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tv   Public Affairs Events  CSPAN  October 28, 2016 11:20am-1:21pm EDT

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biography, and is a fellow of the british academy, the royal historical society, the royal society for literature, among numerous other accomplishments. in 2000 it was knighted in the queens birthday honors force vast services to scholarship. it is now my pleasure introduce our speaker, perhaps the only person who could tackle the colossal subject of winston churchill and the monarch, professor sir david cannadine. [applause] >> thank you. thank you so much for the exceptionally kind and generous introduction. since i spent part of my time earning my living by speaking as well as by writing, i have become an unrivaled connoisseur of introductions to myself. [laughter] on one occasion i was lecturing them on the road with my biographer andrew mellon, and i was in kansas city, introduction
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given. and the chairman said i should like to reduce david cannadine is the author of the greatest biography of andrew mellon ever written at about the eating promise well and rather -- then came the killer line, he said come is also of course the only blogger faith of andrew mellon ever written. [laughter] so thank you so much for not having said that. let it begin come its januar january 1952. king george vi has just died and winston churchill delivers his last great public broadcast, announcing that news and, of course, a cleaning george the sixth successive. in the past six weeks churchill said the king walked with the death but when death came, it came as a friend, an acquaintance whom he recognized and did not fear. and after a long days sweet goodnight to those who love them best, he fell asleep as every man or woman who fears god and
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nothing else in the world may hope to do. and he ended as follows. i whose youth was not shared and i passed unchallenged drink will blow of the victorian era may well feel and invoking once more the prayer and in some, god save the queen. there was the most eloquently devoted in its attitude towards the british monarchy as epitomized in his late majesty's george the sixth and her new majesty when elizabeth ii. indeed, according to -- winston was the only surviving believer in the divine right of kings and he took great pride and delight, mrs. clementines words, anything monarchical number one. who valued tradition, form and ceremony. churchill's public life which span more than half a century from the mid-1890s to the mid 1950s, it was a terrible
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cavalcade of kings and queens, throats analysis, coronations and jubilees. by the end of his career, church been a member of parliament during the reign of six successive sovereigns. he held office as a cabinet minister under four of them, and he was by substantial margin the senior counselor. king and country in that order, noted lord moran. such as the all the religion that winston has gotten. however, what is interesting that winston churchill and monarchy is interesting about churchill and all the many other important things he did is that the subject turns out on closer examination to be much more complicated that at first glance, we might suppose the churchill had a rather interestingly nuanced view of the institution of monarchy and his relations with successful occupants of the british throne for themselves rather congregated and rather nuanced. one of churchill's news of
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monarchy was that despite the shortcomings of certain british monarchs the english throne is a sacred mystical almost metaphysical institution which connected the past, the present and the future and which proclaimed the unity and identity of the nation. and part of what the british monarchy was four and churchill's you was to do that. a second view was that while other european nations preferred or suffered kings and queens who were generally despotic and absent, the british on the other hand, had the baltimore atmel form of constitutional and limited monarchy. thanks to parliament which represented the nation as a whole and the later advent of the two-party system, the sovereign power with progressively eroded any succession of -- which were milestones in the advancing cause of national liberties. magna carta all the way to the glorious revolution of 1688 and
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beyond. the result according to churchill was a happy compromise, a permanent parliament and it also monarchy whereby the sovereign rating above the battle of party while the lord and the common legislative and the cabinet got it. so the world in which churchill grew up in the late 19th century where queen victoire it was on the throne was a world where for in monarchy was an institutional and tory terms and enterprise which embody the nation's history, continuity and identity in its symbolic functions and ceremonial activities. but it was also impractical and essentially a week term a convenient constitutional device which left the people free to elect their representatives through whom they govern themselves. and end the reign of queen victoria, the monarchy acquired to further functions. thanks to the happy home life of
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victoria and albert are provided a moral example to the nation of decent and beautiful promised a city in city in a way that had not been true for much of the time when the stewards and others have been on the throne. editorial is no the only head of the british nation but also became a great presiding personage of the much wider british empire. largely on account of israelis and issued and imagination, her study, and imperial monarchy. the focus of a diverse and -- british tuner be extended across the seas and around the world which was united in homage to the queen. that monarchy by terms, tory and witty, mystical and functional, symbolic and constitutional, individual and -- national editorial was in the false narrative of its late victorian abundance, confidence and
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ostentation as church was growing up. it seemed an act expression of the british genius for organic constitutional evolution and working political compromise. it was widely ended around the globe and in this particular settlement of configuration it lasted the whole of churchill's long life. our ancient monarchy to observe a number of prince charles rendered services to our country and to all the british empire and commonwealth of nations. but churchill never forgot that while the mystical unify moral and impaired functions of the monarch were important, the whole tenor and tone and dynamic of english history have been to bring about a state of affairs with the kings government was carried on by ministers who were primarily answerable to parliament rather than to the ground.
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he insisted in 1909 is always advise on the advice of ministers, and ministers not the crown are responsible. and criticism of all debatable acts of policy should be directed to ministers, not to the monarch. so those were churchill's general views about monarchy which remained pretty much unchanged for the whole of his life. but how in practice to the interact with particular monarchs, and how far did those views that he had about the balance of power between the monarchy and the politicians in form and in certain cases antagonized his selection with the -- boom at the end of his life he felt proud and rightly so to have served. edward the seventh was the first monarch with whom churchill came into contact as an active and engaged in as he was in that phase of his life very energetic
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politician because he began to make a reputation in his first office as colonial undersecretary, king edward the seventh expressed delight is becoming a reliable minister and above all a serious politician which can only be obtained by putting country before party. i am he went on watching your political career with the greatest of interest. but while and word did watch a young winston's early political career with great interest, he increasingly felt that churchill was headed in the wrong direction. he is a drive, brashness ambition, opportunism, self absorption and negativism soon traded on his sovereign. and by the end of the 1900s, by the end of edward the seventh ring, churchill is at his most radical political phase, supporting lloyd george for his people's budget, over increasing tax antennas hostile comments
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about the house of lords to call of his seemed to edward the seventh both -- in terms of allt was being said and is suggested that churchill had indeed abandoned the country and was now putting his party and his own career first. the very idea one of edward the seven senators wrote of churchill acting from conviction or principle is enough to make anybody laugh. and edward the seventh anxiety about churchill's political conduct and character lasted to the end of his life in the end of his reign. ..
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in another sense, a very zealous and creative and engaged reformer. george the fifth was a former naval person. he was head of the armed services and a believer in tradition and precedents. they rubbed each other up the wrong way over a whole set of sometimes trivial, sometimes more important issues. he had the bright idea of wanting to name a ship run while not surprising, he took valiant exceptions to commemorating the honor. they ended up calling it agent s
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pitts. [inaudible] i've always been gracious of any advice he has given me he wrote rather stiffly. they were more important issues too. in may 1912, churchill decided that british battleships should be withdrawn from the mediterranean and relocated in the north sea pending what was going to be the war with germany the king disapproved. churchill exploded to his wife. king talked more stupidly about the navy then i have ever heard him do before. it was so disheartening to hear this cheapened rebel for which he lets himself be filled up. churchill did not give way on
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that issue and in the end, he prevailed. what is going on in this first phase of his career was that all was not well. edward the seventh and george the fifth disliked churchill because they thought he was insufficiently respectful of their person, their position and he thought his views were right and theirs were wrong and they didn't like that. churchill was on intimidated and discussed what he thought were inappropriate interference with the politics. all that meant that when churchill fell over the disaster 1915, that news was greeted at buckingham palace with scarcely concealed belief wording on expressions of joy and pleasure.
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it is queen alexander who informed her son george the fifth, winston's fault who has upset almost everybody. george v took essentially essentially the same view. churchill had become impossible, real danger and he was delighted and relieved he had now been got out of harm's way. so then ended the first phase of churchill's involvement with the british crown, a, a very different set of stories and relationships than that eloquent speech with which i started. how do we get from here to there? what is the process where the views of monetary -- monarchy become very different. the answer is during the war
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years, his attitude began to change as the balance between criticism and approval, his ability and appreciation shifted marginally in their favor. what's the explanation to that? the first world war had left churchill saddened and his reputation damaged in his career prospect diminished also looking out on the social political and international landscape so trends formed and disturbed that a bore little resemblance. [inaudible]
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especially at the top of their list of those injuries had been the distraction and overthrow of the ruling royal houses of germany, russia and austria hungry. it's important to notice that when churchill came in the 1920s, early 1930s to write his book, he was not only, though he was primarily an enterprise in self justification of his campaign, but it was also his idea of civilization and crowns and thrones. nations of empires rose majestically on every side and accumulated treasures of a long piece. that was him on this royal road before 1914 which the first world war had brought to an end. those postwar changes help
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explain the dramatic and complete transformation in his attitude and relationship with king george the fifth. by this time he no longer regarded his earlier radical liberal days, but on the contrary was the embodiment of decency, duty, continuity and tradition in a world too often characterized by strife, revolution and chaos. by the same token, the king began to warm to churchill and the new conservative, that by the early 1920s he had become. that's the the point. in the early 1920s there are much involved in the process the island was partitioned and the south became was i independent
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and they seem to get along a lot better. churchill passionately began to believe that it was hugely important. answer the question he hoped. he argued this was the best antidote. it provided glamour, splendor, restraint and stability. it was a silly idea that republicans were better governed it had been a huge fall in the restoration of the historic houses in germany and the successor state.
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they were seeing the disappearance of these great monarchies which held the continent together. he argued there are massive changes that destabilize the world. monarchies have learned, democracy has become incontinent, unfettered and irresponsible. yet he went on, the heart of the british empire, there was one institution among the most agent that had breasted the events and gave new figure from the stresses of contemporary life. unshaken by the earthquake, on weekend by the tides, the world had drip drifted and the monarchy stands firm.
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he went on, this was an achievement so remarkable, so contrary to the whole tendency of the age that it could not be separated from the personality of the good, wise and truly noble team whose work now has ended. so of course, to edward, a rather large pickup in the story and this later part of his life. he wrote one of his grandiose sis letters which is what he used in corresponding with the sovereign. offering his faithful service and heartfelt wishes at a rain that has so nobly begun would be blessed with grace and to group glory majesty's name will shine
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in history as the bravest of the sovereigns who had worn the island crown. he was good at predicting the future but he must be so, he didn't do that well on that occasion. those hopes were sincere and heartfelt and rested on exaggerated sense of the kings virtue and his blind eye toward political attitude and the conduct of his private life. churchill decided he would take the king side against the government thereby lining himself with lord beaverbrook and seeking to embarrass the national government. many people said this is a self interest act on churchill. that's not the whole story. he was happy to embarrass the government but he genuinely synthesized with the dilemma of edward the eighth.
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with his knowledge and consent, churchill rallied the king, writing him letters, visiting him at fort belvedere, seeking to boost his morale and urging him to be discreet in his relationship with mrs. simpson. he was worried it might lead to the wrong decision and could put public duty before the demands of personal gratification. it's very important to stress, given the second half of the 1930s that in championing how loyal king henry viii, he gave his own reputation harm with the public and the court.
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it was derived by many as unrealistic. he was ready to give up the throne for the woman he loved and misjudged the character of the sovereign and move mood of the country which turned against the king. he pleaded for extra time in the house of commons and that extra time should be given. he was shut down. many had the view that supporting henry viii was not a good idea. [inaudible] he published an article on the new monarch in the magazine in may 1937. it is important to notice the consequence of having supported
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edward the eighth. that preposterous thing in the kings speech which some of you may have seen where churchill is seen cozying up to george the sixth and offering him wise advice and he it is utterly made-up and completely fictitious. he has a rather interesting, soon after he became george the sixth. i know how devoted you have been and still are to my ideas. a rather shrewd observation. they regarded any supporters of hers and edward the eighth as enemies of theirs. what is more, to these delinquencies, they were further compounded by the fact that
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churchill was anti-appeasement. there there is the new king and queen by contrast where they were supporters of the prime minister. they shared with him a strong sense of decent moral values and invited him onto the balcony of buckingham palace after he returned with peace and honor from munich. when he resigned on ten may, of may, 1940, george the sixth told him, he had been grossly unfairly treated and greatly regretted. they wrote saying how deeply i regretted ceasing to be prime minister. i can never tell you how much we owe you. but the other way, that meant that when churchill became prime minister in may 1940, it was an appointment which george the sixth and queen elizabeth bitterly opposed and the fact that he insisted, despite
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expressed misgivings, only seem to confirm the establishments worst fears, namely that the gangsters and the crooks were now in charge of the nation's affairs. true to his old cavalry, he was was not always group list and keeping the kings form and was often. [inaudible] things did not begin well. it would be fair to say they began pretty badly. never the less the relations gradually improved. he would later become devoted to winston as he was to them. george the sixth soon came to recognize the vigor and brilliance of his wartime leadership.
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i must confess, he wrote in july 1941 to churchill to leave the country to meet fdr off the coast of newfoundland. i shall breathe a great sigh of relief when you are safely back home again. although churchill did his best to keep informed about the war and regularly lunched with him at talking him palace. in 1941 george the sixth personally appointed him, a great expression of confidence in him. their friendship became that when he wrote his memoirs he noted with pride the constitutional monarchy and he valued the intimacy which i have served and for which i was treated and for which i suppose there have been no president since queen and. churchill saying that the best possible arrangement for britain fighting wars is that they should be churchill in power, in close alliance with the
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monarchy. all things considered. [inaudible] nevertheless, it's important important to notice that while his faith and devotion were sincerely felt as they were eloquently expressed, he hadn't obtained supreme political power with any intention of sharing any of it with his sovereign. he kept them supplied with the appropriate papers and when pressed of them that they were for information only. from the outset, he paid great attention to parliamentary opinion. he regularly referred to his chiefs of staff and in the later stages of the war he found it difficult to get his way with roosevelt or with starling. but as they signaled early on, he never changed his mind on wartime policy or personal.
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on eight may 1945 may 1945 he appeared on the balcony with king george the sixth and queen elizabeth. soon after he addressed the king in the comments. we have the most secure and the most serviceable monarchy in the world. by then so good were relations between the king and churchill that they were deeply dismayed to lose my dear winston in the 1945 general election. he was reluctant to see him go as reluctant to see him arrive five years ago. i was shocked at the results of thought it most ungrateful to you personally after all your hard work for the people, the defining difference to the constitutional conventions of impartial,. i will miss your counsel to me more than i can say. why should i except the order of
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when the people have given me the order of the boot. the king was delighted to see him back as he has been dismayed when he first showed up as buckingham palace back in 1940. in his approach to the throne, he always spoke of the law house with. [inaudible] it's a very interesting role because it's an example of his late style but also because although it is true that churchill praises george the sixth for his dedication to duty and his mastery of the business, he never suggested that the king actually made any serious impact on government policy. george was followed by queen elizabeth ii. the aging prime minister now saw
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himself as playing to her as it was young victoria appeared he was the experienced statement and she by contrast with the young sovereign new to her great responsibilities. he wore a top hat and overcoat and they talked about polo, horses and his early life and he returned with her praises. the queen was enormously fond of him and she enjoyed his company. she gave him the order of the guard that he had earlier refused and they used to go racing together, raising their horses together, sometimes the prime minister winning and sometimes the queen winning which is hard to imagine in existence today. among the greatest pages were the opportunity he gave to public expression to his romantic shivery feelings to
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monetary and the person of the new monarch. from saluting elizabeth he hoped her rain would witness a brightening salvation evening of her coronation he described her as a lady we respect because she is our queen and who we love because she is herself. small wonders on his 80th birthday, the whole royal family brought him a present of four silver wine coasters. you have been such an inspiration to our people, the queen mother wrote in congratulations and we all very proud of you, that's an opposite opinion she retained of him back in 1940. his.
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[inaudible] it was at her instruction that the parliament parliament acquiescence and arrangement that had to petition the extremely queen victoria to accord a similar honor who of course she loads locusts. setting aside all precedents,. [inaudible] that day was the sovereign security gathered together on the steps, saluting his coffin as it was pulled away.
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let me bring this to an end. as with so many aspects of his public life and political career, his relations with monarchs of british and foreign was a uniquely rich story which unfolded at several different levels. at one level was history and drama and sentiment, only equaled among british prime minister. from this perspective he regarded success of sovereigns as national symbols and imperial icons. he was proud to conduct and his encouragement, recognition and admiration he did cherish. in terms of his day by day dealings with the succession of monarchs, the position position wasn't quite the same. the views that he entertained
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certainly changed over time and the views they entertained of him very much are the views changing over time. above all, it was was crucial to remember that churchill was convinced that it was the duty of the sovereign to act in accordance with the advice of his ministers. churchill never wavered in that belief. he was willing to give way on small and relatively insignificant matters, but all great issues he was determined to get his way. as they once rightly noted, it's hard to think of a single instance in which churchill changed his views or his course of action on any important question in accordance with the wishes of the monarch of the time.
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another level and another layer of this complicated interlocking story, churchill did come increasingly to believe that monarchy, if properly undertaken and properly practiced did provide the best guarantee of stability, decency, freedom and democracy in the world ever more disfigured by the twin eagles of fascism. no such institution pays such dividends as the monarchy. by the end of the his life, he was chairman of the board. thank you. [applause]
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thank you so much. i have just been told by the timekeeper and chief that we have five minutes for questions. who would like to start? >> don't be discouraged. we have a question over here. that way. [inaudible] >> i pay my taxes in this country but i still feel i am a guest in this country and i therefore think it is for others to decide about that, not me. [applause]
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>> in the mystery of the english-speaking people and does churchill inadvertently betray the feelings about various monarchs he dealt with in dealing with the historical monarchs in that four volume set >> it is a hugely interesting work but it was written originally in the late 1930s but not published until the late 1950s. as it were, there's nothing in there about churchill's own role playing on the stage of human history p he's written about that lets of other books. what is hugely interesting, from my point of view, about the history of the english-speaking people is his comment on the earlier monarchs. who thinks are good guys and bad guys, how he treats the evolution of monarchy to the system of constitutional monarchy where the politicians
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govern. those books are hugely interesting about his views on the history of monarchy. of course it is amazing to hear someone who had been running britain for quite some time who had actually written history of britain. donald trump's history of america or stalin's history of germany or whatever it might be. one more question. >> thank you for your comments right now. i have a question about your talk. [inaudible]
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my comment is that i was wondering if you could comment on churchill's very interesting. [inaudible] >> of course it's hugely important because it's terribly self revealing and funny and beautifully written. certainly in 1929 when nine when the world is about to go through it again and not unreasonably he was rather attracted to scenes from the worrying standpoint which does not appear to be the greatest ability of the 1880s and early 1900s. as you all remember, that ends with the wonderful sentence that
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i was married and lived happily ever after and i think we should go to lunch and live happily ever after their. [applause] >> thank you for another excellent presentation to a churchill conference. ladies and gentlemen, it is is time for lunch so quick housekeeping for our guests, your lunch is going to be in the new jersey room on the second floor at that end of the building. for a registered gas, lunch is across the hall to the left when you go out the doors. there will be a short program during lunch and we will resume at 1:00 p.m. thank you.
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this conference on winston churchill legacy is taking a one hour break for lunch. they will be back about 1:00 p.m. eastern. we will get remarks from candace mullarkey. she wrote a book about churchill. when the conference returns we will have live coverage on c-span2. live on our companion network, donald trump is the republican nominee with a campaign rally in new hampshire that is scheduled to start later today. president obama is in orlando encouraging early voting for hillary clinton. five coverage at 550 on c-span2. coming up tomorrow, the winston churchill conference will continue.
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will have live coverage on c-span three and it will look at the relationship with his contemporaries and focus on the time in washington d.c. the churchill conference gets underway tomorrow morning at nine eastern five on c-span three. >> every weekend, but tv brings you 48 hours of nonfiction books and authors. on saturday at two pm eastern, it's the eighth annual boston book festival. the free festival promotes a culture of reading and ideas and features a number of authors and other presenters from around the world. this year's program includes a panel discussion on the future of industry. also author of disaster don. as they take a look at the impact of cartoons in nonfiction books. author james with his book time travel, and history.
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then at nine pm eastern, james rosen and christopher buckley, the the son of william f buckley junior discussed their book a torch a torch lit. it examines essays on famous figures written by christopher buckley's father. it is moderated by executive director of national review. sunday night at nine eastern, on "after words", columbia law professor tim wu looks at the history of advertising and branding. also how today's marketers are vying for our attention in his book the attention merchants, the scramble to get inside our head. he is interviewed. >> the real birth of advertising is in the 1920s with the birth of the big ad agencies as the center of an industry which is dedicated to the systematic development of advertisements over and over that will keep you
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>> here on c-span2, now a debate from organ where kate brown is being challenged by bud pierce. from portland oregon, this this is about an hour. >> you are about to decide who will be oregon's next governor. democrat kate brown wants to continue the work she has been doing for 18 months. >> i am the best prepared in the best qualified candidate in the race to leave this work. >> republican bud pierce is new to politics and argues the state needs fresh leadership. >> we see a lot of problems that the governor doesn't want to take on. >> the race is framed by a contentious corporate tax measure 97. >> i believe it's time for
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corporations, particularly out-of-state corporations to pay their fair set share. >> what we really need to do is have government learned to live on less revenue. >> organs revenue run deeper than taxes. the next governor has to deal with our homeless crisis. >> also find a way to improve organs crumbling roads and highways. >> we have a transportation issue. we have congestion, we see it every day around this streets of portland. >> this is the final debate before the election. this is decision 2016, a debate for organs governor. >> hello and welcome to the
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debate for organs governor. i am tracy barry. we are very pleased to have the top two candidate here with us. we have kate brown and bud pierce. he is an oncologist from salem. we also have several veteran political journalists on our panel tonight. hillary is the state politics reporter and has extensively covered this race. i'm so happy because chris is back our timekeeper. he will be keeping the candidates honest and on time tonight.
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we will start with an issue that has really dominated this issue and the airway. we are talking about corporate tax measure 97. hoping you are are up on it, but just to give you a brief reminder, it would tax all sales above 25 million for certain companies in oregon. we flipped the coin to determine to determine who goes first and it will go to governor brown from hillary of the oregonian. >> governor brown, if measure 97 passes, the state would have $6 billion in additional revenue. how much of that would you put toward education and how would you ensure the money would be spent there. >> good evening everyone and thank you for being here tonight. i am supporting ballot measure 97 for a couple reasons. number one, we need adequate and stable revenue for key basic
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services like education. number two, no other viable alternative is available and number three, it's time for large out-of-state corporations to pay their fair share. i would ask oregonians, do do you think our school year is long enough? do you think our class size is small enough? i don't. are you willing to cut off hundreds of thousands of oregonians from the health plan? i am not. want to make sure that struggling seniors have programs like project independent so they can stay in their own home. i will spend ballot measure $97 as the as the voters intended. schools, healthcare and services for seniors. >> are you willing to commit to a specific amount. >> this time, i will spend it dedicated to education, making sure we can afford quality education models. we are $2 billion short short. we are $800 million short of
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funding oregon's health plan to make sure all oregonians have access to healthcare and making sure we have adequate funding programs for seniors and enabling them to stand their own home. also, very importantly, we have made significant investments in early childhood education. to make sure we can continue to sustain those investments. 1300 preschools now have access to the preschool promise. i will make sure they show up to kindergarten ready to learn. >> dr. pierce are you ready to commit how you would spend that money if it passes. >> the revenue office said we would lose 38000 private sector jobs and the increased cost of living good increase by $600 i can't go there for that reason. i propose a budget increase for
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school funding. the measure passes, i would go to full funding to optimize educational funding. we are about $2 billion short. i would commit to that. then, i would look to mitigate the damage to organ families and organ businesses by trying to get the money back in the hands of organ family low income that will pay $600 a year and to try to provide relief for those working the by this tax. >> let's continue talking about measure 97. you are opposed to measure 97 that you acknowledge, if acknowledge, if it fails, the state is going to face a huge budget gap of more than a billion dollars. in the balanced budget that you would have to present the legislature if you were governor, can you name to state programs, specifically that you would be willing to reduce or
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negotiate to balance the budget. >> i propose a plan that is assumes a budget increase which we will have on income tax brackets not being fleeting indexed. that increases spending by 10%. i have committed a good deal of that money for k-12. other areas are increased, although the increase is less than the government agencies say they need to continue the current service level. what we need to learn to do in government is to make efficiency of government work better. if you look at the spending budget, you will see the second-highest items in the budget is 17%, representing $12 billion. administration. we don't need to cut and eliminate programs. we need to have much better internal efficiency so money that is spent on process can go to the programs themselves. >> do you think you can make up
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$1.3 million to the efficiency. >> i do believe that. >> you also discuss some agencies. will you name some of those. >> i would say the department of energy, i know that's a small savings but just as an example, 115 employees, you have one legislative analyst, you have five hr people coming up three people that deal with public affairs. i would say take the active function you need to do out of that agency and put it into another agency. i'm getting to the point that that's not example because of the way it's funded, but that kind of efficiency and looking at where we can take things that government does that doesn't need to be done so we can again take that revenue and put it into the actual purpose of the organization, rather than the internal process. i think that's where we have to find money in savings in government. if measure 97 passes, were talking about a 40% increase in our general funds but it budget.
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>> is there anything specific you would cut if the measure fails or something you would try to save? >> my opponent released his one-page budget last week. i've certainly seen recipes longer than that and certainly recipes with more details than his budget provided. it denies basic reality, and that is oregon's population is increasing and dollars for the health plan are decreasing and we are facing a $1.35 billion deficit. i am required by law to prepare a budget to meet the revenues that we have and i will do that should ballot measure 97 fail. that means roughly roughly right now ten or 12% cuts across state agencies. i will work to prioritize what i feel are key investments that support working families across the state including early childhood education, reducing class-size and healthcare for all. >> thank you.
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>> steve your first question goes to the governor. >> governor brown, one of the worst graduation rates in the country yet we are middle of the path when it comes to classroom funding. before you ask for more money for schools, how do you get better results with the money we are already spending. >> thank you steve, i appreciate the question. organs oregon's high school graduation rate is absolutely unacceptable. this is a personal issue for me. my stepson withdrew from high school after two years. we were really fortunate, as a family, we had the tools and the resources to make sure that he got his ged. not every family does. that's why i've brought on my education innovation officer who is tasked with making sure that schools and students have the tools and resources they need to be successful. that means adequately providing career and technical education, it's working to make sure that
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students are in the classroom, reducing absenteeism and making sure that students and family have the support they need to be in school. >> governor in the five months that he has been in office, can you name one innovation that the chief innovation officer has come up with. >> he has been working to meet with school districts from around the state. he has met with over 1000 oregonians. we are looking at replicating best practices. this high school has seen a tremendous increase in the actuation rate. they have four small schools within their high school. number one. number two they have a bit very high bilingual population. they have bilingual programs that are working in there looking at a try lingual program for the russian students. we need to make sure all schools have their program they need so students graduate with a plan
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for the future. >> she has been in charge for nearly 20 years and this is a result of their efforts. a few basic things we need to do, we need to make sure people show up to school. people who graduate tend to show up. we need a longer school day in a longer school year. again, we need to focus on making sure students are in the classroom. i believe schools are funded for attendance if they attend one out of 11 days. obviously things like that need to be changed. >> dr. pierce, you want to be governor during the next legislative session.
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you are likely to take up a transportation funding package. what is the top project you would want to see funded and do we need to increase the gas tax to pay for. >> we have a legislative group working on the project. i think what you hear is no old projects are likely to go forward. these are projects at the department of education that has brought to improve the efficiencies of interchanges and how traffic flows. those are the easy things we can do. in terms of getting lanes of traffic built, that will take time because it's so hard to build things. i'm willing to wait for a proposal from the committee that's working on that and the department of transportation. i'm very interested in exchanging the low carbon fuel program in exchange for a gas tax.
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that program turns out to not lower carbon in the world and causes us to pay more for gasoline and we need a different approach to lowing lowering carbon and getting our transportation going. >> is there any project you feel would benefit this area. >> we have two lanes of freeway five going by the rose garden, that would be an area we could get improvements on as number one. >> okay. >> governor brown? >> we have a transportation panel that runs route the entire state, hearing from communities and what oregonians want and need in a transportation package. number one is investments to reduce congestion in the portland area. they are spending about 52 hours a year in line mindnumbing traffic. i find it intolerable and i'm sure you do too. secondly, mass transit, every community across the state is
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asking for mass transit. third, we must continue to invest in retrofitting our roads and bridges so they can withstand an earthquake event. yes, i believe we need additional revenue on the table. you cannot make these investments without your money and if her going to choose one, i would choose mass transit throughout the state. >> your question goes to the governor. >> governor brown, recent governors have not been afraid to exert their leadership and use a veto veto to kill legislation they thought was unwise. you haven't vetoed a single bill since taking office. some say this means you are a rubber stamp for the legislature. how do you respond. >> i'm actually really proud of the work we have been able to do , collaborating with a legislative leadership and legislative committee to make sure they know exactly where i stand and where i want bills to go before they come to my desk. in the last legislative session,
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every single bill that one has broad bipartisan support. i think that is a good thing. i've worked really hard to reach across the aisle and bring in republicans, work with them on a number of bills and i look look forward to doing that as governor over the next two years >> is there anything you would be toe coming from a democratically controlled legislature - what we are seeing is the result of one party rule. it's a transportation gridlock. i'm sure the democratic legislature would be very interested in raising revenue. i'm clearly on record as saying a 6 - 10% increase in state revenue needs to be enough money to fund programs and projects that we need.
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i will be resistant to charging the citizens more money for government when an increase is enough in the state budget. >> would you like an opportunity to respond? >> as a set in the past, he also would be toe paid sick leave and the minimum wage. i actually was very proud to work with the legislature to bring forward a minimum wage bill that reflects the different economic regions of or jan and allows oregonians to get a pay increase this year. additionally paid sick leave. i think it's important that employees don't have to choose between paying their rent and going to work sick. i was very pleased to sign that bill into law because i think it supports working families, struggling working families across the state. >> so what i said, i've worked very hard with the legislature to get more money in the pockets of low income people in a different way.
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i would do it by reducing their state income tax area and would look to support the earned income tax credit and look for a childcare program they can afford. that way we are all contributing to the sport of low-income people. the problem with bills such as mandatory minimum wage is you make people lose their job, the dignity of work is so important. i would to negotiate in that direction. depending on what showed up at my desk would determine whether not i would be toe something. i think it needs to be rolled into a benefits package for sick leave and give small businesses more flexibility. when you put burdens on small business, you cause people to lose job. it's a different approach approach in a different solution to the same problem. >> we are going to move on. steve your question goes to dr. pierce. >> this is a glorious segway. i appreciate both of you bringing it up. dr. pierce, walmart, the nation's largest private employer has concluded it can
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improve productivity, service, and the company's profitability by raising the minimum wage. you opposed oregon's recent increase. if walmart, for god sake, has seen the light on this issue, what the heck are you waiting for? >> again let business decide. the average wage in our practice for high school graduates and nurses is $38. hour. that's what that's what we pay to get a motivated workforce. i'm just saying, the big companies can do this. they can do it by the way they work and train with workers and handle productivity. i worry about the small businesses, the mom-and-pop center starting. when you burden them with a regulatory environment, it's hard for them to get started and grow, that's for you get into trouble. i am very much into supporting low-wage workers by the means
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that i discussed and working with business to help business be profitable and have a competitive labor market so they can pay the workers more. i think that's great. i think that is private market working. >> governor brown, just a follow-up on that, i'm wondering if you haven't declared victory a little early here in the minimum wage. walmart's average wage for a non- managerial position is $13.69. hour. we are not going to see that in the portland area until july july 2021. what's taking us along, you so long to get organ up to the standard that walmart seems to be setting. >> as you know, the legislative process is a compromise and we worked hard. i brought in business and labor to the table to see if we could reach consensus around a proposal that we could get through the legislature. we worked hard to do that. i won't say it was consensus,
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but we certainly had broad support from democratic legislators and working families coalition to pass the particular measure that we passed. as you know, we were facing a ballot measure that will increase the minimum wage to 1350 as as of january 2017. we felt this proposal businesses throughout the state of oregon time to plan and prepare for the increases as well as immediately put hands into the pockets of working oregonians. turning to the states and attention deficit, they say this is beyond traces and were talking about a $22 billion funding gap funding gap yet oregon is the only large public pension system that requires no employee contributions.
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>> over 50% of state and local employees already do. if we were to move forward with the rest of the state, number one, we would have to tackle a 6% pay cut. i think that would be challenging. secondly, you're not going to see the significant financial savings because over 50% of state and local employees already pick up their 6%. what i am proposing, based on my discussions with the oregon investment council is to provide them with additional tools and flexibility to stabilize the system over the long-term. we are working on the proposal. we will be submitting it to the 2017 legislative session session. >> just a follow-up so people have an idea of how much that would save the state,
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$22 billion. >> the last numbers we had were close to $1 billion dollars. >> this governor has never been able to support reform package during a legislative career probably because she is very close to public employees and their support. there are a number of good options on the table. you have the package which will smooth some of the final salaries that will be paid out and the idea, you don't have to do an immediate 6% exchange. you can say some of the wages and salary benefits can be contributed. we need to come up with a defined contribution plan for future employees of the future doesn't have to deal with this area :
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and then we have our salaries which are good. i'm saying unfortunately because of the deficit in the system. the current employees working, some of those future increases in benefit coverages will have come instead of going to they want to go into the system rather than asking the to pay 6%. the original in this country, public employee, 22% of the bill is paid by them. a lot of our employees it is a zero. we have to contribute. i put in general fund money. get this under control and accept the bill is due. promises made in the past have to be honored. nothing accrued will be lost.
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we just have to do it. >> laura gibson, next question. >> a recent report showed that half of oregon women and girls report experiencing some form of sexual assault or domestic abuse. in a campaign debate you said women with a good education and thanda job are not susceptible o domestic abuse. you since apologized for those remarks and said you've learned a lot since making that statement. what have you learned that will help you as governor change the culture of silence around this type of reduced? >> it's very instructive to look at the past weeks event where you have ex-president bill clinton and you have candidate donald trump, and women coming forward and accusing them of sexual misconduct. if these items are true, at best it's a sexual harassment the at worst it's sexual crimes. it's also interesting to note how these women are hesitant to come for.
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if you like your not trusted, not listen do so the culture is awful. what we need to do is to absolutely change that culture. so that the people that are making the accusations are protected, they feel safe, kept anonymous. if they need shelter, they get that out of the. the pressure has to be put on the perpetrators rather than the victim. we have to do everything we can i was thinking about my life in the imports of growing up in a stable family, albeit a poor, and by what experience with ever striking a girl or anybody and distilled on my life, i was sixers old, playing with my sister and i got matt after and our posture in the stomach. i don't even remember what it was about. there's this big guy looking down at me and i'm sitting there and he goes, william, you will never touch a woman or a girl again. that change me fundamentally. after that, in my whole life i have never hurt anybody, never struck anyone, never harassed anyone. the culture, our skin -- i was
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in a good family, strong family. we need to do the nfl is, in her social institutions, in our sports teams, churches and that has to be brought to the forefront. >> we need to move on. we need to give the governor extra time on her -- >> what action could you take to make sure the culture of abuse and silence changes? >> i think it's really important that as when we share our stories. i found the report compelling, that one out of every two women and girls in thi in the state hn impacted by domestic and sexual assault. i shared my story that i've been the victim of domestic violence because i wanted the women and girls and the people of the state to know that i am better in solidarity with them. and that's what informed my work early on as a legislator from
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working to increase penalties for domestic violence, particularly when children were present. working to get the first general fund dollars to build more domestic violence shelters because we are still turning away four out of five women from our domestic violence shelters. i think the question for oregonians use do you want something who has been and will continue to be a leader on these issues, or do you want someone who just learned about these issues two weekends ago? i will play the i will be a champion, continue the fight to make sure that we have the services available for domestic violence survivors and sexual assault victims, and we provide a safety net for everyone. >> thank you, governor. next question goes to the governor. >> whether it's the supreme water quarter or terminal one, portland continues to struggle with the complex problem of homelessness. as governor that directly will you be involved in that struggle and how would you make a difference?
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>> i will continue to be involved because i believe every oregon family deserves a safe and stable place to call home. last year in oregon's public school system where 20,000 children who did not have a roof over their heads. at least one night. no food to eat out a safe, warm dry place to do their homework. that's what i worked very closely with the organ legislature to put together a $70 million package to build affordable units, to prevent homelessness, provide rental assistance and provide foreclosure assistance. secondly, we worked this last session indubitably sure local jurisdictions had additional tools to build affordable units. moving forward i think we need to do more of the same. we need to continue to build more affordable units and we need to make sure that local communities have tools at the local level to prevent homelessness to begin with. i look forward to working with
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mayor elect wheeler and the chair. >> so stable transitional housing tends to be the answer for individuals that are homeless. it's not a private livestock. if the kid people and a stable housing, bring wraparound services, get the issues dealt with complicity untreated mental illness or addiction are just like a job training, and then allow them to be sequenced toward a life of work and network that is available, that's the real and. it costs $50,000 per person that is homeless. we need to invest that money in them and get them to be contributing members. the companies be a leader, a motivator, a coordinator, get the federal government, state, counties, metro and the cities to work on this in a way and not accept people living in the streets anymore. >> your question goes to dr. pierce. >> dr. pierce, so washington is considering a law that gives the state the ability to remove guns from people who are deemed to be
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harmful to themselves or others. california already has a similar law and lawmakers here have expressed interest. so would you support what's called extreme risk protection orders in oregon's? >> the law was written or crafted in a careful way that they would be rapidly look at. in other words, if you would need to go before a judge or a decision-maker early on to make sure the right to be protected, like what we do in medicine. when i started, two doctors could say you were to be held and what happens i get to go before judge. i think that if law enforcement and people that are concerned about someone's mental state and have access to weapons and as long as they can be brought quickly before judge and his illegal process, the bill is well written, i don't see any trouble with that. >> governor brown? >> i would service signed that law. i went down to the community college and saw the pain in the
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family's eyes that suffered horribly as a result of the shooting at ucc. by reducing in addition to signed that legislation there's more that we can do. i will be working with community activists and commonsense gun owners to draft legislation that will close the loophole, prevent folks from escaping, any access against if they don't meet the criteria, closing for domestic violence boyfriend local as well as limiting access to high-capacity magazines. after that, horrible tragedy at ucc we cannot just sit by and do nothing. >> governor brown, health care costs continue to increase. insurance companies have raised rates and some companies are choosing to leave the market. what would you do to improve access to health care while also driving down the cost of health care for average oregon family's? >> there's a couple of pieces we need to do in terms of the cost of health care.
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my top priority as governor is to make sure that every oregonian has access to health care. i see this as a basic right. as a load of represented a young woman in the foster care system. her children have been removed from her by dhs. she would not leave for home. she would not come meet with me. she would not give her service plan. so she can get her children back. i finally figured out why. she had no teeth and she was embarrassed to go out in public. it was at about the same time that the oregon health plan was including dental coverage. so she was able to get dentures. i think it was the beginning of a success story for her and for her family. so i'm committed to making sure that every oregonian has access to health care. right now our coverage rate is 94% for adults, and 90% children. i think we need to move it to 100%. cycling terms of reducing costs, we need to look at social
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determinants of health. we know that outcomes are better in terms of health care. if everyone has a safe and stable house to live in. >> dr. pierce. >> i am all for people having health insurance but i've taken thousands of uninsured patients throughout the years as a moral imperative. we did it. hard to take your people without insurance and is better for them tto have insurance. in terms of the cost drivers, -- so more people would with the dignity will help us a lot the entrance of a practical matters we have monopolistic health care deliveries as such as many committees outside portland to raise prices 40% we need to make sure there's competition in the delivery. pharmaceuticals, when drugs go off patent we need a cheap generics available. we need to make sure that doesn't happen. we need to the content about the cc those such as citizen primary care model to drive down the
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cost of health care. that's the where we're going to do it. >> final question of the second with a dr. pierce. >> dr. pierce, in the past week and women have accused donald trump a sexual assault. he has denied those claims but he was infamously caught on tape boasting about groping women. does the access hollywood tape and these allegations disqualified donald trump from being president? >> if true they disqualify him. i begin that's the problem with people stepping forward in terms of accusing him of these charges. if there's convincing evidence that picture and yes, that disqualifies them. you can sexually harass and you cannot sexual abuse people and be president. the problem is they were allegations and, you would like it to be more certain. i am greatly disturbed by that
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behavior as pointed out before my other comments. unacceptable. and if proven, and that would disqualify you from being president. >> do you believe these 10 women's? >> i am, it's 10 women, a lot of women, and it is that's a lot of people, and it makes one believe that it certainly could be true. but it's allegations and we have a process and you just have to hold on because people do things for other reasons. but again when i heard this and read this, it is compelling. >> i believe these women and i believe anita hill. i think it's appalling that this man is running for president. he should be disqualified. my opponent up until three weeks ago indoors the donald trump despite the fact that mr. trump has made very sexist comments, then we just treated women in the past.
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he has made very disparaging comments towards our veterans. and the way he has treated particularly reporters with disabilities is absolutely appalling. and my opponent just this about his support of donald trump three weeks ago. that today smacks of political opportunism. >> we are going to move on. all of these questions were sent in by people on facebook and on our website. we will give you both 45 seconds to answer. will rotate back and forth. the first question goes to dr. pierce and then governor brown will give you a shot at it as well. dr. pierce, this question comes from randall on the kgw facebook page. you will know what this is about to get asks what are your plans to ensure that all children in foster care are able to stay in a home environment, not any hotel or in a dhs office prove to me you care about these kids.
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>> we cannot have children in office or in a hotel. we just hav have to find a shour they went to find homes. we have defined families that are available and capable to take these children in. that's i think with the focus is. we have to do a better job of recruiting families that can take in foster children, back into the semis support and take care of them. they deserve that. we can't accept failure. so again it's an all out effort to find these caring families and give them the support they need so that they will take in foster children, come from difficult backgrounds. >> governor, how in the world can this have been? >> as a load of represented of the parents and the children in the foster care system. i remember struggling to make sure that i handle of my children clients, i had five little kids in one family, and i wanted to make sure that all of these children were able to stay with one foster care.
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i thought it was critically important. and worked with the agency. i ended up bringing over foam pads because there were no beds in the foster home for all of the children, to make sure that these children have a safe, commission a place to sleep on. spent but covenant, this is happening on your watch. >> i understand the. i have brought in new leadership. we have done extensive work to change both the leadership of the agency, and working very hard to make sure that we have the right systems in place. but some of his is a resources issue. i know this from personal experience. our caseworkers have too many cases. we don't have the resources to do adequate training for our foster parents. we are not going to get additional resources by cutting the department of energy. and i know from experience that the lawyers have too many cases and the juvenile system as well. so if we want to really provide
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the care and the wraparound services that our children in foster care need, we must put our money where our mouth is the governor brown quiz question comes from an oregonian reader. oregon seems to be divided increasingly on geographic lines. east versus west. do you think all parts of the state can be from iran by one government osha we split it up? that's a fair question. >> it is told after question. i want to be the governor of the entire state of oregon. have traveled extensively both in my role as governor, as candidate and as this state around the state. i think what we want, we all want the same things. we want our oregon, all of our organ to be a place for everyone can thrive. we want to make sure that our businesses are humming in every single corner of the state and we want to make sure that we preserve the beauty and bounty of oregon not just for our
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children but for our children's children. and have worked hard to make sure that we have passed legislation, provide infrastructure support for our rule can reduce and our urban can. i worked hard to bring in republican legislators and democratic legislators to solve oregon's issues. >> dr. pierce, do you think the whole state is being, you know -- >> is one state and one organ the this out of has traveled very little out of the mid-atlantic valley. when you go to the rural areas what you really find are people that are frustrated by government come the inevitable with enough cash resource based economy, won't listen up managed forests and develop great camera products. a government to increase or restricts the use of grasslands. government will not allow them to the local projects for the land-use planning rules that were applicable to portland and it is to burns. so there are incredibly frustrated because they're not listen to end of the day to do by seven.
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as governor i will let the people be free and work with so they can create a great economy a great prosperity in the rural areas. >> doctor pearson, this question is from the kgw facebook page. if you are elected and a faced with a difficult decision for the right answer for oregon goes against your political party values, can you do but fight for oregon to put your personal views aside? >> it's always about what's right for oregon. i'm not that political. almost a, people of asked me how we going to fill the position of government with republican because there have been republicans into but for 30 years. there is a litmus test. you have a heart for public service. you want to serve. again i'm running as a service. going to sit one of the audience members who sat a full private life. we will improve the government come improve the lives of oregonians i bring a new talent and new vision and new ideas and that's why i run.
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>> governor, what about you? the joker go against it speak with and i've had experience doing to. i've worked very hard over the last couple of years to bring oregon, create campaign finance reform in oregon. as government introduced legislation to make sure that one person's megaphone, so i couldn't buy a megaphone big enough to drown out all the other voices in the state. i think it's critically important that we work together to bring campaign finance to oregon and make sure we level the playing field and make sure more voices can be heard in the political process spent the want to ask you about that because people of asked about his donation you got from michael bloomberg, $250,000 when you talk about campaign finance reform. how do you justify that? >> certainly i play by the court ruled but it worked to change them. so i worked very hard, brought a bipartisan group together 10
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years ago to create oregon's transparent campaign finance reporting system. because of our work oregonians cannot follow the money and politics and see how candidates, who people are receiving money from and how they're spending it. i've introduced legislation to amend the constitution to enable the people or the legislature to provide a reasonable campaign limits in oregon and i will continue to fight for that. but i am proud of the support i've received from working families across the state and from folks across the united states that support my vision from of the oregon forward. >> governor brown this question is from an oregonian reader. talking about rural communities. they asked much of southern and eastern oregon have been in a drought for years. we don't feel that so much you with the recent rainfall. it's really seeing groundwater
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depleted. what can you do to help? >> i am already working on a budget to provide the oregon water resources department with additional dollars. the oregonian did a great article outlining the crisis that we're facing in terms of our groundwater. the oregon water resources department needs additional data. they need additional research and they need additional tools for marketing and enforcement. we want to make sure eastern and southern oregon have water not just for this generation of farming and ranching families, but for folks like john who is raising his grandchild on the range. we want to make sure that grandchild can enjoy a successful ranching and farming life. >> dr. pierce, what can you do speak with use of science. be frugal on use of water when you for. you want to put the water o on e plans and there are places like israel that's the inevitable. california has done really well.
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also there are places that are recharging the groundwater. they tend to catch winter run off. let it percolate through the aquifer and once it is claimed they can to pump it into more permanent offer for like the columbia basin. when you do use of science. we need to keep our wits about us and again be frugal with issues and recharge it where we can. >> dr. pierce, this is from kgw.com. this question is not from me but i am all ears, believe me. he asks what we did to address the financial situations of the shrinking middle-class? for example, college costs. many pairs make too much income for any real aid and yet do not earn enough to really pay for all those college costs. >> the first answer in terms of their incomes is look at the jobs that of their income to bring back manufacturing, having people that are training for technical who can work machines.
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natural resource-based economy, those jobs pay grade. protect the environment. and, finally, infrastructure buildup in those jobs pay grade. i have to doctors and battlers, $10,000, finished in 19 is a seven. unheard of in today's economy. we need to go back by doing two things. demanding the universities think that lower cost way to achieve our students they have to be innovative, new ways of teaching that are lower cost and then we need to support higher education at a better level. >> governor brown come help us. >> i will. the state doesn't create jobs directed but we can create an apartment that allows jobs to grow and thrive throughout oregon. number one investing in infrastructure roads, bridges, mass transit so we can get people to work and school safety of products to market effectively and efficiently. other infrastructure looks like building workforce housing in
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communities which we have done. challenge for businesses coming from the state. it's finding workforce housing. third, water infrastructure i mentioned investing in the water resources apartment but this last session after meeting with ranchers and farmers we invested in a water bonding package that will literally take water out of the columbia river and create jobs in the basin by growing crops. secondly, every technical education. under my leadership would double our funding to provide students with hands-on learning experiences to enable them to awaken them to the power of their own potential. >> governor brown this question is from an oregonian reader. oregon democrats have considered the plan to cap in text carbon emissions. we were alluding to that earlier. do you think taxing businesses that of these carbon into the air is a good way for the state to confront climate change speak with yes, i think it's one of the tools we need to have on the table to make sure that we are tackling global climate change.
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this is the biggest challenge facing not only oregon but the entire globe. oregon is a very small part of the global problem but we can beat a large part of the national leadership and under my leadership we will do that. but that's not all we can do. we can continue and i will use my tools as an executive to reduce energy consumption by building both residential and commercial. they consume over 40% of our electricity use. and third, we can make sure that we invest in intensive electric vehicle infrastructure, particularly in underserved communities spend dr. pierce spend dr. pierce what do you think? >> i'm generally not in favor of that approach because oregon doesn't produce much in way of carbon. he can be harmful for business. i'm interested in loading carbon emissions by other ways. infrastructure update the records would have so much gridlock and vehicles idling. improvement in our great
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efficiency. building buildings out of timbers instead of some concrete. demanding more efficiency out of the new products. i think that's fair. gas, electric hybrid arcade cash to upgrade where do the. i think that's a better way to go at it and create better insulation than charging a tax which takes money away from his and makes it harder for them to be successful in the global economy spent our last social media question that goes to dr. pierce. this is from james. he thinks the oregon lottery is a kind of regressive tax that preys on vulnerable people. he asks how can you support the continuation? if i asked like this. how can you support the continuation of the lottery that oregonians voted for over 30 years ago? >> so people want to gamble and it's not at all put me to get the oregon lottery shuts down they will not gamble in of the means. the citizens before. you have to respect the will of the voters. i think we need very aggressive
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programs help identify problem gamblers and to reach out and give as much help a as possible. i don't know another way. we have a free society. people want to gamble. identify those are getting into trouble and do all you can to help them. what he is thinking many ways i feel in my heart, but the citizens have spoken. >> governor? >> i generally agree with my opponent of this one that i think the task for the state is to make sure that we have access that folks that problem gambling have access to needed treatment. i do want to go back because i wasn't able to address the gentleman's concern about accessing university and community colleges in a way that doesn't break the bank for families across the state. i was pleased of the work we did over the last two years to add 16,000 students to the oregon opportunity grant integration of the oregon promise which allows
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some high school students to attend community college for a mere $50. i would hope if we want to see all of our students have a least a two-year post-high school degree, that we would make it as a forum and as accessible as possible speed this'l this will. as lightning ran. you know what that means. quick answers. after the project failed, will you let it rust in peace will bring about? >> i would do everything possible is part of a buildup of infrastructure to try to bring about. >> our focus needs to be on oregon's first, mass transit the ball is in washington's court. >> governor brown if elected will you run for a full term as governor in 2018? >> in 18? let me get to the 2016 election cycle first, please. >> yes spent dr. pierce, how many oregon counties have you visited this year?
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>> wow. more than a dozen. i don't actually know the number. i've been to a lot of counties. somewhere between 12 and 18 i would guess. >> governor brown? >> i'm guessing 1820. i've had some extraordinary experiences meeting with oregonians. >> we would load it but -- this is our governor brown. would you favor a law that allows oregonians to pump their own gas? >> now. >> yes. >> great. that means there's time for your closing statements. that's the good news. thank you. each candidate gets one minute and dr. pierce actually elected to go last. so we start with governor brown. >> thank you all. might opponent over the last, the campaign cycle has been blaming me for everything that's gone wrong for the last multiple decades. i'm sort of surprised he hasn't blame me for the interruption of mount saint helen's. i'm extremely proud of the work
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that i've done over the last 25 years to make oregon a better place to all of our families. from the very moment i walked into the capital to work to pass on a medical leave so that parents could stay home with their sick children without fear of losing their job, to passing legislation that enables women to access mammograms and contraceptives, to making sure in this date we don't discriminate based on gender, sexual orientation or gender identity. ..
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they cannot solve the problem. my wife and i have traveled. oregonians are capable of solving problem. as a governor i will work with them. in the end, it's always about unity. it's about bringing together all people, all races, all religions, all genders working together to create the great organ we all want to live in. thank you very much. >> thank you both very much and congratulations. >> this is your fifth and final debate. way to go. thanks to the oregonian as well
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and to all of our viewers. ballot started arriving today. don't forget to forget to vote. election day is officially november 8. >> we return now to live coverage of the conference on the agassi of former british prime minister winston churchill. we will hear from candace villard perch he wrote a book about his role in the second world war. this is five coverage. >> here are my remarks. it sounds more like a fan letter listing all of her words and achievements. it is might be a great pleasure to introduce candace bullard. [applause] >> thank you very much. do we have a powerpoint.
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>> i'm so sorry. [inaudible conversation] so, thank you for that introduction. i really enjoyed our conversation over lunch and i wanted to say a quick thank you to the international churchill society, especially lee pollock who has been such a tremendous help and source of encouragement and i'm incredibly gracious over the past five years while i've been working on this book. it's a tremendous honor to be here, very humbling to meet some
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of my personal heroes including sir david canada ein who i was telling earlier is a very difficult act to follow, but i will try my best. as i stat sat in this room last night, having a beautiful dinner, great conversation, i suddenly realized i had been here before, but it was for a very different event. i was here for a memorial for two coworkers from national geographic, just across the street, who had been killed a few days earlier on 911. they had been on the plane that was flown into the pentagon. i remember feeling at the time, as so many people did that what
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we needed as a nation, as a world, was someone who could not only lead us but someone who understood history and who understood the power of words and could harness those words. what we needed was someone who could stir our hearts. what we needed, in essence, was a winston churchill. as we all know, there was and will always be only one winston churchill. as you might imagine, it was incredibly daunting to me, years later, to attempt to write about him. to try to understand even a small part of his life, but i have to say, the more i studied
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him, especially his years in south africa, the more fascinated i became. i was hooked. like so many other riders and historians before and after me, i found him absolutely irresistible. i think when most of us think of winston churchill, we think of the man during world war ii. he has become a synonym for great leadership. he was, as as we all know, a master politician, a savior of his country during world war ii, winner of the nobel prize for literature, and one of the most famous human beings in history. the problem with trying to understand a leader at the height of his career is that we
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often end up talking about the results of that person's character instead of the forces that created it. what i am trying to understand is where that man came from. what gave him the courage, the insight, and the will to become such a towering figure. today i'm going to talk about the young man who is just 24 years old. he just left the military. the only job he has ever had, the only job for which she's been trained, he has no money, he's already tried to run for office but lost, he is like so many other children of privilege then and now, the amount to nothing. how do we connect this young man
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to the legend he later became? what made the winston churchill we all know? how did he become one of the most powerful and effective leaders mankind has ever oduced i believe an important part of the answer lies in an exceptional series of events which takes place in 1899 when young winston churchill went to the world war in south africa. churchill didn't plan this story as he could've predicted it, but in every sense, hee significance significance, he seized control of it, he risked everything to succeed out at any turn that opportunity into a life-changing
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moment that was directly responsible for his later path to power. there's luck when preparation meets opportunity and that's what happened here. he was in africa for only a matter of months, but he put the spark to the combustible mixture of intelligence, ambition, courage and resourcefulness that defines him from his earliest years. it transformed a young man into a world famous hero. it set him on the path to greatness and in doing so, it also transform the world we live in today. to me, one of the most striking aspects of his personality, one that sets them apart from the
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many other young men who believe they are destined for greatness, dreams of glory, he did not wait for things to happen. he made them happen. he took life by the rain, by the collar, by the scruff of the neck, whatever it took in whatever he could grab. in fact he was so openly ambitious, so incredibly driven that by the time he was 24 years old, he had already written three books including his first and only novel, run for parliament and taken part in three different wars on three different continents. churchill had been fascinated with war from a very early age. as he grew into a young man, it became more than just the legacy of his ancestor, john churchill,
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and one of the greatest generals in british history. more than his 1500 toy soldiers or the wargames that he played, it became the fastest and most reliable route to everything he dreamed of, recognition, fame, and eventually political power. he was the glittering gateway to distinction. he was really willing not only to fight to take any risk to be noticed. he had nearly been killed many times with bullets whistling by, once killing a horse that was standing right next to him. he had killed men himself, one coming so close to his victim that is distal struck a man and
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he had seen his man not just killed but you related. sliced two ribbons by their enemy, but he did not believe he himself would die. he wrote that he did not believe the gods who create so potent a being as himself so mosaic and ending. even with all that he experienced, he continued to speak out. he was the first to sign up and the first two show up. he even, to the astonishment and horror to the men around him rode a white pony on the battlefield in british india just to be noticed. given an audience there is no act to daring her to noble without the gallery, things are
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different. he wanted to make his mark on the world. no matter what he did he couldn't get a foothold. he ran for his first seat empowerment parliament but was rejected by voters. burning with ambition, he looked for his next opportunity knowing that it was his destiny to lead. just a few months later war broke out in southern africa. to the british this was just another colonial war. one that they expected to be over in a couple of months. initially they forgot who they were fighting. they had been living in southern africa for centuries. in that time they had
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transformed from largely dutch and german immigrants to an entirely new ethnic group. neither european nor african. a journalist for the london times wrote, in their habits, the character they had underground undergone a profound change. mixes dutch with french and porch ease and quite. they were highly religious and on racist and stubbornly patient. most of all they wanted to be left alone. in an attempt to get away from the british empire in 1835, just two years after the british had abolished slavery, they had moved hundreds of miles into the african interior in what was
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known as a great track and established a free republic of their own. their independence lasted only as long as their property. in the mid- 1800s, they were discovered, transforming the region to one of the wealthiest areas in the world. he predicted that this gold will cause our country to be soaked in blood and he was right. by 1877 britain had annexed, a move that quickly led to the first world war in 1880. nearly 20 years later, little had changed. the british empire began
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amassing troops at the borders. finally they issued an ultimatum, standdown or prepare for war. they allowed the deadline for the ultimatum to pass with little more than a sneer. three days after the war began, churchill, seeing his opportunity was on the ship to south africa, hired to cover the war as a correspondent. on the same ship was commander-in-chief of her majesty's army in south africa. so confident where the british that they would make quick work of the borders that they had already nicknamed him the steamroller.
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he was more cautious when it came to south africa. he knew the bowlers. he had fought not against the wars, but with them years before. he knew that although he did not have an empire or standing army, they were the masters of modern warfare. unlike most of their enemies, they had incredibly sophisticated weapons, some of which were better than which he could give to his own men. they were extraordinary marksmen having spent the past two centuries doing little else than hunting and fighting, they knew every neck and cranny of the south african south and they could disappear without a trace, making them an invisible and very dangerous enemy.
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they had learned from one of our first and fiercest enemies, a large loosely net linguistic family with hundreds of different ethnic groups, the band included nelson mandela's tribe. they had fought for more than a century. in that time the boers, much like the pioneers of the united states had done their best not only to take the land and segregate their people, but they had learned a new kind of warfare, one that most europeans did not yet understand. not only did they know them inside and out, but whenever there was no place to hide, they made one. they dug deep and incredibly long trenches, some stretching
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for as many as 30 miles, they didn't wear uniforms, just whatever they wore every day of their lives, and they moved quickly and quietly. their enemies not only didn't see them coming, they often didn't see them at all, even after the battle had begun. in stark contrast to the board, they had only recently and very reluctantly begun dragging the military into the modern world. in fact, this is known because this is one of the first time the british army did not wear their dashing redcoats. they hated their new uniforms, they complain they made them look like bus drivers, but they continue to fight imperfect lines spreading themselves across like a picture in a storybook. even in the midst of a brutal attack, they refused to find
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cover. british officers were expected not only to be brave, but to show complete disregard for their safety. a native south african intellectual journalist and statesman who had become the first secretary of the anc carefully observed the british army during the war, marveling at what he saw. these experienced soldiers never care how fast a bullet may whizz about them, he wrote, they stroll about far more recklessly than we walked through a shower of rain. although he was now only a journalist himself, churchill had a lot on his mind as he made his way to south africa. his mother, the beautiful charismatic and wicked smart woman had just told him she was

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