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tv   Book Discussion on First Women  CSPAN  September 3, 2016 11:00pm-12:01am EDT

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and the experiences from the pentagon and hopefully you will be back. >> guest: i will leave that for other people to do but thank you so much. >> great. >> c-span, created by america's cable television companies and brought to you as a public service for cable or satellite provider. here is a look at upcoming book fairs and festivals. the brooklyn book festival in down town new new york. and then on saturday september 24th, book tv is live from the national book festival at the washington convention center in the nation's capitol,
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surprised winners, stacy shift and joby as well as your phone calls by authors bob and others. and for more information about the book fairs and the festivals book tv would be covering, click the book fairs tab at booktv.org . [inaudible conversations] >> good evening, everyone, thank you so much for coming out on this friday night. i'm a book seller and seller and on behalf of the owners and staff i would like to welcome you all to this event. before we get going just a
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couple of housekeeping eye tems, first of all if you could turn off or silence your cell phones, for the qu&a remember to step up to the microphone on your right. before asking your questions as we are being filmed, hi, folks at home. we can all hear and partake in the conversation. copies of tonight's books are behind the register in the front of the store. i recommend that you do. lastly it would be great if you could fold up your chairs and now to the main event. kate worked for cbs and fox news in washington, d.c. she then covered the obama white house for four years for boom berg news. i can say that that it's one of my favorite books.
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in her new book first women the grace and power of america's first ladies, kate chimes on one misunderstood and challenging of roles. the stories range from shock to go track i believe to shock felt . it has gotten great reviews. usa wrote that has a surprisingly deep look and i'm positive that i new now have fictional recommendation for visitors and without further due help me in welcomeing -- welcoming kate andersen brower. >> thank you very much. that was the nicest intro i have
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ever gotten. you've made my day, i made a book about residents and that inspired me to write this book about the first ladies because when i spoke with the household staff at the white house, they would often say when a decision comes from the second floor that means it coming from the east wing, the first lady herself and i thought that was interesting, their relationship with the first lady led me to sort of delve into the role of first lady and what is it like, it's one of the hardest jobs, i think, because there's no, you know, job description for it. they don't have any idea of really what they are supposed to do and you're damn if you do and damn if you don't and i interviewed three first ladies for the residents, laura bush, barbara bush and roselyn carter.
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how difficult it is to watch her husband and campaign for her husband and have him lose an election and these women work incredibly hard behind the scenes and specially with this election that we are going through as we speak, it's going to be fascinating who the presidential spouse would be and it be the first man to ever occupy the role, we don't even know what we would call him, the first gentleman, i guess who was a former president and, of course, which will change the mold forever and maybe make it easier for first ladies in the future to continue their careers and perhaps have a bigger seat at the table. women like hillary clinton and roos line carter sat in on cabinet meetings, hillary clinton famously had an office in the the west wing and i think most people or many people were not happy with the extent of involvement that both of those women had in the white house and so we will see if bill clinton changes any of that and melania
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trump would be the first immigrant first lady, luĂ­sa adams, born in london but her father was american. it would be very interesting to see melania both of her parents slovanian. i had a lunch with michelle obama and at this lunch that was meant to promote the let's move campaign, she made an off-hand remark about president obama finally kicking his smoking habit and that became the huge headline from this lunch and that also made me think the whole lunch was staged an she was really not very, you know, it was something that was meant to promote the signature issue and the honest comment she made totally overtook the whole point
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of a lunch and so that also made me think about the limitations placed on the women, the pressure put on them and their constitutionally required to be perfect. [laughter] >> it's incredible job, when i interviewed steve ford, my mother wasn't perfect. she was an ordinary woman in an extraordinariy time. it's their imperfection and humanity that makes them compelling and interesting and without these women their husbands wouldn't have been elected and that's almost to a person and i start the book with jackie kennedy, mostly because i wanted to interview people who were still a live and talked to people who were there. i interviewed a wonderful woman who was lady bird johnson who were members, the relationship between jackie and lady byrd so i wanted to start with jackie also because she's probably next to el -- eleanor and i was happy
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because i got to speak with a few resident staffers including the head butler who he was very tough to get for the first book he would not answer my phone calls but then finally i was able to get an interview with him and he had some great stories that were really illuminating about the obamas in the white house because he was one of the butlers who worked on the second floor. one thing that i thought was interesting was the security concerns that the obamas and every first family faces but specially the obamas and he talked about in the truman balcony, sometimes the butlers would suggest that they would not eat outside because there were too many people crowded in the south lawn and when they do see the president and the white house they have to make sure they're positioned behind columns. it's a really incredibly,
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stressful place to live and i thought that really shed like on the prison-like elements of the white house that michelle obama has talked about recently and how she can't wait to leave. [laughter] >> because she and hillary clinton are so different. hillary clinton can't wait to come back into the white house and michelle can't wait to get out. [laughter] >> another thing i wanted to get to with this book is empathy that these women have for each other and there's letters between them that you can find in the presidential libraries that show, you know, lady byrd johnson writing to jackie kennedy and the relationship that is go well beyond years in the white house and some of the letters were really touching and, you know, lady byrd writing to caroline kennedy after john kennedy's death in plane crash and think about the history that the johnsons and kennedys had
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together. lady byrd was in the motorcade when jfk was killed and i thought it was a window to the personal dynamic. i thought it was very sweet that letters that lady byrd johnson would write to first ladies would write do not answer in all caps in the margins because she didn't want them to feel compel today write anything if they were, you know, sometimes these women would learn about an illness or, you know, for instance, when president reagan was diagnosed with alzheimer's there's wonderful letter between betty ford writing to nancy reagan where they feel for her and there's incredible personal element with these letters back before everyone used emails all of the time so interest to go see the dynamic. one thing i thought it was interesting i start it had book wondering if there was a letter that first ladies leave for each other in the way presidents
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leave to each other and i found out that there isn't, you know, they don't have any formal letter but what they do do -- and between the election in november, the outgoing first lady gives the first lady or first gentleman, potentially in this case a tour of the second and third floors of the white house and during this tour they offer each other advice. after the 2000 election hillary clinton told laura bush told not the give the responsibility role cloud her decision-making. jackie had invited her and chelsea to go to the ballet in new york but hillary said she was too busy and couldn't make it and jackie passed away a few months and hillary regretted that and she we wanted to pass on this piece of advice to laura
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and told laura that she regretted having an office in the west wing and i spoke with one clinton aide that talked about they wished when they saw the public reaction to it, they wish that they could have turned back time and not have the west-wing office and perhaps she was too ambitious thinking that she could recreate the role of first lady when the public wasn't ready. another thing that's interesting is there's one spot where they can stand where the outgoing first lady and the income first lady stand and they can point to the oval office and you can see into the rose garden and see into the oval office and every first lady will take the incoming first lady to the spot. if you stand right here you can see your husband working, it's kind of a way to spy on their husbands and to feel connected, i think, in some way to their lives between they do feel very confined specially the women. a lot of them i was surprised
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worked out of the residence. nancy reagan rarely went to the east wing and had one secretary, close aide that would deliver news to her in the residence and i think that would be incredibly clotrophobic, it's a huge house . betty ford called it a one-bedroom apartment. she was eager to michelle that a life could be made for her daughters and want it had tour to be special and private even know michelle had brought along a staffer and laura told this is more michelle and i but this is a private visit for us and i thought that was interesting that michelle brought along an aide because she came from the corporate world and she thought that this what you do and there are a lot of things that, i think, you don't know about until you do them and that's one of the smaller things that
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michelle was surprised to find out. she also brought a gift which apparently you don't do either. there's all the little things that you don't know that you're not supposed to do. another thing i think that's really interesting about how michelle obama has approach it had role of first lady and this is something that's seemingly small but ping it really speaks volumes about her is that the resident staff leaves a folder of information for the president and the first lady to review outside -- a consul table outside their bedroom on the second floor and michelle obama didn't like having to walk by this table and see this work all of the time. she wanted the second floor living space to be strictly for her daughters and to feel like home to them as a family. she asked for her folder to be put in an office area off of the bedroom and for the president's folder to be put in the treaty room which is essentially an office of the second floor of the white house and i think that
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that's a really interesting small change but i think it speaks volumes about how the obamas have approached life in the white house with two young daughters. also a white house you shaller told me they're the first family to turn off the lights themselves on the second floor and before them an you shaller would turn off the light at the end of the night and i think that also speaks to their kind of middle-class, you know, roots whereas the bush's, they grew up with a lot of wealth and they were much more used to some of this and that's getting back to my first book but the resident staff said they were really great to work for because they were used to being catered too in a lot of ways and i think michelle obama and president obama found it a little bit more difficult to feel like someone was always listening to their conversations. now the relationships, i have a
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chapter about sisterhood and there's a chapter about bad blood that comes out during campaign season specially and another chapter about the sisterhood, do i think that the sisterhood is a very powerful and really interesting that it doesn't have to da with party lines, a lot of these friendships are between republicans and democrats, for instance, michelle obama and laura bush are much more similar, you know, temperamentwise than michelle obama and hillary clinton. barbara bush and nancy reagan really didn't get along at all. someone asked nancy reagan after they left the white house about barbara bush and nancy said, i didn't get to know her that well but they had been there for eight years together and i interviewed one of nancy reagan's close aides, essentially if your husband is a law partner and my husband is a law partner, it down mean that
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we have to get along. i thought that was an interesting illuminating thing to say about the dynamic of these women and that really came out very clearly because jackie kennedy would not go to the white house when lady byrd johnson asked her to come back. it was too painful after her husband's assassination and lady byrd really wanted her to come back for the dedication of the garden and her name and jackie wouldn't go until pat nixon asked her to come back, but more time had passed. it's a really dramatic scene on february 3rd 1971 jackie visited the white house for the first time since her husband's assassination. there was a private visit, she would only go if nobody knew about it.
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she didn't want any press there. she went for the unveiling of her portrait and her husband's portrait and brought along 13-year-old caroline and john kennedy, jr. and had awkward dinner with the nixons where john kennedy, jr. spilled his milk and lightened the mood considerably because it was difficult for her to go back. there were a lot of happy memories but also very hard for her and there are wonderful letters at the kennedy library that are incredible that john kennedy, jr. wrote to pat nixon and president nixon saying, i can never thank you so much for showing us the white house, i really liked everything about it and talks about sitting on the lincoln bedroom bed where his father had slept and making a wish that he would do well in school which is very sweet. so it's kind of a touching thing that they went for this visit and she went back, that jackie went back when pat nixon invited
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to. these women were rivals in 1960 during 1960 campaign. pat nixon wanted a recount, she was so upset at the results. this was not an easy relationship. can you imagine the yes she gave us. the day i always degreeded turned out to be one of the most precious one i spent with my children. may god bless you all. i think that shows the humanity among these women that they do go through so much and understand what it's like to live in the white house and go through sort of the security concerns and painful loss of jackie went through is something that pat nixon could understand and kind of sympathize with.
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during the 1976 presidential campaign, carter was on her way to pay her respects to lady birthday johnson whose husband had been the democratic president. the day before the meeting jimmy carter playboy interview, where he talks about nixon and johnson both lied and cheated and distorted the truth and merely mentioning johnson and nixon in the same at that time so close to watergate very upsetting so here is roselyn carter paying her respects to lady birthday johnson very shortly after the article ran and roselyn turned to an aide who very was close to the johnsons and said what does mrs. johnson think about the interview and the aide said, you don't say anything mrs. carter,
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it won't be brought up, you're two lovely southern lady and just be yourself and it was. there's a code that they -- lady byrd johnson knew and president johnson was not an easy man to live with and so i think that that, again, shows their very close bond and understanding. another thing that's interesting and i mention this is the prison-like element and you do hear michelle obama talk candidly about wanting to role the windows of a car and have the freedom to do that, the very simple thing. when i interviewed the chief usher who ran the white house essentially, he told me that michelle really wanted him to call her michelle and she said, you know, i really want someone to call me michelle and not mrs. obama or first lady and he said he couldn't do it and from
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then on very few people would ever call michelle again even though she desperately wanted them to. when i interviewed aides to the obamas, they said, you know, this is two years ago or a year and a half ago and they said they're ready, they're done, she cannot wait to leave the white house and so i'm sure that's only ramped up in recent months. she misses being able to spend time with her daughters without being swarmed with reporters. he told me that during socker season the first lady would tease him that he would be tied up all weekend doing car pools and he said, yeah, probably with a shrug. the little things like car pool. they really do seem to miss and her mother, michelle's mother is lonely too.
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she is in a suite on the third floor. it sounds more luxurious than it is, a bedroom with a small sitting attached to it and the head butler, he said, that he felt so badly for marian robinson one morning when he was serving her breakfast, do you want to get out a little bit and my wife would love to take you to the mall and go out for lunch and so his wife took marian robinson took to an undisclosed location and she wouldn't tell me where they went, a saburban shopping mall and they had lunch and it was very fun, a kind of sweet thing that she can't wait to just kind of get out a little bit herself too. i talked a little about where they typically work firm. michelle obama works from the east-wing office and keeps distinction between private and work life. with the other first ladies specially nancy reagan, there was a little bit of bleeding
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over. i mean, nancy reagan was one of the most involved first ladies of all time. she was someone who had, you know, chief of staff don fired and other people fired as well. she was someone who was influencing who her was her husband's chief of staff was and who was surrounding him in the cabinet which was incredibly powerful. it's the most powerful position you can be in, surrounding the president and one aide called her the human resources department essentially. and i think thankee regan is really interesting too because when i interviewed resident staffers about her they said that she was very particular and that that could be really upsetting and a lot of times she wasn't happy there were stories about her being so angry, you know, dessert wasn't exactly what she wanted. if she asked for asparagus and asked for green beans, there would be hell to pay.
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but the flip side of that was that she was also very meticulous and so when they came for historic visit to washington, the first time, the white house had never looked more beautiful and she had the flowers changed three times in one day and because she understood in every room, i mean, it was just, she understood the power of the white house and the flip side of that is, of course, she was criticized for being clean nancy and spending too much money. and it's also sad, i talked to a friend of hers who described nancy reagan after her husband was diagnosed with alzheimer's, nancy went to the republican convention. it was the first time she had gone without him and she started tearing up at the podium when she was talking and this friend called said i was so happy to see you be expressive and so
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honest and nancy reagan said, i felt that i had to build a wall around myself and i could never let people see that side of me and she felt that she had to be kind of the strong one and when i interviewed ron reagan, their son, he said that his mother was very brave and she would take a loot of criticism that president reagan didn't want to take. he wanted everyone to love him and she didn't really care if people liked her or not and she just we wanted to get things done and so you could look at her legacy as first lady as one of incredible bravery in some ways, okay, she did get things done. and i talked a little bit about, well, she did not -- nancy did not have a great relationship with a lot of other first ladies and didn't get along with barbara bush, there were rumors flowing that nancy reagan wanted to carters to move to the house
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so she can start redecorating. that would be unprecedented to make the family do that and she certainly did not offer to leave the white house early when it was her turn to move out. she and barbara bush had such a bad relationship that when bash tray had a little idea of what the residence looked like and had been married to the president for eight years and rarely invited to parties in the resident and in dairy, bush wrote very bluntly in 1988 in an entry, nancy does not like barbara. barbara has the things that she doesn't have and she will never be in barbara's class so it's a complicated relationship and there was no official tour of the residence and it was very brief and unsatisfying.
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[laughter] a negative boyfriend was published, barbara covered it up so nobody knew what she was reading. when i interviewed her, i really enjoyed talking to her, but i do see her doing something like that. so that's a little bit about the blahed blood. there's also some bad blood between barbara bush and hillary clinton. it's very interesting in 1992 there's a vanity fair article during campaign, hillary is quoted in this article talking about george h.w. bush's alleged affair and says in the article, apparently it's all well known in washington and barbara bush who was incredibly defensive and loyal to her husband was so upset by this, she -- she had this reporter come up to the west-sitting hall and i interviewed him and he described how she was sitting in lilac suits but intentions very very clear. it was the focus of her day
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making sure that nobody believed these sick and ugly rumors she calls them, but it really was zipping low and in her mind, barbara bush's is going against the code of what you can do as first lady. hillary clinton, of course, was not a typical, you know, candidate's wife, she was much more involved in the harsher campaigning and much more involved than a lot of these women in policy. it's very interesting of what public statements have been made. four months before her eldest son elected president and almost a decade after hillary criticized her husband, barbara bush went on the record, laura would not get into foreign affairs and controversial subjects and would make a positive impact on the country. it's like oil and water. we are talking about two different people. it's catty and clearly what
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she's saying there and i did talk to a few people who told me that when george h.w. bush visits -- when bill clintons visits george h.w. bush at the camp owned there's a reason why hillary clinton isn't in toe. they're just not close. and i think it's hard for some of these people to bury the hatchet and these camp campaigns are personal. i did talk to staffers in this book that really wanted to drill home the idea that there are more concern than ever about security in the white house, that more part time staff is being hired and they think that the first family is definitely more vulnerable than they have ever been before in an effort to cut down cost the white house is not having as many permanent staffers work during state dinners an this is something that three of the resident
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staffers were very passionate about telling me and i felt that they really are so loyal to the white house and no matter who is president and so they really we wanted to make sure that that point was out there. they feel that this is something that you should be trying to skimp or save money on security issues. so anyway, obviously, as we go forward with this election i'm actually -- i was saying i have to do after ward for the paper back version of this book and it's supposed to come out in january around inauguration. i have to do one for melania and one on bill, which is really interesting and challenging to do one for each, so we will see. but it's a fascinating time to talk about the presidential spouse because i think it's changing completely and no matter who wins, it will be transforming the role probably forever, so i would love to take
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questions if you have any. [applause] >> thank you very much. thank you. >> a question you have already answered, half at least. but i think there's some other -- other parts. the question is has it gotten harder just in general for the first lady or the first spouse to live in the white house and the security aspects of that have almost certainly gotten worse than they ever were, but i'm wondering whether -- i don't know, the journalism has changed too, the new cycles have gotten shorter and maybe just the increasing involvement of first
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ladies in policy and so forth, say, starting with nancy reagan and moving to hillary clinton. i was struck by the comment that it's like a prison and just wondering whether that's something that they feel now and that they didn't feel in the past beyond even the security aspects of it? >> that's a good question, thank you. i think that they feel it more now. i mean, the obamas have had -- it's been kind of debated but initially at least had, you know, more threats, so that does up the security and the feeling of it being like a prison. but i think for a long time like betty ford describing her one-bedroom apartment in the white house, the feeling of living and not being fully in control of your life and having to give up your career, i think that's something that will probably change if bill clinton becomes first gentleman that
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maybe we will see a first lady allowed to continue a career as long as they are not conflicts of interest. i just think she's a little bit -- i think michelle might be more honest about the feelings that a lot of these women have had. although barbara bush loved being in the white house. it just really depends on the personality. i think laura bush also really enjoyed it. so it's entirely dependent on who is on that position but i do think the security is only going to get to be a bigger and bigger issue which is why it is, i think, a bit concerning that they're cutting down on the full-time staff who know what is going on and recognize people and things like that. >> how about the journalism part? is it getting tough to deal with journalists on first ladies or family in general? >> i don't know the answer to that. they control the message pretty
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well. they are able to kind of avoid, you know, she doesn't do many interviews, she does a lot of late-night television, ellen and jimmy fallon and things like that. it's very controlled. i actually think that this white house is one of -- i only was -- i was a white house reporter during the first term of the obama administration so my experience is with this white house. when i spoke with people who covered the bush white house they said that it was slightly easier. i think with each administration as technology evolves, they can tweet and facebook and instagram and control the message and not have to answer reporters' questions as much. ..
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>> >> but to a fault in all lot of cases but with the betty ford center took it to a minute that you have an addiction problem to help other people in is powerful and eleanor roosevelt didn't talk about it that much. >> but rosalynn carter is the most honest influence of the first lady's being so upset that her has been lost in 1980 it is the biggest regret of perlite that this many years later she is so passionate. i like the honesty of rosalind carter.
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>> was surprised to learn that barbara bush and marilyn quayle did not get along. >> not at all i think some of friends told me that if barbara bush was her bottle of first lady was nancy reagan to did not treat her well say she repeated that. apparently she was very cold and it was hard to get invitations for state dinners or to get into the residence. soap the quails don't really do interviews they have been very quiet and she did not talk to me one for the book there is some bad feelings she was younger and also had a young family. >> something of great
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interest to me was michelle obama prime example the first lady usually has a national initiative with obama getting the vegetable garden ashley got to do that with her in 2009 now was in the right place at the right time coming together with reorganization but was it uninteresting you to comment on initial obama is national initiative and how does that compare and how did it get started quick. >> i think the let's move campaign and the military family campaign is signature but that is important that ties in with healthy eating to eat organic but i think
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it is much more ambitious campaign than people think. she is going up against a cute food industry like wal-mart and mcdonald's will reinvest sodium because of the campaign and that pressure that she brought to bear so is an ambitious idea . is interesting because when i interviewed they thought they said she had not done enough in the warehouse she should have done a lot more. so there is a sense someone who went to princeton and harvard she should have done more but then you are damned if you do or if you don't she did very good work but they're all expected to pick a non political issue and hers is surprisingly of an
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emphasis. >> crew is the runner-up? >> laura bush cave men with literacy but after 9/11 the first first lady to the presidential radio address and was very outspoken to support women in afghanistan so parole, because history a dictates what they end up doing and i think she ended up being consequential in that way as an advocate for women in the middle east. i would say they just say no but i think of those like you are expected to do that berger was a disinterested in the campaign but as much as their personality but michele obama deserves a lot of credit for the military
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family campaigns. absolutely. >> if a felony clinton wins this is the first time since george h. w. bush there is not young children in the white house so can you speak to how the culture of the of whitehouse is different greg. >> that is a great question because they love that when there is john birch children especially the butler's and the shaft when i talk to the head pastry chef and he talked about how fun that was with chelsea and her friends to help them collect and gave them cooking lessons especially with you really own kids they love that they talk about
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caroline and john, jr. they talk about the history with the kennedys and there is a dynamic there that is much lighter. but helen clinton will probably bring her two grandchildren to visit. when i talk to social secretaries they think hillary will be on the two were to see where to put the cribs for the grandchildren and none of there is time for her to think about things like that but that expectation is she will be president and first lady at the same time. i think they will hire a very experienced social secretary to do a lot of that stuff. >> i read an article about that.
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>> i have said for years that if she becomes president i really want the inaugural ball concept to for the smithsonian. >> we should critique of what he wears every day. [laughter] only fair laugh laugh everyday. >> the lives of governors and gone to be president day have the experience of the chief executive by know before i moved down here they're always in the public eye at public events the spouses of the two senators' second night even tell you but bush and clinton and reagan is anyway different they approached the what role with experience? >> that is an interesting
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point when i talk to barbara bush with hillary clinton i said i heard in there were not as comfortable in the white house may be because they're not used to being surrounded by help. barbara bush said you kidding me she is the wife of a governor, governor's mansion, she was used to being in the public eye. so there was a degree of help. rosalind carter talked run out amy was three years old running around the governor's mansion when they were taking photos. so for her it was not a big deal and but she would go to public school and they said to us amy had always grown up in the public eye but people forget what it is like the press in the state is very consumed with the governor and you are right not the senator or the senators bosses at all.
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but they are definitely better prepared that is why the obama is had such an incredibly quick rise to the top aide in have any of that experience of made it much more difficult for people. and even the fords the putting their feet up bond of coffee table and betty ford did say that is jefferson's table put down your feet. [laughter] suddenly there is one campaign and now he is president saw the women who were married to a governor have a lake at yes. >> i came in late but what is the size of the staff? does it change who would is a or 5420 in his uh chief of staff for the first lady as powerful like the president?
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>> you know, this better he is the reporter. [laughter] but michelle obama is staff is very powerful everything is through her ended is very controlled because she doesn't go into the west wing very often they are a conduit for her but the staff sought -- and staff size has changed rosalynn carter was the first to work of east wing and remember the numbers but i think it was the '20s expanding the staff. and back when it was kennedy the social secretary and chief of staff and the press secretary that is a relatively new thing also a deputy press secretary. saw no it is certainly more than 20.
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so as the role of the first lady becomes bigger and bigger than the hillary clinton staff works in the west wing of the old executive office building. it depends on the first lady and how they want to structure it. this white house is more traditional that she rarely goes into the west wing i am told. if the clintons moved in their mobile whole revamping between the staff and maybe even more sidelines because the east wing is look down a little bit of battle of the sexes the little bit so i think if bill clinton is an opposition he will not be involved with the flowers and the gas less which will
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make the east wing even less of a force. >> since we are in a bookstore and we're on c-span want to give a shout out to laura bush for the national book festival here in washington d.c. even though i am democrat. >> she has done a lot. was surprised to learn she is tougher than a lot of people think berger she has been through what also bill clinton would be good is how the first lady is the consular in chief even after 9/11 at the memorial services to be emotional support for the country and you think of all those things that they have to do
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and they don't give people like laura bush enough credit for that that was said dramatic time to be first lady. >> wanted to ask a question about washington d.c. in the first lady's relationship. we have seen various stories that some of the presidents have had that they have related to washington d.c. at all. >> if you talk to clinton supporters they will say if they come back it is great because of weekends' clinton would go to the smithsonian to relax and very much a fan of washington and the culture and they know that very well. donald trump would be much
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less. people talk about him not living in the white house which i cannot imagine but i don't think that would go over very well. but it is a very complicated relationship there are stories about walking through the streets around the white house or georgetown trying to go out for a walk to get away from their claustrophobic wife in the white house and obama is to go out to dinner when it michelle goes out there is a write up there is some sense they have done some good for the city especially with her outings but it is a complicated relationship. the clintons probably because they are so experienced and now washington so well go out to
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a fair amount but i don't know. [applause] speefive. >>
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>> following the upgrade triode of world war ii was apparent that codebreaking and signal intelligence would continue to be a crucial important source of the cold war struggle. for the paranoid yet comment internal security measures and the border made conventional espionage
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extremely difficult if not impossible even though the basic facts of the organization the country's economy and the military was state secrets under the stalin regime in the early years of the cold for the cia kept optimistically dropping agents behind the iron curtain that virtually 100 percent were immediately captured or shot or turned into double agents. the only thing you are proving by parachuting the agents into the territory one official told the chief is the law of gravity. [laughter] for the soviets development of their atomic bomb 1949 gave intelligence a greater urgency almost the only plausible source for military preparations within the soviet union that may
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signal an imminent attack. the huge challenge the codebreakers faced is that november 1948 the soviets abruptly instituted a sweeping coordinated change. and it was such an unprecedented development that this itself was an indication the soviets were about to launch an attack. the new soviet coast system proved far more challenging than anything they had faced before and most of the high-level codes remain unbroken your 79 when supercomputers and research produced that was referred to the height of technological success of the cold war around the soviet invasion of afghanistan.
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and throughout the cold war the nsa brought in outside panels mathematical and scientific experts to review the problem and they're almost nothing but a tail of pessimism in 1958 a panel headed by the vice president concluded no national strategy should be based on the hope expectation we can read but the rest of the sentence was rejected but it was obvious it was referring to the high-level soviet traffic. 1.in the mid-50s f-15 special purpose computers running nonstop over five years searching for 1 million intercepted soviet messages that was enciphered by albatross to find any flock to be exploited for
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coincidentally whatever the barriers of breaking soviet code but would provide as huge stimulus to the u.s. computer industry the first magnetic memory the first all transistor computer the first computer workstation the first desktop computer in the first supercomputer all built to meet nsa contracts and requirements and a leader made their way to the commercial market.
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this. >> is simpler everybody lives buying the 10 commandments he would not need one missile or policemen or put locks on your doors this is all humans need.

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