climate change and global warming and radical disruption of our climate system. that is the dilemma that our power off and out runs our clarity and our wisdom to do anything about it. that's what i say our power curve, whether it's the technologies that are disrupting our climate, whether it's the thousands of nuclear weapons that threatened the survival of civilization, although that is power and that curve is going up. .. our next speaker and i served togetr as california senators for the past 24 years. from the marin county board of
supervisors to the house of representatives to the united states senate, senator boxer has been a powerful voice on environmental issues. she was the cosponsor of the original lake tahoe restoration act in 2000, along with myself, senator reid, and then nevada senator richard ryan. as chairman of the environment and public works committee of the united states senate she was able to push that bill that brings $300 million of federal funds to the lake. and she is an original cosponsor of our new bipartisan lake tahoe restoration bill which is now winding its way through the united states senate and the house of representatives. it reauthorizes vital restoration projects and it ads 415 million in federal funding.
great respect for senator boxer's passion, dedication and enthusiasm for protecting our environment. no one does it better. ladies and gentlemen, senator barbara boxer. [cheers and applause] >> thank you. i'm standing on my box so i can see you, otherwise it would be remember when the queen of england came and you only saw her hair? it would be like that. [laughter] well, i am so honored to be part of this tahoe team. i am so proud to see some of you here. i don't know how many of you are here for the killers. [cheering] but there is also, a lot of you are here for the killers and to save lake tahoe.
[cheering] and isn't great to be here with one of the greatest environmental presidents of all times, barack obama? [cheers and applause] and senator feinstein said in '97 we were here and we shared the stage at the first tahoe summit with another great environmental president, william jefferson clinton. [applause] and my brother, harry reid, was there. and i have to say even though he is not on the stage right you now, i have to thank you for sending him to the senate so many times. he has been such a great advocate for nevada, for lake tahoe. he has stood up against the polluters and climate change deniers. and harry, wherever you are, we
love you. [cheers and applause] to be here with that fantastic governor who is now serving his fourth term. is that right, jerry? yeah, fourth time. as a younger guy and as a mature guy. jerry brown and i go back to the '70s when he had the vision at that time to bring solar energy forward. and now here today recommitting to saving lake tahoe and also some of you will learn later, his administration just signed a memorandum of understanding to save the salt sea and other wonders of nature in california. [applause] senator feinstein, my friend,
diane, our work together to save our coast, to save our deserts, to save our bays and to save lake tahoe, those are incredible accomplishments i will always treasure. thank you, diane. lake tahoe, it is the jewel of the sierra which mark twain called the fairest picture the whole earth affords. it is home to 290 species of wildlife, and don't forget the beauty lures so many millions of visitors every year to keep our economy strong. it is known around the world for the breathtaking vistas and esteem water clarity. we know we have had problems. i won't reiterate them. they have been stated.
that is why we brought president clinton here in '97, yes, we are here to celebrate the progress. but also note we have more work to do. senator feinstein mentioned this. i will mention it again. this past january the lake tahoe restoration act of 2015, which would provide 450 million over the next 10 years to the lake, was approved unanimously by the environment and public works committee. unanimously. you don't get that vote when you pass a resolution on mother's day. this was a fabulous accomplishment. [applause] and it is working our way to the senate floor, and i hope you will all keep the pressure on because the lake tahoe bill is now part of a larger bill called, the water resources development act that has a lot of important provisions in it. but if we get that done, we're on our way.
look, we know climate change is getting worse. it poses a continuing threat to the lake. it makes the lake more hospitable to the invasive species. more fires are a danger. in closing, i want to thank you again. i want to thank our president again because he has taken courageous, courageous administrative action to reduce carbon pollution. making the united states a leader on clean energy, building on what governor brown is doing in california. these are two great leaders, and i would say this president, among the greatest odds, was able to lead an international coalition to flight climate change f we're successful, we will save this incredible lake tahoe. so thank you for caring. thank you for coming out here today. even though i'm winding down my
career i will work to save lake tahoe. thank you so much. [cheers and applause] >> i always say, barbara and i are the long and the short of it so. in 1997 the la stood at a critical junctn and it was then that we put together our private public partnership. and it was then that again we formed the teams. and every year, we would get together, we had what we call a stakeholders meeting and a summit. our police and fire chiefs have played a vital role. i see some of them here today. i would like to ask that they stand and that you give them a big, warm, round of applause. [applause]
i think for many of us in this generation who love this lake, it really took the angora fire to see how our fire departments worked and how critical it is that we remove dead trees from our forests and be able to protect against forest fires. [applause] yesterday we had a stakeholders lunch and i would say there were about 50 people there and they were all kind of the movers and shakers around the lake, the elected supervisors, the scientists, the professors from both the university of california and the university of nevada. fire chiefs, et cetera. and we heard from the director of the tahoe research center,
dr. jeff shaldow and you know what he said to us? he said lake tahoe is getting warmer faster than any large lake in the world. the ambient air temperature is up. the lake has warmed dramatically, and so it is really our job, as you listen to this wonderful music today, to figure out how you can help us to save this lake. we are determined to do so. there are major challenges ahead. we've got to redouble our efforts. we've got to pass this new bill. this will help. we've got to have a team tahoe that's in the thousands. so, if you're interested in helping us, please do so. just let us know and we'll put it together. now here to discuss one of the new investments in the lake is the assistant secretary of land
and minerals management at the department of the interior, janice schneider. i had a chance to talk to her. i think she knows her stuff. she was confirmed to her current position in 2014. she was appointed by president obama. she has more than 30 years of environmental and natural resources experience in both the public and private sectors. as the assistant secretaries she oversees four department agencies, bureau of land management. the bureau of safety and environmental enforcement and the office of surface mining, reclamation and enforcement. she is committed to managing, protecting, and improving the public lands and waters, places like our own tahoe basin. thank you for joining us today, secretary schneider. [applause]
you don't he need to --. >> no box for me. thanks for everyone being here today. thanks for joining us. i will talk a little bit more about fire. i know that senator reid will be back in a moment but i want to acknowledge his vision back in in 1998, he was instrumental in passing a statute called the nevada southern lands management act in which many, many partners have come together to work on a host of related issues. i want to acknowledge my colleague, kneel krnsey, i couldn't acknowledge a better partner in the work we're doing. i don't see his cowboy hat, john ruse, the nevada state director who is also here.
i also want to acknowledge the 21,000 volunteers to have worked to make projects, an acronym i did not come up with, over close to 20 years and really making them a reality. it is based on a very simple idea. funds generated from the sale of designated lands near las vegas, put to use, improving quality of our life and the environment. so today it is my great pleasure to announce earlier in the day we approved eight important projects funded by snplma, that will receive close to $30 million. [applause] what is really great that 25 million of that amount is going to the lake tahoe basin and the surrounding area. [applause] these funds will support restoration and conservation,
hazardous fuel reduction and wildfire prevention on more than 20,000-acres of public and private land in nevada and california in and around the lake tahoe area. the good news, this is what they call round 16-a. we'll announce more project awards later this year. i want to share with you how important snplma is. since the enactment in 1998, it has raised 3.9 billion, billion with a b to benefit places in california and lake tahoe as well. it funded more than 1200 projects which 800,000 acres of wildlife habitat is restored. 72,000-acres of environmental i sensitive man acquired and 3500 miles of rails or roads to work with be moved. the buckets can be used for and the projects we're announcing today are in the fire category.
these projects that we're finding will help protect homes and residents as well as forests and important wildlife habitat from wildfire. we all know that wildfires are becoming more frequent and severe due to climate change and other factors. threatening the well-being of our communities and the resources on which they depend. over the last 10 years, on average, more than 5 million acres burned annually across this nation. just last year alone, we had over 10 million acres burned, a recorder i don't. if you take a hike in and around the tahoe area you see evidence of some of this fire and other activities. so here in the wild land urban interface, we need to take smart actions now to help protect our communities and our environment. so i want to share with you some of the details an some of our partners because, partners are really what make this is project work. with these funds, the north lake tahoe fire protection district
will reduce hazardous fuels in incline village. the forest service will reduce hazardous fuels and improve forest health on forest lands throughout the basin. conservation district will deliver a coordinated fire adapted communities program including extensive community outreach and assistance for wildfire preparedness to help private property owners improve fire defensible space around their homes. and the california tahoe conservancy will facilitate hazardous fuel reduction treatment on private property on the california side of the basin. snplma and projects it fosters represents a major savings to the american taxpayer. these projects benefit local residents in california and nevada and visitors to the lake tahoe area by making places safer as well as assisting our brave men and women on the fire line when we have those challenges to face. the department of the interior is proud to partner with the many people and organizations
who protect this beautiful area and make snplma such a success. thank you for having me and thank you, senator reid, for having the vision we're celebrating today. [applause] >> thank you very much, madam secretary. we'll put the money to good use, right? right. [applause] as you can see lake tahoe has many, to use a boxing term, many supporters in its corner including the host of this year's summit, who just happens to be a former boxer himself. i want to take a moment and ask that you join with me in acknowledging the fact that this is senator harry reid's last summit in office. come on. [applause]
as the democratic leader in the senate, he has been really a forceful leader for the lake, both here and in nevada and in nevada and in washington. and it was his leadership that made the first summit possible. and as i said, brought president clinton to really dramatize it. without his support we could not have passed the original lake tahoe restoration act in 2000 and we wouldn't be as close to passing its reauthorization as we are now. over the past two decades his efforts to help restore this lake have been admirallable. as a calfornian, i would like to thank the democratic leader from nevada for his dedication, for his his passion, in caring for our shared lake. ladies and gentlemen, once again, senator harry reid. [applause]
>> more than a century ago mark twain described lake tahoe as the beautiful relic of a fairly land forgotten, left to sleep in the snowy sierras and also as the fairest picture the whole earth affords. that is a quote from mark twain and he was right. today we're witnesses to the wonder which mark twain spoke and wrote. those many many years ago. look at this lake today. and we have all looked today. its clarity is unique and it's
historic and we need to keep it that way but 21 years ago it was a different story. emerald waters were becoming murky. invasive species, more than a century of logging, apartment complexes, motels, hotels, unfettered growth were wreaking havoc to this beautiful basin. over the decades the world discovered the beauty of lake tahoe. it wasn't just mark twain. the world discovered the beauty of lake tahoe and it was being loved to death. out of desperation something different was needed i believed. something different was a presidential summit dealing only with lake tahoe. on monday in the morning i reached out to al gore. i reminded him that my first call for help 21 years ago was to him, the vice president. he of course talked to the president, president clinton. the rest is history. my invitation was accepted.
the tahoe summit was born. because of that first summit nevada became focused on lake tahoe, california became focused on lake tahoe. the nation became focused on lake tahoe. because they were here for two days, we had international press and international attention on lake tahoe. today, 49 state senators are here, minus one. i'm sorry about that. made a mistake. so preparing for the first summit we had 49 state senators, six cabinet secretaries, governors, congressman, administration officials and of course the vice president and president were here. they were here in attendance at the first summit. it was a wonderful occasion. al gore knew lake tahoe. this is where he and tipper honeymooned. the first gathering was five months in preparation. there were field hearings. meetings by the president's
cabinet. other administration officials. they met with city officials, county officials, state officials, environmentalists, business developers, native-american community. landowners in the lake tau how basin. they met with virtually everyone. a partnership was developed because everyone wanted to help. that is why the first summit was a success. during that first summit, president clinton really summed it up properly, when he said, and i quote, we have an awful lot of work to do. he was sure right. some said government intervention would worsen the health of the lake. some said government intervention would damage the lake. to those critics lake tahoe is better today than it was when we started two decades ago. [applause] time and resources have been dedicated to water clarity,
removal of these logging roads that were so, so polluting. transportation upgrades we've made significantly. we've developed meadows for water runoff. we reduced fire hazards by fire reduction and other techniques and we've had the best scientific research in the world. we have had, that is why the head of the national science foundation is here today. that is why some of the best scholars out of california and nevada worked on this 12 months a year. significant money has been invested in this wopped dangerous lake by states of -- wondrous lake by the states of nevada and california and a generous private sector. in the last 20 years, $2 billion has been invested to take care of this lake. the partnership we developed 20 years ago, is significant to the environmental restoration of the lake tahoe basin. today's lake summit, i indicated when i started this whole deal a little while ago, is a celebration of progress.
it's a celebration. a celebration of unity. there is much, much more work to be done in the future. we can't be complacent. our work is not finished. who better to celebrate the 209th anniversary -- 20th anniversaries of the celebration of the restoration of lake tahoe than the president of the united states. [applause] no one, no one in america understands the value of environmental treasures, a place like lake tahoe, no one understands them better than barack obama. he has done so much with his pen because congress simply wouldn't act. think of, just what he has done to protect our public lands and waterways. he has done more than any president in the history of our great country protecting more than 260 million-acres that were
not protected before he became president. [applause] the so let's reflect his historic work on climate, clean energy, wind, geothermal and solar. we all owe a debt, a huge debt to the president. a debt of gratitude for his courage on something dear to each of us. for those of us in nevada and the country, the permanent protection of our public lands is something we want very, very much. he is going to continue that. but not the least of which, this great work he has done, was protection of 700,000-acres in nevada in one spot, as pristine land. it's, called basin range and what is the hallmark of that unique place? something we called the city. a work of art that is so fabulous and mr. president, we appreciate very much.
you did this with your pen. president obama recognizes the climate change presents environmental threats to places like lake tahoe. all over the world and because of president obama, our country, the united states is leading the world in use of reducing dangerous carbon pollution. it has been an honor to work with this good man for a decade. ladies and gentlemen, it is my pleasure to introduce the 44th president of the united states, president barack obama. [cheers and applause] ♪
♪ >> hello, lake tahoe! [applause] this is really nice. i, i will be coming here more often. [cheers and applause] you know, my transportation won't be as nice but i'll be able to spend a little more time here. first of all, i want to thank harry reid. [applause] and, because he is a captive audience he doesn't actually like people talking about him but he is stuck here so i'm going to talk about him for a second. you know, harry grew up in a town that didn't have much. no high school, no doctors office. searchlight sure didn't have much grass to mow or many trees
to climb. it didn't look like this. so when harry discovered a lush desert oasis down the road called paiute springs, he fell in loch. and when harry met the love of his life, he couldn't wait to take her there but when he got to the green spring that herry remembered, he was devastated to see that the place had been trashed. and that day harry became an environmentalist. and he has been working hard ever since to preserve the natural gifts of nevada, and these united states of america. [cheering] harry has protected first quarter and wildlife across the state.
he helped to end a century-old water war. he created nevada's first and only national park. right after i took office the very first act harry's senate passed was one of the most important conservation efforts in a generation. we protected more than two million acres of wilderness and thousands of miles of trails and rivers. that was because of harry reid. [cheering] [applause] last summer thanks to harry reid's leadership we protected more than 700,000 acres of mountains and valleys right here in nevada, establishing the basin and range national monument. two decades ago the senator from searchlight train ad national spotlight right here on lake tahoe. and as he prepares to ride off into the sunset, although i
don't want him getting on a horse, this 20th anniversary summit proves that the light harry lit shines as bright as ever. [cheers and applause] in a few months i will be riding off into that same sunset. no, it's true. it's okay. i'm still, i'm going to be coming around, i told you. i just won't have marine one. i will be driving. but, but let me tell you one of the great pleasures of being president is having strong relationships with people who do the right thing. they get criticized, they have got a tough job but they get in
this tough business because ultimately they care about this country and they care about the people they represent. and that is true of dianne feinstein. [cheers and applause] that is true of barbara boxer. that is true of the outstanding governor of california, jerry brown. [cheers and applause] that's true of our outstanding folks who work for the department of interior and work for the, and, who help look after our forests, that help after our national parks, but help manage our water and try to conserve the wildlife and the birds and all of the things that we want to pass on to the next generation. and, so i'm going to miss the day-to-day interactions that i've gotten, and i will mishearry though he is not a sentimental guy.
we talked backstage, anybody who has gotten on phone with harry reid, you will be mid conversation, once he is finished with the whole point of the conversation, you will still be talking and you realize he has hung up. he does that to the president of the united states. [laughter] and it takes you like three or four of these conversations to realize he is not mad at you, but he doesn't have much patience for small talk. but harry is tough. i believe he is going to go down as one of the best leaders that the senate ever had. i could not have accomplished what i accomplished without him being at my side. so, i want to say publicly, to the people of nevada, to the people of lake tahoe, to the people of america, i could not be prouder to have worked alongside the democratic leader of the senate, harry reid.
give him a big round of applause. [cheers and applause] so it's special to stand on the shores of lake tahoe. i have never been here. no, i, it is not like i didn't want to come. nobody invited me. i didn't know if i had a place to stay. so now that i have, i finally got here i'm going to come back. [cheering] and, and i want to come back not just because it's beautiful, not
just because -- not just because i love you back. not just because the godfather too is maybe my favorite movie. i was flying over the lake i was thinking about fredo. [laughter] tough. but, this place is spectacular because it is one of the highest, deepest, oldest and purest lakes in the world. [cheering] [applause] it's been written the lake's waters were once so clear when you were out on a boat you felt like you were floating in a balloon, unless you were frado. it has been written that the air here is so is fine it must be the same air that the angels breathe.
so, it's no wonder that for thousands of years this place has been a spirit -- spiritual one. for the washoe people it is center of their world. [applause] just as this place is sacred to native americans it should be sacred to all americans and that's why we're here, to protect this special pristine place, to keep these waters crystal clear. to keep air as pure as heavens. to keep alive the spirit and keep this truth, challenges of climate change are linked. [inaudible] okay, i'm sorry. i got you. okay. i got you. thank you.
that's a great banner. i'm about to talk about it though, so you're interrupting me. now, i was going to talk about climate change and why it is so important. you know, we tend to think of climate change as if it's something that is just happening out there that we don't have control over but the fact is that it is man-made. it is not, we think it is man-made. it is not we guess it is man-made. not a lot of people are saying it's man-made. it's not, i'm not a scientist, so i don't know. you don't have to be scientist. you have to read or listen to scientists. to know that -- [cheering] that the overwhelming body of scientific evidence shows us that climate change is caused by human activity.
and when we protect our lands, it helps us protect the climate for the future. so conservation is critical, not just for one particular spot, one particular park, one particular lake. it is critical for our entire ecosystem and conservation is more than just putting up a plaque and calling something a park. [applause] we embrace conservation because healthy, diverse lands and waters help us build resilience to climate change. we do it to free more of our communities and plants and animals and species from wildfires, and droughts and displacement. we do it because when most of the 4.5 million people who come to lake tahoe every year are tourists, economies like this one live or die by the health of our natural resources.
[applause] we do it because places like this nurture and respore the soul and we want to make sure that's there for our kids too. [applause] now as a former washo tribe leader once said, the health of the land and the health of the people are tied together and what happens to the land also happens to the people. that is why we worked so hard, everybody on the stage, harry's leadership, the work we've done in our administration to preserve treasures like this for future generations. and we have proven that the choice between our environment, our economy and our health is a false one. we've got to strengthen all of them together. [applause]
in the 20 years that president clinton and senator reid started this summit, they improved habitats, improved roads, stopped pollution and stopped wildfires. that is especially important that the severe drought, all of you know and can see with your own eyes. a single wildfire in a dangerously flammable lake tahoe basin can erase decades of progress when it comes to water quality. it endangers one of the epicenters of food production in california. changing climate threatens even the best conservation efforts. keep in mind, 2014 was the warmest year on record, until you guessed it, 2015. and now 2016 is on pace to be even hotter. for 14 months in a row now the earth has broken global temperature records.
lake tahoe's average temperature is rising at fastest rate ever and its temperature is the warmest on record. because climate and conservation are challenges that go hand in hand, our conservation mission is more urgent than ever. everybody who is here, including those who are very eager for me to finish so they can listen to the killers. [cheering] [laughter]. i've only got a few more pages. our conservation effort is more critical, more urgent than ever. and we made this a priority from day one. we, as harry mentioned, protected more acres of public lands and water than any administration in history. now -- [cheers and applause] last week alone we protected land, water and wildlife from maine to hawaii.
including creation of the world's largest marine protected area. [cheers and applause] and, apropos of that young lady's sign, we have been working on climate change on every front. we worked to generate more clean energy, use less dirty energy, waste less energy overall. in my first month in office harry helped america make the single largest investment in renewable energy in our history. dianne feinstein, barbara boxer, have been at the forefront of this. jerry brown has been doing incredible legislative work in his state. these investments that helped drive down the cost of clean power, so it is finally cheaper than dirty power in a lot of places. it helps us multiply wind power threefold, solar power more than 30 fold. it has created tens of thousands of good jobs.
it is adding to paychecks, subtracting from energy bills. it has been the smart and right thing to do. [cheers and applause] then one year ago this month we finalized the clean power plant that spurs new sources of energy and gives states the tools to limit pollutions that power plants spew into the sky. as i mentioned last week, california passed an ambition plan to cut carbon solution and jerry, i know you agree, more states need to follow california's lead. [applause] on a national level we've enacted tough fuel economy standards for cars which means you can drive further on a gallon of gas. it will save you your pocketbook, and save the environment. we followed that up with the first-ever standards for commercial trucks, vans and buses. and as a consequence, during the
first half of this year, carbon pollution hit its lowest level in a quarter of a century, and by the way, during the same time, we have had the longest streak of job creation on record. the auto industry is booming. there is no contradiction between being smart on the environment and having a strong economy and we got to keep it going. [cheers and applause] so, so this isn't just a challenge, this is an opportunity. and today in tahoe we're taking three more significant steps to boost conservation and climate action. first, we're supporting conservation projects across nevada to restore watersheds, stop invasive species, and further reduce the risks posed by hazardous fuels and wildfires. number two. we're incentivizing private
capital to come off the sidelines and contribute to conservation because government can't do it alone. number three, in partnership with california we're going to reverse the deterioration of the salt sea before it is too late. that will help a lot of folks all across the west. [applause] so, so we're busy. and from here i'm going to travel to my original home state of hawaii where the united states is proud to host the world conservation congress for the first time. tomorrow i'm going to go to midway to visit the vast marine area we just created. and to honor those who sacrificed their lives to protect our freedom. [cheers and applause] then i head to china with whom we have partnered as the world's two largest economies and two
largest carbon emitters to set historic climate targets that will lead the rest of the world to cleaner, more secure future. [applause] so just two back to quote from marshall elder. what happens to the land also happens to the people. i made it a priority in my presidency to protect the natural resource we inherited because we shouldn't be the last to enjoy them. just as the health of the land and people are tied together, just as climate and conservation are tied together, we share a sacred connection with those who are going to follow us. i think about my two daughters. i think about harry's 19 grandchildren. yeah, that is a lot of grand kids. [laughter]. the future generations who deserve clean water and clean air that will sustain their
bodies and sustain their souls. jewels like lake tahoe. and it is not going happen without a lot of hard work and if we pretend a snowball in winter means nothing's wrong. it will not happen how we boast we'll scrap international treaties or, or have elected officials who are alone in the world in denying climate change. or put our energy and environmental policies in the hands of big polluters. it is not going to happen if we pay lip service to conservation but then refuse to do what's needed. when scientists first told us that our planet was changing because of human activity, it was received as a bombshell but in a way we shouldn't have been surprised. the most important changes are always the changes made by us. and the fact that we've been able to grow our clean energy
economy proves that we have agency. we've got power. diminishing carbon pollution, proves we can do something about it. our healing of lake tahoe proves it is within our power to pass on the incredible bounty of this country to a next generation. our work isn't done. so after i leave office and harry leaves office and barbara, she is going to be right alongside us, on a slightly smaller horse, because she has to get up on top of it, after we've all left office, the charge, to continue to make positive change is going to be in all of our hands as citizens. i always say the most important office in a democracy is the office of citizen. change happens because of you. don't forget that. thank you, god bless you. [cheers and applause] god bless the united states of america.
>> tonight donald trump gives a speech outlining his immigration policy. this afternoon he was in mexico city for a meeting with the mexican president. he said they discussed his proposal to build a wall on the u.s.-mexico border but mr. trump did not talk about his proposal that mexico pay for the wall. that was in mexico. tonight in phoenix, arizona, donald trump gives his immigration speech at 9:00 p.m. eastern. we have it live on c-span. here is a preview of the speech from a "usa today" reporter.ay >> miss collins, good morning. >> good morning. thanks for having me. >> what do we know exactly about the positions this speech will take in arizona today by donald trump? >> so we really don't know much. he has been a little bit vague leading up to the speech. we know he will double down on it.
he will still call for the wall. as now we know -- calling for mexico to pay for it. he is going, late last night hee tweeted he will go to the meet with the president of the mexico before the speech. there could always be some changes to that policy after that meeting which he can kind of talk about in terms of compromise. we know that he is going to really double down on stronger enforcement, and getting criminals out of the country. >> host: so talk about arizona. why there and specifically then what's been the reaction maybe from those in arizona about thi? speech? >> guest: arizona is a republican state. he such right now there, notat actually by a ton but by a reasonable ahead, about five points. so it is comfortable place for him to be in. he has the endorsement of sheriff joe arpaio who is very, very strong on stopping illegal immigration and taps right into
that base. now arizona also has a growing hispanic population and, so, you know, mr. trump has to, is kind of going back and forth over there with people who are, do not like his policies at all, and the democrats have kind of tried to tap into that side of things. so there is definitely a mixed message but overall it is republican state with an endorsement of a sheriff who is really strong on illegal immigration. >> host: there have been stories leading up to the speech about you mentioned changing positions, possibly thatn mr. trump might be taking when it comes to immigration. for those who are most interested in that, how are they watching this speech? >> guest: what we're watching for today if there is any kind of quote, unquote, softening from him. his team said last night that will definitely not happen but the reason we're looking for that is because last week he met with the hispanic advisory board, and they, coming out ofof
that meeting he said a few things, at one point he said hee would be opening to softening on his stance which is the strongest kind of immigration is his signature campaign issue throughout. he is very strong on that. at one point he called for deportation force, softening would be a very big deal. the other thing he said he would be willing to work with law-abiding, undocumented immigrants who are willing to pay back taxes. now he came out a couple days after that, you know, that is not true. i was just talking to, you know, soliciting opinions from people. i'm just as strong as ever. so if any of those things come through that is actually a change in his stance. >> host: about the meeting mr. trump will have withnt mexico's president, was it just mr. trump who was invited and what is the on the begin today? i imagine immigration issues would top the agenda but what else would be discussed? >> we don't know very much. hillary clinton was also
invited. apparently the president of mexico invited them both on friday.wa we didn't hear anything untilde late last night. so i know that the trump campaign had been kind ofth working to schedule this. this is strategic scheduling. not just travelwise because although mexico city is closer to arizona than -- he can go into the speech saying i met with the president of mexico and we discussed this. we came out with these plans ang definitely it is kind of ahe presidential move. now it was not by any means just directed at donald trump. we don't know what they will be talking about besides that, but it is just kind of a leading up to the election, our two countries are connected. let's talk about things, assuming immigration will -- with donald trump. >> host: the speech today, eliza collins, anything we should know or anything important for our viewers to watch for from this speech? >> i think we're really looking for details tonight. you can talk about the wall.
you can talk about getting criminals out but what about these 11, 12 million undocumented immigrants who are in the country right now? we're really looking for what is going to happen to them. he previously said, get them all out, and so, we're curious as to what he intends to do. or if he would be willing to let some of them stay. >> host: eliza collins, reports on politics for "usa today" talking about the speech by donald trump tonight. miss collins. thank you. >> guest: thank you. >> donald trump's speech on immigration is live on c-span at 9:00 p.m. eastern. the presidential debates start end of september. the first debate between hillary clinton and donald trump is monday, september 26th at hofstra university outside of new york city. on sunday, october 9th the town hall debate between the candidates is at washington university of st. louis. and the last debate is wednesday october 19th at the university of nevada las vegas.
all three debates 9:00 p.m. eastern and you can see them live on c-span. >> booktv recently visited capitol hill to ask members of congress what they're reading this summer. >> as i mentioned the to you before i usually keep a book on my nightstand in indiana as i travel back and forth to washington every week, sometimes more than once a week. i keep a book on my nightstand here and my place in washington. so before i go to bed i try to get some good reading in. then i have my on the plane book which i read going back and forth. so not surprisingly the two books that i'm reading here in indiana, just finished incidentally, jack chem's book, bleeding heart conservative. i was a very close friend of jack chem, coats family had a very good personal relationship.
jack kemp. also the latest book here on the politics which fits for washington is mitch mcconnell 's book. the long road, what is it, the long road? >> the long game. >> the long game, the title. since he is my boss and he gave me a free book, i ought to read it. so, since i see him every day, hey, i just read chapter 7. didn't know this about you, et cetera, et cetera. then my book on the plane is a new book about churchhill that was written about it former mayor of london, boris johnson. i'm a big churchhill fan. i read ever book i can get on churchhill this is different perspective. i recommend it to people because it's a totally different look at churchhill in different perspectives. so i'm enjoying that. i'm right in middle of that right now. my book at home, i have to read a spy book. i'm on the intelligence committee.
i love spy books. he wrote a book called tightrope, about a world war ii spy that was airdropped into france to report on the germans and so forth. absorbing novel. so those four recently have been, in my books and then i'm stacking up ideas for the break here in august to hopefully have a little more time reading. >> i hope to finish a couple books. first of all i'm reading "freedom's cast," given to me by senator roy blunt. this is a book about the dome being put on the capitol building pre-civil war but what is, what i found especially interesting, i get into the book is a focus on the house chamber and the senate chamber and how those were added to the original capitol building. one of the main proponents of that is jefferson davis.
so while we're approaching the civil war, we have jefferson davis really helping our country helping build a capitol building which would serve our entire company and then we know later he became later the president of the confederacy. that is a book i'm hoping to get through. i started it and i need to finish it. i also want to read about destiny and power, which is the book by john meacham on george h.w. bush. i would like to get that done this summer. and then every summer i try to read a book that i have read before. last summer i read "to kill a mockingbird.." the summer before that, i read, "all the king's men," which is one of my favorite books. this summer i'm going to reread dickens, "tale of two cities." >> well, i have a bigger stack than i've got time i fear but
right now, i'm reading the wright brothers, david mccullough's book, wonderful american story of ingenuity and creativity. the library of congress does a great series for members of congress and they bring in authors and they interview them. they talk about their most recent books and i had the opportunity to see david mccullough talking about this book. they give us each a copy of the books for those of us who come to the event and so it's a wonderful story. >> well first, i'll tell you that i think the best book that i read last year was a book called, "poetry night at the ballpark," by bill kaufman which had nothing to do with poetry but was about minor league baseball and politics and history. i really, i recommend that book to anybody. i'm currently reading three books. i'm reading the scott biography
of woodrow wilson which is a very long rebut very good. i'm reading a new book by bill bryson called, the road to little -- which is sort of travel book about his travels around the small towns of great britain, sort of a sequel to a book that he he wrote 25 years ago i guess about britain and about england. then i'm reading, a third book called, "the boys in the boat," which is about the rowing team from the university of washington for the 1936 olympics. it was recommended to me by one of my staffers. i ordinarily, i never really had an interest in rowing before reading this book you but it's, it is a lot about hitler and history and also about rowing. >> booktv wants to know what you're reading this summer. tweet us your answer @booktv, or
most important thing. family was secondary for sure. we elk that use this area. they use the drainages for thing. we also have tears or there may be some farms out here. coyotes or other mammals, occasionally there is a bear in this area. >> kimberly fields author of the book the denver mint 100 years of gangsters golding goes toxic that have the mint change the city. >> by the 1880s, denver itself had gotten rich from mining and it wanted to become the queen
city of the planes, the center of commerce, the leader of the western united states and the city fathers at that point decided that a mint they could be proud of was going to be part of that process. >> the c-span city stewart denver colorado saturday at noon eastern c-span2 spoke tv and sunday afternoon at 2:00 on american history tv on c-span3. dr. anthony fauci had at the national institute of infectious diseases said the nih is still working on developing a vaccine or the zika virus up more money is needed from congress. his remarks came today in a speech to at georgetown university medical school. >> is a pleasure to be back here at the institute and particularly to join my colleague and dear friends steve morrison and lucienne lair and
discussing this really important problem and that is really described on the first slide right here of a pandemic in process. this is not a retrospective analysis of what went on but really a description of what is evolving more and more literally every week not only in the americas but as we see now in singapore. they are starting to have a situation that is quite worrying and i'm sure we'll get into that during the discussion period. what i'm going to do is set the stage is very sad for discussion on zika. i show first this paper that i recently published. it was in january about a month and a half after it became clear to me and my colleagues at nih that we needed to have an accelerated effort. i chose the title the zika virus and the americas yet another irish threat because i wanted to put into context that this is not just a one-off issue that we are facing. if you look over the last several years