fight in syria and so many isis recruiters in moscow that, you know, we have to acknowledge that they have a much more driving interest in that part of the world than we do. and if we're not going to get into it and really stay, then we should try to make some kind of political accommodation with the parties that are going to be there. >> we have time for one last question. we're under fife minutes, please -- five minutes, please. >> mr. wright, i want to go back to "the looming tower" and to the beginning of "the looming tower." .. ÷÷÷÷
am i right, what seems to be the same today if it hadn't been for the ideas of this one particular person, and you did an excellent job in talking about it and the looming tower. it was really an illustrative example of a lack of understanding of the different mindsets. could you comment on that? >> i think it always goes back to a book. you can look at any of the religions. there's a book at the bottom of it. every great movement you have marxism goes back to does kapital and even the animal rights group the sacred text at the bottom of it and at the bottom of radical islam is
milestones along the way and it's written by -- he came to america and hated it so much and came back and attacked it. when he was in prison he wrote a book called -- that he smuggled out of prison and a galvanized muslims about the obligation to muslims and jihad in the world. the answer to your question is i don't know the things would have turned out as they had without that book but that book made the movement possible. >> there are is a apparently no shortage to larry's talent. some of the nokia sign copies of the books. >> they have a golf cart waiting for me to rush me over. >> if you are interested in seeing a golf cart performance of this man i would like to
>> that concludes today's coverage of the texas book festival. we will be back with more authors tomorrow including award-winning actress jane out xander about wildlife and conservation stanford professor jeff cheng on race in america and former obama administration official darren shall lay on foreign policy. now if you missed any of the events from today you can watch them on line at booktv.org or tonight starting at midnight eastern time.
two or two and a half identified as a girl and when i say identified as a girl didn't say to her parents i think i'm a girl, said when do i get to be a girl? when do i get to look like a girl and believed she was a girl and two middle-class ordinary parents living in the state of maine needed to figure out what that was about.id the >> host: how did they figure it out, or did they?r did >> guest: they did and the hero of the book is the mother kelly. these plans were adopted at. earth. kelly knew there were two things that were most important to her as a mother, to make sure that her children were safe and happy and she knew she could control the safe part. you have to understand the happy part because she also knew this child was unhappy when she didn't get to play with the toys
that she wanted or a father who was conservative republican veteran, you know was really unsure about who this child wass and persisted it but kelly was determined so she did very early what a lot of us knew and she googled the word boys who like girls toys.ginnin that became the beginning of her odyssey to understand she had never heard the word transgendeg and so she began to understand it and try to bring her husband into it. it took her longer to do that, it took him longer but he's probably the one that undergoes the most transformation in the book.. he is someone now but it goes out and gives talks to peopleetn about transgender kids and especially helping to try to work with fathers to help understand children. >> host: what about the other twin boy?
>> guest: jonas is there a marketable kid.stre they are both now entering their second year of college in twoodr different branches at the university of maine. what was wonderful about jonas is jonas really probably knew before anyone. kids would come up to him and sometimes say to him what is it like to have a transgenderansgen sister and you know he didn't know. he just knew he had a twin that was really a girl, not a boy. and when they were both very young basically he said to his father, dad face it you have a son and a daughter.as kin it was kind of a wake-up call to realize out of the mouths of babes here's my child telling ms that his brother is really his sister. so jonas had to go on a journey to help people understand, being protective of his sister when she was discriminated against in
the fifth grade and bullied and then told by staff at the middle school that she would have to use the teachers restroom and not the girls room. she had already changed her name , dressing as a girl for alls intents and purposes was nicoleh it was tough on jonas. he had to be the big brother and at the same time said profoundly i'm a kid and i have a sixth-grade vocabulary so it'sh hard to talk to people to try to make him understand.erd. he struggled with the too but they are very close and they are very different in a lot of ways. and they are each one another's best friends and protectors. >> host: what was the first step to becoming nicole? was a clothing, was the name's? >> guest: i think it really was, i mean this is the first evidence that the parents were
were -- nicole bourne why it, she would pull her shirt over her head to make it look like it was long hair. she wanted to pretend thatng things were dresses. these were obviously the first signs and a lot of kids go through these phases but this is consistent and this was constant. and then there were things saying she has to say daddy when does my fall off so this is a child who wasn't saying i feel like i am a girl. this is a child who knew she wak a girl but couldn't understand being a child why people were treating her like a boy. >> host: when did surgery happen? >> guest: surgery happened last summer after she graduated
from high school. nicole was one of the first cases of an american child at the children's gender clinic in boston, the first one in the country established in 2007 under her doctor. s she was one of the first to have puberty suppressed so she had time to go through the psychological tests and have the time to dress and act and be ayc girl in order to know for certain that this was who she was and then when puberty was going to start for her they could see in her twin brother, when it was starting, that's when they started her estrogen. so she wasn't going to have the surgery until high school. she wanted to do it beforee college. this is a very important step. so many people go through puberty and when they decide to make the transition they'll make it until they are adults.re it's especially difficult for
female transgender peopleople b because they have gone through male puberty and surgically a lot has to be done. she didn't have to face that problem. she went through female puberty at the right time so she has been able to have the right development and at the right time as other young women.s a bu she is a beautiful young woman and is happy, thrilled and has a boyfriend and is about as normal a kid as you could come across. fa it's the beauty of the family because they are ordinary in so many ways. they are extraordinary and how they dealt with the situation. they are ordinary in being an every man family. like your mother, your father, your sister and her brother. would be hard not to identify with his family and it's to the degree that can normalize people
what it means to be transgender and what it means to have a trans gender member of the think family it spreads the message and educates people just by their presence. >> host: "the terror years" -- amy ellis nutt how did you find the story? >> guest: the stories on me.em it was published in the "bostoni globe" by the executive editor of the "washington post" and the "boston globe" and editor who promoted the story. i read it and i was fascinatedt, by it and i was contacted, i didn't know that they were being represented at the time by someone i had known 30 years earlier in boston and she reached out to me because the family was getting a lot ofs. publicity requests.ere unco they were uncomfortable with doing anything more than that. they wanted to protect their kid and have them be a normalage.
teenage life's.hool, th they knew they would want the story to be told. she contacted me because she knew i had written the book and so the story came to me but i remember saying to my agent, this is fascinating and the fact that they are identical twins is an important aspect in trying to explain the science and what we know about the brain and gender. that was five years ago and the world has changed dramatically since then so is a serendipitous publication of this. >> host: what's the estimated population of transgender in the u.s.? >> guest: honestly the best estimates are grossly inadequate.es that the ones you read most frequently are between 70,800,000. those are 10-year-old surveys of three states. it's impossible to know, it really is. an i'm waiting for the next stage
where we can get a better estimate of that. of course we face the same problems in people notot identifying as transgender or not wanting to identify cell honestly we really don't know. d what i've learned from doing this book is i don't think gender spectrum was aged politically correct nice phrase but it really is true. this is not exceedingly rare that one in 200 kids are born with atypical, one in 200 with atypical. there are many different kinds of variations of chromosomal dna. people can be born insensitive to the androgen or testosterone. there is no average male or
female. so i learned that as we are beginning to learn the sciencern of this, your anatomy is set in eudora at six weeks. we believe your gender identity is processed in the brain does not occur until six months in utero so you think of all the things that can happen between six weeks in six months that affect the brain. this is why identical twins cane have the exact same dna but they get different chemical messages from the mother even when they are positioned in the womb. the degree of variation because the things a mother takes him from the environment that affect the distribution of hormones, the variability in how our drains are set is nearly infinite. >> host: so, what kind of testio
through to become nicole beforeh surgery happen?ef >> guest: back then it was before genetic testing testing t she went through was mostly psychological tests and also physiological tests to understand her anatomy but it was mostly a series of psychological tests and this is why they delayed puberty so that the child can live as the gender that they believe they are forey as long as possible to be fully confident that is who they are. there are a lot of kids who test boundaries and boys that like to dress up as girls and girls who were tomboys and these are temporary. these are things that are not permanent. not all children the to the start transgender but the child
who was an age of two asked when do i get to be a girl wants is a constantly and consistently, that's a transgender child. >> host: amy ellis nutt the author of "becoming nicole" the transformation of american family. she is also the co-author of thi teenage brain the neuroscience survival guide in raising adolescents and young adults, won the pulitzer prize while working at the new york star-ledger for what? >> guest: a series called the dash it was a true story based on the sinking of the scallop vote that -- boat in 2009. six of the seven crew died. the seventh survived. the accident happened so quickly and he didn't know whatened so happened. the story on the one hand was a narrative about what happened to these men and their families but also the investigation.
i basically make the case, a strong case that they were the victims of a high-speed hit-and-run in and the german containership that did not stop and it's a mystery and it's anyn investigation, it's a story about people. >> host: amy ellis nutt spent nine years as a fact checker for "sports illustrated." "becoming nicole" is the book that we have been talking with her about, "becoming nicole" the transformation of american family. here it is.
new notebook tv we wanted to see 22 paul marino professor of constitutional history at hillsdale college and the author of this book, the bureaucrat kings, the origins and underpinnings of america's bureaucratic state. professor marino, on page one of your book you write, united states is ruled by an
establishment nowhere mentioned in this constitution. what does that mean? >> guest: this is the so-called fourth branch of government which in a ways a combination of the other three branches and that's the heart of the constitutional problem. original constitution was meant to be found on the basis of the separation of powers probably the most important structural feature of the constitution. in the 20th century to develop an administrative apparatus for these agencies the environmental protection agency but federal protections agency. most of the starter with the new deal and they combined legislative executives and judicial powers. it's the essence attorneys about the problem with this. >> host: congress passes a law , the president signed it. >> guest: the congress passes a law is a problem. congress doesn't pass laws. they don't legislate, they delegate. they allow the administrators, these people that nobody who was
has voted for a better no way kennebunk congress tells them you write the rules, you make the laws. they give them a very vague after -- aspiration, we want clean air or no discrimination or a pharaoh wrote road race and it allows these people were supposed to be experts make the rules. congress what they do for the most part a setback and intervene in individual where their constituents get in trouble which is much more helpful to them getting elected. a lot easier than a hard job of making policy choices and legislating. the whole problem is congress doesn't legislate not doing its fundamental constitutional job. >> host: has the creep or the increase in the bureaucratic state than explicit, implicit? has it been slow? >> guest: is coming in waves.
the first verse of this was in the progress of air about 100 years ago. woodrow wilson who was a political scientist before he was president that he very about giving america a new style administrative state. the biggest thrust came with the new deal with fdr after the great depression and periodically there's usually reaction after these great increases in governmental power. americans have second thoughts to conservatives reactions. the next was the great society in the 1960s was lyndon johnson and the obama administration brought in the fourth, the affordable care act especially, the dodd-frank act are really the monuments. they really are a new step in developing the american state the way the europeans had the state for much ankar. >> host: professor marino how has this affected you and i are
anyone else on an individual basis? >> guest: people don't usually meet a bureaucrat face to face but everything you do in life practically is affected by rules that these people make and anything that involves your health care now increasingly dictated by the department of health and human services. if you want to apply for a job there are all kinds of requirements and regulations and employers especially have to comply with all kinds of red tape. the compliance cost of satisfying regulators are growing exponentially. education in schools are increasingly being managed in schools used to be the quintessential local distribution where americans govern themselves in schoolhouses and these are now being dictated to by washington. every aspect of life down is being shaped by rules and laws that are made and enforced by
people who nobody knows, people they don't vote for him to people who accountable to them and people who think they know how to manage lives of ordinary americans better than ordinary americans themselves. >> host: used the 1927 radio act as an example. >> guest: herbert hoover who has gone down in history as allows a fair and teen century american conservative is actually progressive than the radio act which gave initially, it was a radio commission the power to issue licenses to people if you wanted to operate a radio. according to their sense of public convenience and necessity so these people got to decide, these commissioners got to decide whether the public really needed a radio outlet in a certain locality in that's tremendously powerful. previously newspapers were relatively unregulated.
he needed a license to start a newspaper and radio you didn't. dio ended up being a more politically manipulable form of media that a newspaper. it's no accident that newspapers were critical of the new deal than the radio because radio operators know that your license renewal would be contingent on whether you play ball with the administration so i think it's perfect and early example of the political dangers of the administrative discretion of licensing in that way. >> host: so given what you have been describing is the size of the federal government growing. if. >> guest: not as much as you think in the number of personnel and the government employed hasn't grown since world war ii mostly because the federal government get states to do most of its regulating. almost all regulatory programs, the federal government gives money to the states in the states have to comply with federal regulations of the states are the ones that
actually are administrating these programs. people haven't noticed so much the growth of the federal government or personnel because it's being carried out through the agencies and by getting private institutions to higher officers whose full-time job as lawyers is to make sure they are being comply with federal regulations. the government has made the enforcement of this done through state and private parties. >> host: what is the role of the federal register our? >> guest: that's the compilation of these regulations and it wasn't started until 1935. you had one central place where you could go to see what regulations are and in the old days of the 19th century congress passed a tremendously important statute only three or four pages. the federal register is thousands, tens of thousands of pages every year. the record was 80,000 pages in
one year back in the 1980s and we recently broke that record in 2015. 100,000 pages of federal regulations and the important thing about that is even those are only the formally published regulations. federal regulators do so much just by informal memoranda of understanding that are not published, subtle ways that leave an official put print in the record. ..
and you know in the 19th century in old day when congress actually did its job, there's a concern then was that congress was interfering to do in the day-to-day administration of government. so we've had problems with congress on both ends of this. delegating too much power and also micromanaging too much. the constitution is met to provide a healthy balance in terms of congress being primary but not, you know, not the