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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  September 24, 2016 12:00am-2:01am EDT

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she was rich. washington would've never been washington without martha. [laughter] but you know what she was doing that knitting, again they have done a wonderful job at finding these letters because they are hard to find. the woman of the time were horrified that the troops are camp there because just like anytime the sailors are imports. so when she was setting the example of sitting and nicotine and that kind of -- all the rest. another civil war. we have gotten to jumped over. >> you want here at delhi madison really did. >> will go for a bit i read she had it taken out of the frame. >> the congress was not that the time of the war of 1812. congressman, the the senator
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stayed in their own political taverns, they got in a fight in the streets and it was really bad. madison needed them brought together. dolly madison began to have her receptions and she would ask nice ladies and women from town to come there, as guests. they would mix with the crowd and in those days the formal ways women sat on the stool feet facing the floor them and move behind them. well she had everybody came, the whole congress came every week. she served hot coffee, she served wine, and then she served what really was groggy. it was whiskey and heated whiskey. and everybody just loved it. [laughter] madison used the green room to lower the ones that he needed to talk to.
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two men for, one from each party. it was very, very useful. people never forgot her for that. she was a bit of a street angel and home devil. she cleverly did that. and she did as katie was saying, their notes where she brought issues mainly three wives that came to her through their husbands. but that is is what she did. it was extremely important. at the time. she clung to that story all of her life. and finally, probably wrote a letter that she claimed was an original was written while the flight was going on. the very likely wasn't. telling the whole thing that i stand and then some people, it it was at the time someone had come to the press and it said
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that the story was not true about the painting and all. and she called and got in touch with everybody she could to write letters and say what it was. >> but then at the time of the civil war there actually troops in the east room so talk to us a little bit about how that was. >> the volunteers camped in the east room at the very beginning. lincoln made a call for volunteers. then they were gotten out of there and there is troops in the grounds. mainly on the south and then there were guards that patrolled, the white house has a long transverse haul across it going east to west. the patrol that hall. the family quarters on the west and the and the offices were on the east end. and on floors there were guards patrolling constantly. and i was a sort of protection the head. but the interaction they had between the family and the troops is very personal. chad lincoln was made an officer and got his little uniform and they were like family.
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>> and particularly the lincoln cottage. >> yes but most at the white house i think. i think there is a problem. i think they're coming to town and the carriage fell apart and someone has sabotaged the carriage and she could have been seriously her budget and pay much attention to it. and then lincoln herself went to the hospitals and camps around washington and greeted the soldiers who were wounded. and brought things things from the kitchen at the white house. it was very friendly. she was a woman who had a terrible difficulty with the press because she is the first, first lady that ever became red meat for the press. she did not understand it. she did not understand why washington considered her a hit from the sticks. she suffered a lot of that. she. she is very sensitive. all of these wonderful people come all the stars of the age,
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victorian england, there are also glamorous. she wanted to be. it didn't happen. but the interaction, lincoln repeatedly tried to have her go to new york but she stayed. >> it's very interesting about mary lincoln. what a sad story in many ways. losing several several children, particularly willie their favorite in the white house. some suggest that made a more empathic for the soldiers. she had a great suffering suffering herself. of course later after her husband died she thought she severed more than any other family who have lost anyone in the civil war. she could take things too extreme. but she had great empathy as you're saying for the soldiers. and as on to pick up on
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something that susan was talking about which as you were talking about with your show about how the development of the first lady scholarship. it's interesting, here we are today very focused and excited about this topic but this is not the way it was for a long time. i'm glad many of us have spoken to friends and family about our work and they said first lady, they don't don't understand why this is a compelling topic. it's compelling and it's interesting of how and when it came about became something people cared about. you mention it's relatively recent and it's her as i can tell it really began to spark at the betty ford library back in the mid- 80s, around the time nancy reagan was first lady. perhaps because she too, like mary mary lincoln was vilified by the press. just horrifically vilified for her close, the the china, and all the stories. in fact in the end she turn the tables and dressed up in secondhand store close and did a funny show for the press which everyone was amazed about she had a sense of humor about herself and how she was pretrade. i think the focus on her true a lot of interest in the first lady and of course you had
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carter had just written her biography as well. a lot of interest in that. more people came to the gerald ford library than i but he had expected, more than two people came including some presidential libraries and families, some daughters of lady bird johnson. they really began to spark. he also had a great book coming out like sylvia dukes burke on -- you began to see what more scholarly work being done. the people like paul anthony and robert monson. in his becoming a big feel. it's really interesting in the first ladies begin to be categorized in certain ways. are are they players are they activists, of a -- types. these are things that we wrestle with today and how we categorize them. as. as you see in the course of our discussion today somebody who would be a subdued first lady
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today if there is such a thing is so much more involved than one earlier in the 20th century when it was much more difficult, even lawrence hardy who i love very dearly and i'm sure get a chance talk about more later. she did speak to the press. she did not want it to be manipulated against her husband. we cannot really imagine that today with the first lady. things had really had really changed. >> when you talk about that categorizing you will a great treat a little while from now to meet laura bush and she said when she came and everybody kept saying are you gonna be hillary clinton or barbara bush? and and she said i thought i would be laura bush. >> one of the reasons why people have gotten excited about this is because they are good stories. why don't you tell us about lucy hayes. >> when you look across first ladies with this particular lens
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of military, the one thing that you noticed right away is how often our nation is at war. so the real draw issue support and preserve the family legacy. when the commander-in-chief is acting at that role that is really a natural for first ladies to be involved with the military and with veteran issues. when i look across the board, for me the ones who really stand out on this issue, marcia washington, lucy lucy hayes, florence harding, and eleanor roosevelt are the real, committed beyond belief personally because in many cases because of family circumstances. lucy hayes is one of those for the civil war was declared when rothenberg hayes in ohio was 40 years old old and he and lucy already had children. they decided as a couple that he should fight, despite the fact that they had children at home because they believe so much in the cause of the union.
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so he went to war and he was in pitch battle and he was seriously wounded, five times almost bosses are in one of those circumstances. as the story with martha washington, it was common for the wife's to go out to the battle food to support the husbands. and to provide morale for important general so that they would have that family connection. lucy spent spent a great deal of time, again even in the civil war at great personal risk and one of her children was born just before she went to encampment. the child, the infant died at the encampment. they had to bundle up the child's body and send it back with a soldier tool ohio for burial. she just had to keep going on. the interesting thing is that lucy hayes' brother was a surgeon and lucy hayes participated regularly in battlefield surgeries assisting with amputations on the battlefield. except for perhaps mary lincoln she saw more of front port
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horrors of war than any of the first lady i believe. but she came to the white house and 76 and that famous contested election she brought this concern for the soldiers to the white house and really became an advocate for them while she was there. she is one of the first, first ladies to recognize the mental aspects of war. there is a term developing at that time called shellshocked which is very aware of them became on to log bobby. >> now tell ptsd. >> exactly. to care for veterans such as for their physical wounds with their mental wounds. she regularly brought soldiers and their families to the white house. one of the most touching stories, not told by her and this is a mark of her humility but told by the british and bassett are that there is an event at the white house honoring good relations after the war of 1812 when the british and after was invited.
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there is a very old soldier from the war of 1812 was invited to take part. he had his uniform set separately and was just aghast of him at the white house that he arrived without the stripes on the arm. she sat on the floor of the white house, got, got her needlepoint out and stitched the soldiers stripes onto the uniforms so that he could be properly dressed for the president. the british investors saw this since told the story about lucy hayes. so she gets that big-name lemonade lucy, that's what we know her four. it was really her husband who is the -- person. she got got stuck with the nickname but she is so much more interesting in so many layers of her own care and concern about issues that are very important once. >> it in fact the library has just opened in fremont, ohio and her stories can be much more to light. bell, susan talked about the people who saw war up close,
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another was julia grant. when she came to the white house she had a wonderful time. >> she did. she loved every minute of it. she had married him for love, they were engaged when he went away to the mexican war in which first noticed by the superior. they came back and married and had a hard life. hard life. she lived in the army quarters, she lived in places in good places and bad places that she he drank a lot. then he became became despondent and quit the military only to rejoin the civil war and become a hero. when he was elected president, it was their time. she moved in, she had a welcoming party later on for lucy hayes but from that time she went in it was, she loved every reception, every overcrowded event that served only ice water.
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they put a letter to the east room so guess could get out early if they wanted to. [laughter] she is very happy. she knew the military, military, their friends were military people. of course one of the things i could go back to the white house past and do, there is a room which the hayes had as a greenhouse but i mean, lincoln known at the lincoln's, johnson. and they turned it into a billiard room. in the old generals would pop and while they're not bottled but they would come in and play billiards. then they would go in and drink and use ornaments off the tables and things like that. they would relive the battles of the civil war. then they would go on till two in the morning at sometime. they would argue over this and that what did you do and what to jones too. of all the things that happen in the white house i would've loved to witness the.
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then she presided over all. >> she was really mad he mad he didn't run for a third term. >> all they got in and she fell on the sofa and started screaming and crying and pounding with her fist. she did did not want to leave. >> important point to know about grants for military service is actually attached to julia. he was disbanded over the fact that she did not write him often enough. he needed her letters to keep them going in the battlefield. one of the reasons why she did not write as much is that julia grant was born with one eye that was off-center and she had very difficult time writing. so she resisted writing letters because it was so difficult. the sense is is that he left because he missed her so much and she was also part of the encouragement to get him back into the military service again. one of the things i'm doing an event next week at the lincoln cottage and it's a book on lincoln's generals wise.
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the point made in the book is julia had respect for and affection for lincoln is one of the reasons why his career advancement has brought back into the military. >> she of course invited the lincolns to city point when the troops were trying to get to richmond and they had a nice time. and then after richmond fell they came back and said i don't have anything to do it julia grant. they're on adjoining boats and merry has a party, julie is not invited so she hires a band and goes up and down the james plane you will miss me when i'm gone. [laughter] okay, we got to the 20th century because were going to run out of time. katie, florence hardy. >> if i could just make one mention about letters. i can the early 19th century, thomas jefferson, his daughter martha kept him going with letters. he was -- this is a big theme in our book.
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it's really interesting about it. he had a lot of issues so florence harding is fascinating woman. i know a biased but she clearly, she really was. she is certainly one of the most underrated first later so hopefully that will change as more of us learn, especially about her role with the military. she is a senator's wife, she was in the senate during world war i so she senate during world war i so she is very concerned. has many first ladies would've been including wilson at the time. with the word soldiers at the time. but. but she had a special connection, like mary lincoln. she suffered great of volpe. she had a terrible element in been in and out of the hospital surgery in a lot of pain. she felt a connection with the soldiers in the military and what they were dealing with. she
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felt called to help them. and as soon as they got in the white house their opportunities to monitor the soldiers. and since the tomb of the unknowns which were dedicated the first year and she laid a sock on the tomb and that was actually a body that was chosen from france from four unknown soldiers of one was brought back and is still remembered today in arlington national cemetery. she also was apparently quite concerned about the opportunities just as our first lady is today about jobs of former veterans. so she prevailed on her husband she signed an executive order to make sure the former military candidates and applicants with postmaster got five points added to their score on they're able to use their military service as time allotted toward their positions in these government jobs. it was very forward thinking. even more perhaps pointed is that she was so concerned about the treatment of these veterans especially ones who are in pain and suffering. many of them were in wheelchairs and blind. she would have gatherings at the white house and they would come
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she would entertain bands would play and she would allow them to touch her and touch her face. she had a connection with them. she was concerned that they were well taken care of and their needs. the veteran's bureau were set up in the first veterans bureau for the first world war i vets. it was run by a very qualified man, a good friend of the hardings in the senate he had been in hawaii at the time, they connected with him. that was charles forbes. he was extremely the wrong person for this position. oh my gosh. in the end he took about 2,000,000 dollars dollars in kickbacks for setting up hospitals. he took supplies meant for the soldiers and sold them at a profit. he had people who did this for him as well. one later were exposed and shot himself. it's a scandal. how did this come about?
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she heard about this and she had contacts in the hospital. she people reporting to her including a close friend her dry dr. during the harding administration. she knew what was going on but she did know how bad it was. she got the reports when she found out there's a lot lot of pressure on the president. he was absolutely right there if yours. he tried to throttle forward. they sent him away and accepted his recognition when he came back from new york. you're done basically. many of us remember the hardings for scandals and thought they didn't care it but they did care. importance had a role in trying to protect those soldiers >> that's an important point about what function first ladies play throughout history. when you mention she was visiting hospitals, she, she was not just shaking hands, she was observing. she would come back and report and try to get things changed. throughout history first ladies
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can find themselves interacting with the american public in ways that presidents can't. >> that's so true. when anita called me about this conference i said and told me the subject matter was i said that is so perfect. because the first ladies listen. both mrs. bush's troops to teachers and initiative and mrst states to waive licensing time periods for people, those those are direct results of listening to people. presidents going to make speeches. first ladies go in and listen. that it's a way that the change can happen that is completely different from the presidential role. >> i must say though that they cartoons of the goodtime katie that we're talking about the president and mr. harding.
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[laughter] she did have great heads. >> she had reasons to keep him down. we then saw eleanor roosevelt actually in uniform right? do you want to talk about that. >> only that she became very involved with military during the war and how uniform she word she made and less trips to everywhere, horrible, all-night trips were on the old airplanes on the military planes, wherever she went there is cheering. when they first went to the white house their protesting soldiers were still out in the park together camping in the parkway. she went up to see them in the whole thing broke up.
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she sang, she had lunch with them, they were seated and taking care of the vets and she went out, talk to them and saying and the whole thing broke up. so she started early on that. during the war she was heroic. she was attracted news coverage wherever she was. it seems so strange at the time for her to do it but she did. >> i think people don't realize how charming she was. >> they think for as being very stern. >> she is very old-fashioned. i'm in the teacup was not unfamiliar to her. [laughter] she knew how to do everything of that kind. in a way it created a nice transition between her and everybody because you can respect her for that, that's who who she was, but then her interest and other things, and congress to that made her an interesting character and roosevelt --
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>> in our series we talked about the fact that eleanor roosevelt, for the military beginner world war i, remember her husband was undersecretary of the navy and as such she traveled with him. it was discussed how she was so tragic about world war i, the kind of weaponry use so she saw body stuffed up like corded she was so deeply affected by this that this was a lifelong interest for eleanor roosevelt that she brought to the white house and when where was declared it was a natural for her, two small sidebars to show the personal commitment. i don't know that the president didn't mind her being out of washington. it was quite controversial as you know. she took three major trips to combat zones during the war and the second one of those and she traveled for many hours in uninsulated military aircraft
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and shattered her eardrum. so she was left with no hearing in that year. the mouse for the rest of her life. when she got to the basis she walked 50 miles to see and shake almost every hand that she could, so much show so that her arches fell and she had wear special shoes for the rest of her life. two things about the personal commitment that eleanor roosevelt many first ladies make to this, it is estimated that by the time the war was over she had shaken 400,000 hands of members of the military. about 10% of the entire fighting force. this war was personal for her. again, she brought back her knowledge of what she learned to the white house come to the president. that was an important faction. >> also, you all describe this so well but there's still more about because as we know she
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broke the mold. but she broke the mold in one of the things you're talking about how she was by these trips and sharon the diary about how she was really trying to find a way, was there any way that things could be settled without force and then later when she leaves the white house shall been instrumental in helping to drop the universal declaration on human rights paste on what she has seen and experienced in the war. she really did bring about such great changes. she also tried to change life at home during the war which many of you have heard the stories. she was was a great listener. she was contacted by a man on a base in new mexico, a black man who reported on the fact that there was a 1000 seat theater there but only 20 seats for blacks in the back and not only that they were not allowed to use the transportation on the base and all kinds of other
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petty discriminations. she heard about this and i'm sure you've heard the stories, she tried to change the policies and she wrote to general marshall, she didn't have much luck but the point was that she raised the issue. she really cared about racial equality and sometimes at the time it was not a very popular stance. she was just an interesting woman that took in all of the soldiers and their difficulties and wanted to report on them, study and empathize them. >> her support for the tuskegee airmen of fine and they're plane as a way to demonstrate their interest in quality and the military. >> i forgot to ask you ahead of time, do you have the tape of jimmy? >> one of the things begin with florence hardy, the media began to be part of the first ladies in white house story. harding of course had the early movies and they began to record some of the things that we can actually see. as the 20th century progressives a video and film becomes part of this, i brought along and every time a demo
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panel i brought this, it's just. >> it's so much fun so this is beth truman. we should say that she was the wife of a military man, her husband had been on the frontlines in world war i and they wrote letters constantly. this was a very personal thing for her as well. and when an office toward the end of world war ii and the creating conflict. so ample opportunity for her to be involved. in fact her very first big public act was involved with the military. it was the at the national airport across the river from us and let show you what happened. [inaudible] >> ready to be christened by mrs. truman. who with her daughter margaret do the honors in her first public appearance. the mrs. truman is in for a surprise.
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by an oversight the champagne bottle come on like this one hasn't been properly prepared. at should break the on impact now mrs. truman is unaware that the bottle is not prepared. [laughter] . .
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>> >> her devotion to the military continued unless public ways. and she had almost briefly a gathering with the social functions to enjoy the of
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blair house and also what i like about her is she absolutely insisted to not be treated as the first lady she was a regular volunteer she just wanted to be helpful instead of upsetting things. >> margaret said what about history? she said that's what i'm thinking about. [laughter] so apparently huge numbers and. >> the question is with eisenhower and how did that affect her time? >> obviously she was still where the of the regular functions she continued that
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and was an advocate for members of the military and with her long history as a military wife. >> that's true. >> issue was never happier when the bodies came up to sit on the roof on the terrace. and then to have dinner and talk that was their idea of the best time.
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saw that as they enjoyed for this linden 37 different houses before the white house. so they were about even. >> to talk about the categories and mamie eisenhower she saw her major job as support for that president. >> how many eddie about their? [laughter] when they moved to the white house to work out a menu she saw the menu later in the day and hit the ceiling is and said i will plan the meals that the white house.
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i am in the office and i am in that house. including the first open bar and as eisenhower turned victorious. [laughter] she was such representative. [laughter] >> but mamie pink is everywhere she decorated everything in pink including the toilet seat in the bathrooms and i just chuckled agree general of world war two surrounded by pink laugh laugh. >> she was tired of all black khaki. she really wanted to dress herself she did not want to look like the grand ball whenever that means. [laughter] >> everybody thinks of mamie eisenhower but the biggest
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event and stand was pat nixon had for the visitors in that is the natural segue she was the first first lady to actually be in a combat zone. just outside of saigon and was in the middle of it but literally she could have then shot she listened to enjoy into orphanages and supported the war but one of the big things she had a big
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gathering for the paw1972. there were 600 people, they came to the state department but there was no room at the white house said they had them on the so there was this connection. pat had empathy herself and that was not the most favorable circumstances and could reach out to the returning pows and that was an amazing moment. >> but i believe it is still the largest to date ever held that the white house? >> as a ball history lessons you never get to the end laugh laugh but we will have a great treat to have laura bush and michelle obama of bring us up-to-date with our
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most recent first lady's barbara bush and then hillary clinton and laura bush and michelle obama. >> that was sitting for thanksgiving one year but this has said wonderful wonderful, wonderful panel. but i think having come to life here with the administration and the presidential libraries are beginning to understand their importance in each of their presidencies and the ability to celebrate them
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here is very important. they can very much. [applause] [applause]
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absolutely committed certainly do it is an amazing person help their winning everything and he had a chance to talk to president bush about what he is doing of course, obama is deeply committed i just
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talked to mrs. obama backstage and one of the topics of course, is what he thought about vietnam there are still a lot of fun detonated bombs and said he is to be sold through then be. and looking at the war so differently in the '60s and '70s and i said those that did serve their comedy you call that he rose? he said absolutely. but in my experience that we
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never experienced that we experienced now that it has come to when and there is not as much attention that has served in the country and above to hear what it is like to be in the white house to have that kind of power and influence on the issue extremely important. >> one thing for sure is worried you worry. you know that the troops are in harm's way you think about that every single night when you go to bed when you were in the lap of luxury a beautiful house where your sheets are changed every single day and it could not be more luxurious knowing that they are laying on the ground somewhere. so when you live there is
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that you worry about them every single day. >> we have had the honor the experience to visit the wounded at walter reed and that is a sobering experience. what we talked about when we first came into office it will last for hours because there were 50 or 75 people we would see going from room to room but now today last week he went to visit and was there 30 minutes because there are fewer men and women who are injured in war and about a popoff about
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going to war if you know their families like there are no implications and lives are changed forever so any commander in chief to have the privilege of serving would understand that with the families that are impacted. >> this story that does come out of a large group thomas significant injuries in the war wound conversations that you have with the president that night? >> we talk about them for
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ecosure. and those families and in many cases the families were there with them. one injured soldier had such a severe head injury we didn't think we would see him again but he is one of the warriors that george has painted with a scar in his head that he still has a with his child on his lap because a lot of warriors will say their families solve them through. won a couple that george painted, he painted his wife with him because he said his wife was always there and always with him he also suffered a head injury is doing great now that he
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didn't departure by himself because he credited her with his recovery. >> meeting the service members is fundamentally changes who you are as a civilian i was like most americans i had limited connections to the military community and not until the campaign in 2008 i started to meet military spouses to hear their voices that you don't hear in regular conversation with the challenges working mothers had, financial, raising kids but with these women mostly
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the they are moving their kids every two years in service of their country wondering if that adequate special ed programs. and doing this that blew me away and that is one of the reasons why i am such an advocate for this community wish every american had an opportunity to sit down and meet with families we would think differently of our challenges. with makes me inspired one to work harder. here we are sitting in the white house kimono reason to comply with 1% serving and sacrificing for the rights and freedoms for the rest of us. offsets that is an opportunity for me of which
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as long as i can breed. >> have a bike to talked-about children and both of you during times of war i did not hear the full introduction but he has four kids again say different perspective if you do have the child and this is something significant maybe even emotional or difficult but but for both of you what was it like to have kids there clacks knowing very well the commander-in-chief was ultimately responsible and probably were the first one they turn to? they did not live there.
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>> they were invited but they were seven with their grandparents were there. but when i wrote my book looking through my schedule i saw right after september september 11 that barbara and to indicate home to the whitehouse i knew they wanted to be with their dad and with us. they felt great insecurity of that gail and university of texas freshman and they wanted to be there with him. i noticed for a month and a half after that our childhood friends from texas came and i know that those men wanted to be with george .
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and just wanted to be there with him and nobody talks about or or conversation but it was we just want to be with you. that is really important you don't want them you just want them to feel the security you want home to be home because they need that refuge over the course of the day to come up on that elevator mutinied kid here during them with that sometimes they will do that. >> but before the most part
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part, that helps to keep kids normal and as my greatest concern coming into the white house to make sure my curls kimmel whole and to normal and decent and kind just as if we were on the sell side of chicago but it takes work to keep white house life normal for the kids. >> what is normal? [laughter] >> it is not normal. you try to pretend just ignore them with the guns laugh laugh i remember one parent teacher conference am barack obama went and there were s.w.a.t. team on top of the school and they were like really? really? today really have to be up there? yes they do. just keep going.
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>> and there will be security. >> but it is that a different level. >> we don't talk about it too much but it isn't the same as foreign the president -- for the president because we get to saying that we are out of here. >> i am really hoping that my four kids leave abc news. [laughter] i had to tell my kids there is of us new rule will not cover wars so now i am an asia so at least can redo stories about conflict? both you have accomplished so much joining forces they
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worked on as well and working together you should tell your husband's to believe themselves compared to be other is that what have you accomplished? more or less quick that don't just mean with those that were wounded about 25% and some with the new civilian world but what have you done for them that is the most important or more than you expected greg. >> en general the feeling that people support the military. and is very different from vietnam from my generation.
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that isn't the way it is now. i hope that our returning veterans have the support of the american public. and the thousands of veterans to spring up all over the united states to support the returning veterans. and also what and asset to think another million will be transitioning out in the next year. these people who chose to serve for volunteer saul it is up to us how we can help them keep serving in our
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communities that they are happy with and deal with the trauma. >> what i have been most pleased about is it has been a partnership with all sectors. >> with medical community's and what we have seen people step up without hesitation and that is the power of the platform allotted times people are very be receptive. the business community has created millions of jobs of the military spouses helping
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that get the trading to vans within the jobs in the same as for military spouses and we have been pleased with our local leaders who have answered the call an off to end veterans homelessness with the notion that we have one single veteran living on the streets should be considered a travesty to all of us. some state sort governors easily have eliminated homelessness to answer that call. but the hollywood community has stepped up who helped to develop the appliance -- a
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plot lines to integrate that to normalize to familiarize uh community with those issues. i have just been pleased. >> igo know what she was doing. [laughter] what is the purpose? >> normally when we do an appearance nevada o is get them to laugh and then get them to listen. people responded differently with humor and feel that you make yourself vulnerable more like a neighbor or
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friend. but that is to highlight a number of initiatives. we had bradley cooper for example, he has been a tremendous support under health for service members and bradley is cute and the little distracting. [laughter] if you stop and listen to what he says, he was promoting the importance of insuring the suicide rates of the military members is reduced and to do something about that you have to know that is a problem so people are watching ellen they don't always watch the nightly news except abc of
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course, but you have to reach people where they are. >> nobody wants to talk seriously all the time. >> you have those before? i am speaking for her. >> that is correct. when she asked me to clean up the garage i say what is that? [laughter] so much has been done that to err they win the wars began we were recovering to get out of the hospital but
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also of the next apple is to figure out a way to get back into the civilian world. then the next one with the rate of unemployment is lower than the civilian numbers. [applause] but the other one with those concentrations we have been learning over time it most of the attention of those that were visibly wanted -- rooted and now we have to see who is that a major concentration? >> that is one of the fax
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one dash effects of the dramas of one thing george has done is a lot of people recover if they pay a sport. those of the two things and bad idea behind it is to have a sport to go to. but let the group of people founding day concert he -- conservation group the benefits to be aside for minimal health. and those that being outside at just to see green. there is some research done that proves that that if you just go outside.
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one of the researchers that talked, talked about this problem will lot of people have where they ruminate and we spend a lot of times when something goes through your mind. it is bad for airplane where you go through your mind the trauma and you have been shot over andover but to get data of that that is very helpful with post-traumatic stress but it is an injury it is not a disorder. if people are diagnosed with a disorder but then they cannot get a job.
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so you can improve from the injury. >> that is the work that we need to do around mental health because it affects all americans one out of five with the mental health diagnosis. and the challenge that we face is a stigma. so people don't feel good about identifying to get the help that they need. sometimes is this a weakness. warwick it is an illness can you imagine clean being chemotherapy patients was weak? or somebody with a heart disease to toughen up? that is where mental health is. the military can play a big role to change the of conversation for the entire country because we know
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these men and women are heroes and brave and what happened. if we can be brave enough then perhaps that will help a kid who is depressed and thinking about suicide. the research that is happening for veterans can help everybody. that is one of the reasons with the joint forces and with the use of the defibrillator. [laughter] that saying. but every betty should be aware teachers or educators educators, so when you see the signs and the resources
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to get them the help that they need not just the one service members that the stress of day caregiver or the spouse that is dealing with four kids while the spouse's deployed. we have to make sure these individuals feel they can reach out when they need help and not drowning all alone this is one of the many ways the work with the military community translated. >> talk about employment to coming back to your world that there but not higher
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but they could identify. >> for those that are suffering in any way and veterans are slow? they are tough. they pride themselves to say i need help. i have seen some ads but he said never told anyone that but to tell your commander-in-chief but those are the things to talk about if they can talk about it
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and tell that but with that spouses you mention them again and children we have so many times in the world of the wounded those acerbic detention and that is changing over time. and we had some much fun with military spouses. they are smart and multitask years they are great
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managers many have had their careers disrupted because they support a spouse can argue keep up with your job with the of military spousal licensing? if there requires any kind of license or social worker you can name a. with those hours of trading with hundreds of thousands of dollars to be recertified to work and a profession. it involves any job with a license. that was one of the key
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issues. of those governors conferences, on. you can do this. they did realize they have reciprocity. so then is a no-brainer non-partisan issue. just get it done but now we finally have military special sole licensing. [applause] but we would never have known that had we not had the conversation with these and n and women to see what they are going through what would change their lives?
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into find the great program with the special ed program and you moved to another base and that skill to keep your kid on track and what it takes to get from kindergarten through 12th grade in one school? the average military kidd attends said then or eight or 10 kids and they still graduate on-time and that the top of their class and amazing but there is a parent at home that does a lot of heavy lifting to make that look good and joe biden
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has been working with the education community on a range of these issues as well. there is so much we need to know about the challenges of military families. so work on those front lines just as reticent so it is up to us to step up. >> that is why your president won the second term? [laughter] >> to make sure his teenage girls made it through high-school. [laughter] men with the guns. [laughter] that is a good motivator. >> we've moved 10 different cities, even in the military for try have some way to relate.
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[laughter] >> is interesting to talk about first ladies and great historians if you compare to what you are doing now, it is interesting to say the war zone and physically but the number of hours you put into it? what do you think? is a much more on ending i think first ladies have been active forever plaid five they used to think this about ladybird johnson isn't that sweet she likes
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flowers? and paul she was one of the very first conservationist. >> that takes us back to the next up what will you do when you go? what is your priority? many initiatives and what to concentrate on the most. and as time goes by for the rest of your life? you have the podium always.
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>> it is wonderful for us to have this opportunity to do things. these they get to friends together. and tydeus you have to have a strong public service bone plant into. but we left corporate law working with kids and mentoring as a community organizer i was working with city government. and there is something to do.
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>> and she said president bush takes on painting. i think we will get a book then he did great painting of you? [laughter] >> but he has painted portraits and has a book coming down in march with portraits. >> e and he is donating all of profit laugh laugh i am just joking. >> there is life and after the white house.
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even if we don't have clean sheets every day laugh laugh. >> so then we will have a brand new and administration coming soon. you'll have to move and do something but do you have it vice to the next first lady or first gentleman have to deal with initiatives? i know there is alive the remarkable organizations and it changes their attitude allot. specifically what you would tell the next greg. >> that should be high on
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the list. that they can support the commander in chief the first family or second family the obligation to set the tone to raise the bar high on the issue irresponsibility, with a house what they do for these men and women but the work to make sure this country never forgets that they don't just honor them with words as much as they have done there is still so
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much work everything is not fixed that the list are moms and goldstar families to hold them accountable of the presidency's and when a veteran comes home that they are even afraid to identify and realized we were having impact there was the gentleman who came up after a conversation after what we have highlighted antisense he i never been more proud to be a veteran i never used to tell people but no idle
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leave the house without something that identifies me as a veteran because they will think me and say thank you for your service. now i don't leave the house with something that identifies me as a veteran. there will be more and more women veterans and to let them know we are grateful. >> allot of the vietnam vets in some of them may have injuries that were never identified before so we will start to see a big number of vietnam veterans into a hospital.
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>> people assume there is no bottles but we are all over the world that will continue for a long time. but sometimes maybe this is to the emotional but if i book back about the good thing is that as been so satisfying, so fulfilling to have this relationship with a group of americans who have served because they are volunteers my own son and daughter don't have to join the military unless they really want to. but how has that been for you? to some degree it is obvious
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have you cried much? >> yes. i cry all the time. but is tears of pride to i am moved by this community so deeply talk about pride of country and citizenship with the strong defense for this rests on us shoulders of one community. to protect the freedoms of the assault. if we don't take care of the men and women. so i do get emotional when i see a gun man with all of the limbs blown off and ici
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young family sitting there and sec him walking than competing in the games and clutches your heart we could follow the journey is from traumatic injury to victory there is the strength and the power we are so lucky. >> i'm actually working about to one of those
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positive aspects of the civilian world of medicine saving lives like never before. but it does treat this other invisible loans forever. and that is one thing he will concentrate on. that is remarkable. thanks to both of you for what you're doing. behalf not done the research, a previous first ladies have done for veterans. final after the cold war but you have again done more than almost anybody expected . [applause]
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>> i am excited about the opening of of a new museum for a guy was a history major at georgetown sly and
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excited to be here in washington to see the complete story of america that you cannot really tell the story without the african experience. and how much of this country on the promise of slavery that is the absolutely forgotten until recently. and opportunity not just for us that are here but children and children's children. how was created and where will go. >> what about the national mall quite. >> but the system has been used for so many years but
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the goal of america and in redeems themselves and decided to change and to veer left or veer right. >> as part of that 50 years ago? with the first african-american and presidential candidate. >> but there is not a coincidence. but i am just so honored to be here as is the african-american and president from 2008 in his
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election into the forefront of what is happening in america. part of that understanding what we believe with regards to quality. >> but is that national conversation happening? >> i am so honored to talk about what the museum can do. and 100 years and those from the virgin islands alexander hamilton.
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and we are hopeful with our story as well. to go through the museum to provide a vehicle for that to the art or to the intellect. >> tell us what the museum means to you personally. >> personally, i was a history major. if you don't know your history and as the mother of five children something i told all of my sons we will take a day as a family in the verse ourselves put this one is ours with all aspects of american life.
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and not just myself but my sons and my daughters to be part of the american story >> five or six people will determine the budget of the united states in the next month.
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>> if the people vote we are to be a democratic republic it just means you have a fair process if they vote and you are a fiscal hawk and then you lose who but
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for families and communities. from the urban institute this is just under three hours. >> good morning, everyone? i am honors to be the president of the urban institute and to welcome you here to this extraordinary program on behalf not only of my colleagues here at urban but also our partners at the saw price school of public policy at the university of southern california. for a discussion on the important new analysis on immigration, economic and fiscal
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impacts on our larger economy and on america's communities. our goal today is to better understand the potential role of immigrants when effectively integrated into our economy in the future prosperity of our country as a whole and as the day evolves focus more on our cities and communities. i invite all of you who are in the room and those of you online, welcome, also, to join the conversation taking advantage of the #liveaturban. those online live, i know there are many watching this broadcast later, but those online live, or watching on our c-span audience who we also welcome, you can send comments to us at events @ urban.org and we will get them to the panel moderator for the discussion. at urban, we are excited about this being the beginning of a
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deeper collaboration on the issues between the urban institute and saw price school under the leadership of gary pinker who is the director at the center and audrey singer. let me first briefly mention the occasion drawing us here. the national academy of science, engineering and medicine released a report entitled the economic and fiscal consequences of immigration which is a comprehensive look at these issues and the ways immigrants have driven change in our society since 1997. the academy convened 15 experts on a worldclass academic panel led by professor from cornel university. some of the facts you find: over 40 million people in the
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united states today were born in other countries and an equal number have at least one immigrant parent. together those immigrants and near relations of immigrants make up a quarter of americans. a growing share of our working population are immigrants and nearly all of the growth in the future workforce is expected to come. the number of foreign born has doubled since 1990 and are 13% of the population including naturalized citizens, temporary visas, green cards, refuges and the undocumented. the number of the undocumented, 11 million, has been constant since 2009 with about 3-400,000 immigrants joining our country illegally and a similar number leaving each year.
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there are one million legal permanent residents also arriving each year. what is the impact? immigration's long term impact on wages and unemployment of the native born u.s. workers are very small although low-skilled workers may be affected a new report finds. impacts on economic growth are positive while effects on government budgets are mixed. that is a nuance headline and unfortunately nuance doesn't at first blush convey well in public debate. this morning i looked at the news cycle comments on the report. "the new york times" head line said immigrants aren't taking american's jobs. and the washington times read immigrants drain the economy sapping money from the local governments. people are finding -- and they did add at least in the short run. so people are looking for what
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they want to find. we are lining this sophisticated and terrific body of work. we are excited one of the panel members is one of our own. the first panel is going to
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introduce the report and we are delighted also to have from ufc roberto to moderate. he is teaching at the school of communication and journalism and the price school of public policy and directs the thomas rivaria institute. . >> >> that we've made have can
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be removed. and doing research on demographic change for the last 25 years and was also recently a member of another national academy panel from one year ago. now we will introduce the of rest of our speakers we encourage you to stick amount because at the eddy will hear from president douglas chief immigration advisory domestic policy council will close out the day. >> thanks for coming we are very excited with the release of the report which is three years in in the making which has taken a fair amount of energy on our
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part and the members of the commission andrea very excited to share the results today. it was my privilege to serve with our fellow members and before we began our discussion previous answer questions through all 500 pages i want to take a couple of minutes to stress the findings to highlight a little road map through the report. the first housekeeping sponsored by a the macarthur foundation if you thought that it was worthwhile to know about the consequences of when they decided three years ago it is worth investing in this where we would be in the presidential election cycle right now. will also racine support to
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finish this work it took more time and money than anticipated and a study done in the 1990's. with the role of the immigrants are changing in the intervening times. the other thing to stress with the point of immigrants a rare point in the 1990's with a fiscal surplus at the end of the last century we were raising more taxes and spending at the federal level and now we were worried were historically after the great recession and running deficits. because when we start talking about the fiscal headline of "the washington times" to that in the grants cost more than they pay but so does everybody else.
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the key fain to remember with the deficits in this country to look at the taxes paid verses bunny's spent it's just has to do federally with what they are doing right now. as these headlines because now it was misleading. if he looked as similar headlines it would have cost $897 billion in 2013. just keeping in mind. to look at those demographic changes and the populations and evaluated the impact of immigrants with numerous studies. we did a pretty exhausted
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and search of research reports against which will be immigrants play in this country with the very diverse committee and we reached consensus on what we think the takeaway was. this is different from the other work that was done between first-generation, second-gen eration for those that were native but at least one foreign born parent. salt into this nomenclature so anybody who's parents were not immigrants themselves. so those great grandparents were immigrants who came
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over on the mayflower. >> one of the things mentioned worth stressing is be lose sight of the fact while the undocumented immigrants increased from the 1990's that beginning in 2007 through now the number of unauthorized immigrants has been constant we have had people leave but there is the net wash the is important to remember going forward. immigrants are making up in increasing share of our population and our labor force soleil are younger than they were his starkly and what is going on with the population in the united
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states. some natives are actually eating and leaving the work force so part of what is sustaining us for those two are working. so now it is made up of immigrants of 16% and the only increase of the labor force population will come from immigrants or the children of immigrants. so those third-generation are leading up population more than they enter it. it is important to recognize to sustain the labor force there is a certain level of emigration moving forward. so with other general
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findings more recently in trade with more education than they have had his starkly. the native born individuals have gotten more in the month dash education better over represented and to groups. even though they have more education there is the thought they don't have a high-school degree so right now i disproportionate number of immigrants from higher levels of education with science and technology. we find there is little effected overall on the economy in terms of wages and employment and there are negative effects concentrated for those that are the substitutes for those new derived immigrants.
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and it is mainly concentrated with the employment and wages for those without a high-school degree but on the role of vice kill immigrants positively to the economy and complementary that has a college degree and without a college degree and we will get more into that later but to add to productivity if we switched to the fiscal side so we are running deficits so everything looks pretty bleak and spending more
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money than we are raising and taxes. so that cost on an average basis is more than they pay and taxes of how we allocate education cost. so what we do in the steady that we have to decide is how do you handle children? do we say they should bear the burden of their own cost of education or it goes to the parents? soleil said the cost of the kids sets with their parents so setter under 18 or under 21 even if they are native soul in general with the
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negative effects of immigrants coming from the fact they are younger with more kids typically sell at the state and local levels because we pay for the education costs. instead of thinking and as the caustic can be an investment in which case we solve some of that burden and in fact, because we look at be adults we find both that the federal and state and local level is second-generation. so what we are finding is the investment we are making will take off later sell most of those returns are held by the federal government instead of state and local government speak as they pay for education
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yet nbc's the fair amount of return to pay into the federal government. but we actually do estimates across of 50 states for the fiscal benefits and the cost for second third generations vice gift of bunch we have a lot more in the report reading the executive summary is great or if you are bored you can get your own copy and that i will hand it over to start. >> rebels star by introducing the other panel whose biography you add in detail.
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but i would suggest you are interested in either in the economic or fiscal future of the country that the doorstop will be with you for much more than a weekend. this report is in some ways a companion volume to the report of the new americans report that provided a benchmark of be understanding of immigration that has been a consistent influence how we think over 20 years. so this volume has potential in terms of longevity and influence it is
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extraordinarily complex that pursues a lot of detailed subjects as well as the of broad strokes that was only a part of the overview. said in the time that we have we will barely scratch the surface of what the document offers of insights and questions and the ways to formulate questions to start assessing these important questions. it takes us from one period of time into a very different . a time when the dynamics have changed considerably.
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but i want to start with one particular subject that relates to significant changes in the nature of the immigration flow itself them particularly in the last few years of high skilled immigrants and their impact something that wasn't that much of an issue but now since the recession increasingly is that issue as the economy is driven by information technology that rely on the flow of cuban capital the role that they play to provide that the central implant that in this
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report opens the door in a way we have not seen before. this is a subject of interest to you but what aspect deal find intriguing? able tie dimensional approach with the entrepreneurial immigrants not just in towns and jobs it is much more complicated picture. with that introduction to that framework regarding that part of the immigration quick. >> some people do have the idea? that they could emphasize later to talk about the ways that they contribute.
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there are two ways that does not apply to immigrants and one is that they may elevate because if you come up with a new idea the whole population benefits after the patent has expired. and beat the bad effects economic growth not just love love well-being in the country. of course it is an adobe skilled immigrants but they will innovate more than less skilled in general. so that is one thing. but we fake that the skilled workers might actually have a spillover so it is easy
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for a professor to think of that and as professors and be tried to seek out colleagues because we know we interact with them. so similarly, with skilled immigrants coming into the u.s. they raise the productivity of mine not talking about the entire e economy but electronically and face-to-face so those are two ways that they contribute so these extra a dimensions that you talk about so for example, those
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affect how they decide to specialize in two ways that people increase the specialization of where they are at. but barrett is evidence that they go into those specialties because in general they speak english better than the immigrants. with that efficiency and productivity. >> i will lead and added to that. the other thing that is true of immigrants barstow is that this could be people who have more education but
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the other immigration some that grow up into larger businesses that his important role andrea would get back to this later but because they are more herbal will that means they are more likely to go jobs than where there are openings. as their more. >> so in fact, that day are twice as likely then there is one more step perhaps up
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that 2.5% and there is evidence with everybody says from when they first arrived and with that initial move. with that specialization. >> i find that aspect is an important reminder of our economy as a zero sum game from something of this dynamic headlights gauge
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number of immigrants whiff that secondary effect it is a just a matter of with a richer picture. we have been living in a prolonged period of eight negligible growth rate in there it is ongoing concern but before going forward on the demographic with this economic impacts i am curious of how you judge the
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effects of how they play at all to of the overall economy? either with the downturn of slow recovery. how judy have the contact of these dynamics? >> there is an evidence that they could not fit in the report. >> buddies important topic with your opening remarks of how we think about the
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future influence of the migration on the economy. and line of the questions popped who long term is the role of the immigration with social security or medicare or other policies that our certain to increase in the years to come. value have written a lot about how in in the past that the immigration flows have the effect of the 18 population.

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