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antibiotics they challenge every bacteria encounters that's vulnerable to it and many species have the challenge and, you know, basically if they've got the right muation they might be able to survive, if they don't they die, over time that's going to foster the evolution of the resistance-bacteria and we are talking about bacteria in the gut. if we go to -- you shouldn't be eating meat that is with gut and they get in the water, they get in the soil, they're trading these resistant genes with other bacteria, they become part of
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this pool of resistant bacteria and so we put so many antibiotics in the animals that it's a tremendous factor in the rise of antibiotic resistance, so that's how it happens and that's why we need to put a brake on it. >> thank you. >> i have a question. you're saying it's about 60% -- 40%. change the question a little bit. do you look at how -- social security so prevalent the species that do not end up getting it, why do they not end up getting it? what is it that makes it good at spreading host to host and why
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is it in some hosts and not others, why not, for example, at any of us or fish or mammals or it's in some worms which come from a very different branch of the animal kingdom. that's also interesting to those because those warms cause severe tropical diseases and if you kill all, you are able to kill the diseases, a different story. but yeah, a lot of biology that we don't understand. why is it so good at jumping from host to host? is it just because it spreads vertically throughout the population like i talked about with mosquitoes, is it also because it's really good at jumping horizonly from one host to another. maybe it gets infected by something. these are all questions -- there's actually a huge conference that happens every couple of years or so, so, yeah, a thriving area of research.
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still has a lot of unanswered questions. >> so we've gone from cow poop, fectal transplants. thank you all for coming, we are out of time. >> thank you. [applause] >> that concludes book tv live coverage of brooklyn's book festival.
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everything that you saw today will air again tonight starting at 1:00 a.m. eastern time. book tv on c-span2, television for serious readers. [inaudible conversations] >> c-span created by america's cable television companies and brought to you as a public service by your cable or satellite provider. >> welcome to grand rapids, michigan on book tv, located on the grand river about 30 miles east of lake michigan it was
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once named furniture city during the height of industry production here from the late 1800's through the first half of the 20th century. the second largest city in the state today with just over 180,000 residents it was home to gerald ford and the place he represented while in congress. and sitting on the bank of the grand river museum and both resting place for president and first lady betty ford, with the help of comcast partners over the next 90 minutes we will travel the city to talk to local authors to talk about history including the story of famous senator and grand rapids native arthur. >> first came as one of the leading isolationists. he had been a crusader for world war i and american involvement following woodrow wilson enthusiastically when wilson declared war on germany like so
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many americans des -- disillusioned with what happened after that . but first, we catch up with author and historian richard nor tone smith as he works on a biography of president ford. >> that is grand rapids, the grand river which opens the book and which divides the city and which in many ways defines the city. >> historian and author richard nor tone smith is working on a biography. a baptist missionary put down roots and a year or two later on the east side french-speaking entrepreneur showed up who was eager to sell to the indians as
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reverend to safe their souls and set the pat persons some way for the grand rapids, if you will, west side and east side, both sides of the river banks were covered over with factories, furniture factories, back when grand rapids was the furniture city, the furniture capital of the united states. they're gone now, but the city that has replaced them in many ways was seated by that
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building, president ford's insistence in the hope that it might, in fact, spark beginnings of urban renewal, a genuine urban renewal. when i decided that i had another book in me, there were some folks here in grand rapids who were interested in having a big comprehensive david mccullough and a year and a half ago after publishing rockefeller i had the opportunity to move to grand rapids and i have been working on the biography of ever since. there's so much personally and policy. the popular notion is nothing much happened during those two
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years and there are people who tend to skip over ford and nixon and carter and reagan and if you step back, it's true. i mean, he seemed out of his depth. he's proceeded by the three shakespearean figures, kennedy assassinated, they'll always be a sense of what might have been. johnson tormented by the war. richard nixon, you know, with the vision and international affairs but self-destructive nature. i mean, those are worthy of shakespeare. ford actually is a bridge between the nixonian prague --
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pragmatism and reagan conservatism, because reagan was such a larger than life figure, because he was -- you know, in his own way like john kennedy. ford tends to get overshadowed at the very at least sitting at the desk sitting down on ford museum and the ford's grave site which is located just a few hundred feet from here. speaking of books, this is what a book looks like before it's a book, basically. these are tip of the iceberg, but this is essential research material for the next six months to nine months, you know, piles of oral histories set off by
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themselves but there's a whole section, several piles dealing with his congressional career. a pile just devoted to the context in which he became house republican leader in 1965 from people like don rumsfeld who were intrumental in managing the campaign. he was perfectly fine of being underestimated. there are much worse things in politics strategically than to be underestimated. anyway, 1948, he went into the race underestimated as a
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political force but outcampaigned the incumbent. loved campaigning, loved chicken and was at home. unfortunately when he became republican leader in the house, it really was toll on the family, mrs. ford and on the children because at that point he was on the road over 200 nights in the year and i think -- well, i think he felt guilty, you know, in later years about that, but, you know, he was a young man and he was climbing the ladder and he could see his life's goal which was to be
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speaker of the house in front of him. this is first and foremost a work space and my work tools begin with what any writer relies upon, these are books on european and american history. i am an autograph collector and at one point in time managed to assemble a complete set of the presidents which i updated years ago and ever since have been collecting sporadically people that are heros or objects of fascination and this wall illustrates both foster and above him another authentic charles dickens.
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i lived here for six years when i was director of the ford museum and went away, did a couple of other libraries and institutions and wrote the rockefeller book and -- but i knew him before i finished that, some days i wondered whether i would finish that that there had to be a life after rockefeller and unfortunately the president's mother was a pack rat. she saved everything, he said everything but she kept scrapbooks and they grew and they grew over time and there are about 65 immense scrapbooks and they are absolutely invaluable source. and what is so exciting to be in
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my position is to be able to almost day by day trace the evolution, the growth of this individual, of this young man, his first serious love affair was with a super model, a cover girl for cosmopolitan, she was the worldly sopisticant who introduced him to new york. took him to the theater frequently. she taught him bridge and to ski and the two of them famously were featured in a six-page spread in 1940.
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phyllis brown was much of the eastern establishment, if you will, set. gerald ford spent more time at yale. he emerged -- he had never been east of ohio before -- before he went to yale and it was -- it was the school in many ways. he was offered legal jobs in new york and philadelphia, but he knew even then he wanted to come back to grand rapids because i think he knew even then that he had his eyes set on a political career. phyllis, on the other hand, did not see herself leaving her
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glamorous modeling career in new york to live in grand rapids so they agreed amicably to go their separate ways but, you know, it was a relationship about which not a great deal, it's been written but which i think was absolutely pivotal in reshaping the man that she herself referred to from grand rapids. the popular notion, congressman west michigan, we don't know a lot about him. gerald ford was a man of great partisan but he also embodied civility and respect for his adversaries. i mean, he literally went to his
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grave believing he didn't have an enemy. the picture on the wall actually was signed by all four presidents at the time of the dedication of the bush library. if you notice two of the signatures gerald ford and president bush himself have all but disappeared. the presidents used to complain understandably about being besieged for autographs and above all they got together and groups taken there were literally hundreds of people who wanted them to sign these and so i believe it was president ford's idea that they were all signed 400 copies of this photo and no more and then each of them would have 100 to distribute as he saw fit. so i mean any book to have credibility has to be, quote,
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critical in the broadest sense of the word and that section -- i must say, i thought long and hard about this book because i wondered if i was perhaps perceived as being too close to ford, i ran the ford museum, i delivered one of the eulogies at his request at his funeral and, you know, the time has come, the president has passed on and mrs. ford has passed away, enough time has gone by, enough paper has been opened, supplemented by hundreds of interviews that i was doing and others had done that i had access to for the first time. and above all the timing was right.
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i found buried in his writings a great line which i said epic graph for the book and it jumps out at you because like most politicians he wasn't particularly reflective. he said my whole philosophy of life is i don't assume somebody has tried to screw me. now, think about that. think about that in the context of today's politics. think about that in the context of the politics of watergate. he took office with his hands tied behind his back. the ford-nixon relationship was close. i mean, close in a way that, you know, politicians always talk about my friends and they almost devalue the word. they were friends, they were
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friends, they were allies. he believed richard nixon and i think he literally the thing that -- i won't say he never forgave him but he never forgot nor did he ever get over his disappointment and surprise that nixon lied to him. john mitchell lie today him. weekend after the watergate break-in ford happened to be in a meeting with mitchell and when they were alone, he said, john, what's going on here, you know, do you know anything at all about this? and mitchell swore up and down he didn't and ford accepted it until he couldn't accept it. after he lost the '76 election, bill simon who was treasury secretary came to him and asked
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him if he would pardon mitchell who had been convicted of watergate-related offenses and ford said, no. it was almost as if one pardon was enough but, you know, there were limits to what he would forgive and mitchell lie today him. now, some would say that's for better and worse that was ford. i mean, he -- in my eulogy i said he never left grand rapids. he was a wonderful guy,
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billionaires who had been extraordinarily generous and generosity is reflected in some world-class medical facilities, research facilities, the convention center, the hotel, several hotels that have sprung up along the river. president ford was offered a nice site on the outskirts of town to build the museum and he thanked the donor but he always envisioned putting it downtown. i mention 1976 when the fords came back, the night before it was an old-fashion parade and the secret service were very worried.
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in fact, they didn't know if they could authorize the parade because there was so many empty store fronts, so many vacant buildings on the main street in grand rapids, they weren't sure that they could adequately protect all of them. well, the spark that led to today's grand rapids, which is a world-class city, any way you look at it and still reinventing itself, in some ways was struck that night five years later in 1981 on the same day that they opened the museum by a daily nonroutine which is i basically don't sit down at the same time every day and do things
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methodically. i got up in the middle of the hours when i can't sleep and make that up later in the day or, you know, in the afternoon. in some ways i wish i was more conventionally disciplined but in the end, the other thing that doesn't surprise people is i'm technologically illiterate and i write everything longhand. i write the first longhand. gerald ford is a surprising figure. the fact that he wasn't just a party royalist and he ended career at insurgent at the end
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of his life in a republican party that was hostile to the pro-choice views, for example, he told someone not long before he died that people had better prepare themselves for the coming of same-sex marriage. he expected it to be the norm and in relatively short order. he's the first american president to sign his name to a petition for gay rights. i mean, he, in my eulogy said most of us as we get older our attitudes harden along with our arteries. we have more concern and become conservative. yesterday was better than today.
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all those come into play. he wasn't like that. liberal so too simple. he was remarkably open minded and compassionate. the schedule i'm working on would allow me to basically recreate the ford presidency in something close to real-time. over two years or so. but beyond that, i'm living with them as i say in the kind of unique intimacy that any behavior has with his or her subject. and they're never far from your thoughts. >> book tv is visiting grand rapids as we explore the city's nonfiction literary culture. up next we spoke with olson about the city's history with his book thin ice.
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>> you know what would be a great book would be a whole selection of article that is we knew about, some contemporary writer that is we would invite to join us about growing up in grand rapids. was it different, was it much very familiar, what was the story about growing growing in grand rapids? >> what we then put together was a collection of stories reflecting on growing up in this community and always in the background was the other story about the city's growing and changing and becoming something differently. we were able to go back all the way to the earliest days of the city. we found native american fellow from the 1830's who wrote about being a young man here and
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invited to go to a mission school and basically get what he called a white man's education. and he did, and he learned -- he became a piano player, he became a singer, he became a writer and he thought i will go back to my people and i will show them how we can integrate and become part of the new comers. problem was they hadn't gone through what he went through and so he did an essay and we began early in the book, he called it trapped between two worlds. he came back with all of the education. he became a teacher and then something really tragic happened. first of all, he became close friends with the young woman in a community, not a native american and was told by her father in no uncertain terms that that was going to go no
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where and had to stop immediately and he went back to his own people and they looked at him with suspicion, you're not one of us anymore, a well-educated young man with high ideals and instead ended up sort of between both worlds and no longer comfortable in either one and that's -- that's part of growing up. that's what a lot of people encounter as they move from one place to another, one generation to another, his was extreme but it happened to a lot of people and that became one of the really generating ideas as we put thin ice together. as we look through, who do we talk to, one name kept popping up and we really knew we had to do it. so we looked around and sure enough, bold gerald and betty ford. president gerald ford and the first lady betty ford has written biography, well, maybe we will find something, they're going to be writing about years in washington. not so much.
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they both had very good insights and i think probably as they were put in bofgs together we wanted to make sure that their hometown was very much included and and the story -- first of all, he's adopted. his birth father had not been a part of his life. when he was maybe 16 year's old in high school and he worked during the at a coffee across the street waiting tables and all of that and one day he looks up and this fellow comes in and he says, i'm your father. a man that he really did not know and turned out it was his birth father who lived lived in wyoming.
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he had gone to detroit to buy a car, pick up a car and on the way he said let's go by grand rapids and talk to his son, well, he got there, ford sat down with him as he puts it in the books, about 15 minutes, and we talked, but he said, i was not interested in getting to know this man, i was not interested in what he had to say. he basically had abandoned my mother and me for all that time and so -- and he said very clearly and to the people of grand rapids, it was the right testimony, the one they wanted to hear because they new his adoptive father as outstanding member of the community in many different ways, he said, you know, my father was gerald ford, not leslie lynch king. i'm gerald ford, jr., not someone else and so once again
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here was our chance to get real insight into in this case a very prominent man but a story about his life that i don't know how details had ever been told before but there it was. he was quite happy to have us use it as did a lot of the people that published parts of the story almost act exception, there were some cases that they give us permission to use with no restrictions, really, this is -- i think it was a book that they wanted to be a part of. one of the things that we were conscious of took some looking and some searching and i would confess we should have done more was looking not the story of the winners but all those who were part of the history and those who were at one time called minorities, more broadly -- or more specifically characterized by their nationality whatever.
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but anyhow, so we were looking and we found l. green because his biography was new at the time and i have to say pretty excited to finding. good stuff, i thought. i was right. al green came here from arkansas as a youngster, i guess, maybe around 10. about to enter junior high, and the neighborhood he moved into was a pretty rough neighborhood but they were not receptive to new comers, why should this family from arkansas be well received in our city, every group feels that way. the outsiders are always the outsiders and you may feel like you look like those that are here, but you have to earn your stripes so al, not the biggest kid and he got bullied and
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pushed around and finally one day the biggest bully pushed him way too far, knocked him down, kicked him, shoved him and worked him over and came home that night and his mother cleaned him up and he said, what happened, i will take care of it, mother. i didn't want to her her what happened. i think he fell on the playground. he went out the next day determined to set things right. on his way to school that day he checked behind the store and grabbed an empty coke bottle. he thought maybe it was the first time he had ever stolen anything. well, we would let that one go. it was a rough neighborhood. anyhow, took that with him and found the bully and clocked him with that coke bottle. i mean, he hit him hard and he said so in his biography and just to be sure he gave him another whack or two on the ribs.
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the guy went down and all of a sudden everyone treated al green differently. that's sometimes the lesson you learn is you have to treat those who don't treat those well, you have to respond. he was biblical. i mean, his father trained him, part of the green brothers, a singing group in churches. he said i knew about turning the other cheek but sometimes you just have to assert yourself and you have to be strong and he was his whole existence in school changed from that point on. and we picked it, we used it because a lot of people know stories like that, a lot of our readers may have been bullied or they may have been the bully or saw it happen in their happen so we thought, this is another part of growing up, another piece of thin ice and another story to
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tell and we used that one as well. we found other writers, we knew other writers, we knew them locally but didn't have the larger audience and in that case had a larger audience now. wasn't we selected was -- one a vietnamese refugee and came as a little girl. she was a good student and he -- she came had been told if you study hard you would receive the recognition that you deserve. she was put in a classroom, young girl and studied hard and she knew that she was getting the best grades or competing with another girl for the best grades and one particular teacher had a stuffed lion,
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stuffed animal that got posessed around the student and her goal as a student was to one day win that prize, to have that -- that teddy bear or that lion sitting on her desk for a week as the best student in the class and she knew she deserved. that was not the issue. she walked out of that class with a degree of bitterness about the whole experience. and then reflected on it in a book that she wrote later about her growing up in grand rapids and live if grand rapids as a later adult in the city that really prides itself on how it deals with refugees and grand rapids does and we have some good programs in place.
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she's able to point out that there are flaws in the system and in the people that they may have the right instincts but they can't always bring themselves to the right behavior and that -- that's certainly true of this city and other cities as well. then there's levy, a friend of mine, he writes he would never claim that his first skill was writing but he does a good job. he also is involved in native american activities and activism, and he wrote a piece for us although i wasn't raised an indian and it was really became a part, a bookend for the early story of the man trapped between two worlds because what levy wrote about was growing up in a family where his parents
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and his grandparents really impressed upon him the need to assimilate and he did in a lot of different ways and those who know levy in the community know he can nuif different circles and as he got older he began to think more and more of being a native american and in a class, the assignment was to read the declaration of independence and like anyone who reads, the first part of created equal and then he got to later in the declaration and he had to point this out because i don't remember ever reading it, references to the savage warfare of the native americans and the savagery and he said, wait a minute.
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both learning and heritage, learning it better and at the same time and educating others about it. these things -- they do repeat but as they repeat they're always nuances and new parts of the story and new ways to respond, in our modern age, the fact of social media gives us a whole host of way to respond to the issues that we deal when we were on thin ice. the editor, the coeditor but truth be known, the editor -- [laughter] >> told his own story about
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growing up in a very strict religious family in which his father decided that they really -- the children shouldn't be going out on halloween which is not a christian holiday and begging for candy and all of that, instead his father decided his children would reenact martin luther's of the 95 thesis in germany. not a lot of people know that story, particularly not a lot of kids know that story but that's what they did and he said they then -- he was martin luther, the oldest son and he tears down the 95 thesis and they get burned and maybe that's what the kids like most. there was a fire in the alley and acted out the whole story, but that tells us, i think, gives us real insight into the strength of different religious communities, in this community
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and the strong feelings they have about preserving their particular version of religion, of christianity in this case and so that moves into the stories as well probably more than other communities although i'm sure that the folks that live in the south would point out that the baptist are prominent as grand rapids, and so what does it mean about growing up in grand rapids, it means that in part it's a reminder that the kids here just like kids everywhere are going to go through some periods where they are going to be challenged, where they're going to be making choices and their parents aren't going to be there to help them make the choice, their job is to train them, prepare them but sooner or later the choices become theirs and how they get through that period and how they then move on
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into different later stages in their life is -- is an important part of the whole growing-up process and in grand rapids we finally concluded, we are not that different but we had a nice and good writers, insight that is we could pull together and tell a story that was specific because the names of the people were specific, people knew them, this was grand rapids and also we hoped had meaning beyond grand rapids to others going through the same experience. >> you're watching book tv on c-span. this weekend we visited grand rapids michigan to talk with local authors and tour the city with help of local cable partner comcast. next we hear from gran valley state university professor gordon andrews about charles houston, an attorney who fought for legal racial equality prior to the civil rights era.
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>> charles houston is probably one of the most least well known that everybody needs to understand if you're going to talk about civil rights you cannot talk about without a discussion of hamilton houston, investigating the themes of labor and race between 1995 and 1950. in history particularly civil rights movement there is a discussion about historians about how to actually view the civil rights movement. there's the short civil rights movement and the long civil rights movement and traditionally people tend to learn more popularly across the country the civil rights movement from brown versus board moving forward and charles hamilton's life and passed away
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in 1950 and is really responsible for laying the ground work for brown versus board and girlfriend is called ground work. i started to look into his cases and dig more deeply into them, a number of his cases really were about labor in one form, fashion or another. that's how i really dug into this book as a project. when you examine what the status of race and labor was like in the 1890's you really have to talk about plessy versus ferguson that gave sanction to the institution of segregation
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and institutionalization throughout american society and in the 1890's particularly in louisiana and i will talk a little bit about homer plessy from the new orleans area and the society in new orleans, the members of new orleans within the community were really looking for a way to challenge the increasing number of encroachments on african-american life as it dealt with segregation. you have to understand that we are coming out of reconstruction, the democrats who were labeled and the people at the time were redeemers were coming back to reestablish white authority over african americans and these laws one after another
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after another are being passed that begin to segregate society, cut african americans out of integrated society and so it's that new that really informed houston's early upbringing as he was born in 1895. houston becomes interested in the law by really confronting plessy for the first time as a man. a little bit about educational background. he leaves high school, graduates at 16, prepped at one of the best high schools really in the country in washington dc and graduates cum laude and he didn't really experience the kinds of segregation and the
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kinds of cruelties associated with the racialized nature of the united states at the turn of the century, but he's aware of it, very aware of it and there are times when, of course, he's not able to socialize, he's not invited out to the same sorts of group activities so he's conscious of it, hard not to be and he's not naive and for a young man maybe an old soul. he love it had music and piano, was very well read and after his experience at am hurt he goes back home after graduating and he kind of knows what he wants to do, he's curious and he goes back to howard, his father secures a job for him and he starts to teach, teaches english classes and whatever he can teach at the time, a young
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person working at a very elite university, howard university and world war i comes along and world war i, and it's interesting reading his own writing because he knew it was coming, even though the wilson administration is talking that we are neutral, the war is sort of coming here and that momentum build, he wants to understand his place in what is going to happen, once war is declared, there's immediate issue about the draft because now the military is segregated. here you have a young man who has got a wonderful education, brilliant mind and he clearly belongs in the officer core but there's no black officer core and so he leads the way along with a number of other
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colleagues and students at the historically black colleges to advocate for a black officer core that the way the wilson administration framed the war is we are fight to go save the world for democracy. you can read that in the big signs in all the newspapers, saving the world for democracy while in houston's mind if we had democracy home. so maybe even start with a black officer core. and so they advocate and got in the administration and actually helps make that happen and so he is part of the first african-american officer core in the history of the united states, this is going to be a trend with houston all along. he's a trail blazer. at the very end blackjack who had a reputation being
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egalitarian, meets the soldiers as they're ready to disembark at tend of the war and rather lotting their service, rather than applauding the accomplishments being made, sacrifice being made he essentially tell it is black soldiers that are there that they need to go home, get jobs and behave and he goes home. and almost shaking his head. you can just see in the way he's writing about that experience that's just another in the step of a young man confronting the issue of race and segregation and injustice, inequality and wondering how best to confront it and then there's the last
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moment on the way back to dc, he and his friend are sitting on the train in philadelphia, getting ready to go back home and they're sitting there in uniform and there's a white gentleman back off to the side and they could see and he is sort of shaking his head and he had ordered lunch and he has lunch delivered but he winds up getting up and moving and houston is conscious of it and he actually gets up on his way out and asked the man very politely, did you move because of us, and the man just looked at him, well, i can't help the way i was raised. and houston walks away and he mentions in his writing that he was damn grad he didn't die in the service of a country that could treat people like and really he has now beginning to
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formulate a more mature understanding of what he wants to do and, you know, when he comes back he's convinced that the law is going to be it and he winds up being accept today harvard law school. it's a prestigious then as it is now. he is going to become the first african american to graduate with doctor from harvard law. the first african american to be editor of harvard law. he wants to be able to understand and teach the constitution, he's a constitutional lawyer but wants to be well prepared as he can to go on and prepare quandary of lawyers who would do the good work that needs to be done in the united states because there were numbers of african american lawyers in the united states at
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the time, in part because of plessy versus ferguson and no access to education to prepare you're to be a lawyer and so really those are the seminole moments as he confronts plessy that really prepare him to become the charles houston really that we all know, you know, when you look at what was his professional working career, really between 1925 and 1950, so when you look at that 25-year period it is enviable by any measure. one of the real tragic elements of houston's life is that he was born with a congenital heart defect and he was aware of it and as he was getting older but even into the late 1930's,
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1940's, in particularly in the 1940's his doctor the telling him to slow down, slow down. and it is a testament to really the motivation of charles houston and the dedication of charles houston that he felt so compelled to do the work that was needed to undo plessy to make the world a better place for the people in the united states particularly the african american who were suffering nature of segregation, right, and his activities and this is what i argue in the book too were really in three different areas because he had this three-part strategy that unfolds between 1925 and 1950. it wasn't going to be enough to just do the law.
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although it was a critical part, he also really demanded that the strategy go forward in legislation so he spent time up on the hill and so when you read his congressional record, his congressional testimony it is fascinating, humorous in the way he plays people,. [laughter] because he sets them up like a skilled lawyer could do. boom, boom, boom and whoa, he sweeps them off. that was really good. he's not only involved in himself but encourages people within the legislative community to write legislation that's going to be there. he's involved. he's the first african american on the committee and works under two different presidents, roosevelt and truman, resigns under both because of integrity,
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really, he let them know that and he resigned. under fdr he resigned and came back when the president knocks, apparently a good knock, he comes back to serve the country but also encourage it had development of fair employment practices committee at the state level. he wants to see a ground work, a ground swell and the perfect example is that out of his encouragement new york state has a practices committee that outlaws segregation and unequal pay. it's fascinating but again part of what i try to argue in this book is that one of the reasons we don't know houston as well as we know, for example, his student and then later supreme court justice thurgood marshall
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is that because most americans learn about civil rights from 1954 forward, we don't hear about houston and even though people who knew him at the time refer today him as the father of the civil rights movement when you talk about people eulogizing and it was a wonderful speech that i have in the conclusion, parts of dr. king in 1959 he's making a speech to lawyers and he puts everybody on notice that people are going to know the names of charles houston and thurgood marshall for the rest of time but i think it's a great example of how learning and the conversations we have about civil rights have been impacted
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by the way it gets framed, right, so people like dr. king and thurgood marshall understood the role of charles hamilton houston, but you cannot have a conversation about the civil rights movement in the united states without an inclusion of the work of charles houston. ..
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>> >> and as the totalitarian state was leading and hitler was belligerent and in europe when those people said we were burned once already and we all want to do it again so he went for a strict neutrality act for what might become a european war. cell in now way he was of a leader in the fight with franklin roosevelt for people who would become our
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allies against hitler. then after the war or later in the war, they came for word to say in effect reversed his own position to say isolation was no longer a possible as a global power we had to take leadership of the world stage or relinquish it to the darker forces. and by making that shift in the last months of world war two people lot of american public opinion with him to enable the changes of rights to leadership. >> is someone who grew up in grand rapids with an interest of politics i am curious about vandenberg's flights it was an ambitious kid his father had a business that nearly went broke when he was nine years old.
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he was always doing odd jobs to support the family but once he was in high school, he thrived on the school newspaper and thrived on political news. he gave a speech that one can second place in the oratory contest when he was a senior in high school so already he is thinking about foreign policy as a teenager we have no record that he was reading the congressional record at the age of 22 he was a wonder kid editor of a daily newspaper. from then on he is covering every lot republican convention and his mentor is a senator named smith from
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michigan best known for having chaired the titanic investigation the first hearing held in the senate caucus room but vandenberg in 1911 he chairs the campaign to put a statue that michigan had coming to it in statuary hall in the capital -- in the capital of the abolitionist senator was zachariah chandler against a speech of the 27 year-old newspaper editor said he is feeling the political excitement to be mentored by a senator speaking in the halls of congress he could not resist because then became a question of as a
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young man on the go as a popular after dinner speaker some people wanted him to run for congress or lieutenant governor or governor but he really wants to be senator to say i don't want to bother with this and want to be senator said he rises with great entry instilling with the unwillingness to be quiet and be on the back bench which did not sit well with some his colleagues so he was cocky and people resented that so there was a misunderstanding if you are a freshman you have to wait your turn and he was not willing to do that so that bad people the wrong way and when the depression comes
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along, he is accused of vacillating because sometimes supporting roosevelt and sometimes not so republicans don't know what to make of that so he tries to leave a fine political life as he moves from being a republican state but also not entirely liable in the eyes of his fellow republicans. because he was so visible before the war with american involvement, he became the republican spokesman after the death of one of his mentors unquestionably the of voice of foreign affairs and in 1943 and 44 election
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there was the big conference on mackinac island and vandenberg challenge was to unify the up party around the platform because it was turned on dash torn apart to have to different visions of but the republicans should stand for so vandenberg puts the group together to gets them to agree that the republicans will support an international organization but even as roosevelt was planning the creation of the united nations he was not talking about it because he didn't want to have the british with their colonies starting to argue because they were our allies. so vandenberg was addressing
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things that the democrats and roosevelt had kept bottled up in and being debated. so to take the republicans who have then isolationist comment expressing support of a new form of a league of nations when nobody was talking much about is a that is a new way of thinking for the republicans and democrats for not talking much about it. >> with the united nations was discussed roosevelt knew they could not make the mistake after world war i end to have no republicans of any stature so coming back to the senate and the
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republicans that were then in the majority said what is going on? so roosevelt, despite seeing vandenberg as a rival new that he needed therefore the credibility of the american delegation but he had no choice. said this is february march, 1945 and april of 1945 roosevelt dies and harry truman becomes president. roosevelt had functioned as his own secretary of state of a capable steel executive the really part of his death of major foreign policy discussions so secretary of state, is not strong treatment to have lunch once with roosevelt and was not clued in on what roosevelt was planning and on school
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where things stand, so vandenberg goes to san francisco and has truman deferring to him. and help a-2 set the stage of what the united nations charter was a look-alike. >> no one can immunize itself. only collective security can stop the next one before it starts. >> chief found himself to be lionized looking to him as the unspoken place for a rational approach it wouldn't be one world of those republican rivals. maybe we should have a world
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government coming back out of the closet, and to bring the boys home and let's wash our hands and vandenberg said no. we cannot do that we have to look after american interest as part of our global structure. vandenberg was an early e advocate robert taft was friends and rivals of the republican party throughout the '40's the ender standing was that vandenberg has foreign policy and taft does domestic but he was isolationist always chipping away at vandenberg and sometimes takes a harder line. but in 1950 vandenberg is back here ill but eisenhower
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is his help for the future of the country. and so eisenhower was later say that the hindenburg was one of those once he most admired and in the last months and weeks of his life to hear of radio broadcast to say we will live on through eisenhower so there are strains that we still seek today to be played out that the intent berger was immersed -- vandenberg was immersed. the greatest legacy was bipartisanship. with the first gulf war comes about and you have a republican president, democrats in control of congress, where
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it is there a vandenberg among the democrats? where a few years later, when clinton is contemplating a response to bosnia with republicans in control, where is there a vandenberg and? that leader of the of loyal opposition will work with the president with the tough foreign policy moments that is when he is the most iconic of the best of american government. >> welcome to grand rapids. to get inside look of rare books.
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>> we are in the grand rapids history at the public library and one of the largest archives in the state of michigan. we have over 3500 volumes on furniture design with woodworking and curving and that doesn't even include the collection of purity of - - periodicals. grand rapids was one of many cities manufacturing in the late 1800's and why grand rapids was the capital of america and it was because of this collection. 1870's three major grand rapids companies to show
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their furniture at the philadelphia exposition 1876. they impressed everyone at the show and put grand rapids on that map and with a collection of books here not only did we have all of these manufacturers, but we also have some of the largest collection of furniture we were serious about as we look at material is photographs house the collection develop and how it came together and we will also look at the notable connections like periodicals and catalogs and then look at mid jams of the uh
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collection and also robert adams and james adams to talk about how the collection was developed and one that i found that was very exciting it says on the back they are furniture books for the reference room. early 1900's without the exact date but the early ecolab action and the other next pitcher with is the current reading room today. so to see the books where they originally were that is cool. as the deciding collection grew, they ran at of ram to put to all of the books so
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most recanted the reference room. so we have sought furniture catalogs that was one of the of largest and most well-known furniture companies in grand rapids and then we have the collection of newsletters men by 80 employees for the employees of the day-to-day lives than the things that they did about three years by percent of the workforce city had to fill in with women 15 percent of world war i everything from staining and standing
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typical furniture so one part is a large volume of periodicals from the trade there were magazines with a french trade manufacturer 56 based in town i put out the specific book because there is a very nice article of the collection that we have including la library director talking about the books he is purchasing so that he is trying to fill it adapts the collection said to purchase books and one of the things he learned is
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sending a letter to request the book so they had to ascend a telegram in 1816 it thought it was one of the best that the library may have books on furniture that of the la library of congress that is not too much of the stretch. >> right now we are in doc archives with a special collections department prepare you cannot feel lead but it is cool in here with temperature and humidity control to preserve documents and photographs what we have for as long as possible and behind us we have the extension of
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furniture design collection mostly e oversized and we keep the decorative architecture items in here. one of the gems of the collection was a volume that i first want to talk about this book is a list on furniture this was published 1928 in connection with the semiannual one furniture market in this book mentions what we will look at the first edition of the most famous book ever published and this in is one of the volumes that is strong that he looked for and wanted to secure as a cabinetmaker in england and was active in
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the 1700 and cabinetmakers that architecture was the fine art so as the first cabinet maker to purchase a nice volume of his designs that seemed a little audacious that the time that it wasn't him as important as architecture. he self published and had list of 300 subscribers that they would buy the book when published it is included in the of volume since that is the title gentlemen and cabinet maker's director said you could use the book
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if you write cabinetmaker you have the title page and you can see that this in is a first edition published again one year later and then 1/3 edition 1762. so that first edition is unique and harder to come by so want to point out one of the pages of the river then back chair was part of the chippendale's personal favorite he felt that was the best that he had done with the very nice piece of work. the engraved plates with the most famous books on
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furniture with his work given the field. very notable work on architecture very large 18.5 inches and this is the book that the library director for 20 years this is the first volume and it took a long time to find a complete set it is so rare to see a complete set. soda title page of the book you can see the amazing full-page illustration and that they completed and was a scottish architect that
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brings life feel tune architecture to see them through their eyes and how they go together through detail oriented everything about the design with the architecture outside of building and wanted to major it was the design to fit in with the rest of the house so to show how they all come together. out of the 100 illustrations , here we see one of them an example of some of the most high of the increasing work -- engraving
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work. another we have taken a glimpse at the collection i hope you appreciate how complex this area is. we collect this information because it is part of our culture and heritage and our future. is our role at the library to collect the history and story of our community and brcs here to preserve those things because of we don't nobody else will.
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>> this book is clearly about water but it is also about climate change and biodiversity and conflict and improved security. so what i'd do it is explore
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how water connects with all those different facets of our challenges and also explore haul water and literacy understanding how water works and moves across the of landscape and through the atmosphere can help us better address these concerns were propelled because it is no news to any of you that we have a lot of really difficult challenges before us. but we will not resolve those with a visual graphics we will not really get these problems, we will not get
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their scientific research from the peer review studies , because of the political is asian of becker cultural science and also because most research is not in the real-world but it is done in the labs you cannot see how the whole system operates. and the same way that we will not get our challenges by looking at each one separately. over here we cannot say we will deal with biodiversity and be competing with other institutions dealing with climate change that the way that we will really address these challenges is by looking at the oval system asking questions like how
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might we learn from that and abide looking at systems as a whole in the context of social and economic circumstances. . .
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