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tv   After Words with Joann Lublin  CSPAN  December 31, 2016 10:00pm-11:01pm EST

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color as they exercise their right with the people of color in the voting booth then they turn that into the apartheid state. it would be very interesting but there is a lot of power there i want them all to exercise their power that they don't want to be a part of their system because they feel cheated.
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>> host: thanks for coming on booktv of very fascinating book was fascinated i want to start off that you dedicate your book to the most important working woman in your life, your maternal grandmother so tell us about her story. >> she emigrated from eastern europe she lived with indian to and new york in a sweatshop and earned enough money doing that to bring her parents over and
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to me that was very inspirational i could not imagine a woman in that made the bigger impression and grand, . >> the -- grandmother the first sentence said ambitious women feel little connection to the latino business executives who overcame the obstacles to succeed. day you think they have it easy today? >> nobody is easier than in the past or when i joined the zero workforce four decades ago but i wrote the book in part in order to make it easier for women today to understand the way that they can overcome the obstacle that will come their way from learning from
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those women executives the overall senior level executives both professional and personal. >> is a young female journalist dai was struck by your story starting now could you talk to the viewers about your story as a woman in journalism greg. >> went to the "wall street journal" as a summer intern in the bureau it was called the newspaper fund internship program i do appreciate the irony but it was created for the liberal arts colleges to get into the journalism profession if
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so that was the very first year it opened the program to women and journalism majors than day replaced with journalists around the country so another colleague of mine that i was hired to work in the washington bureau so some of that experience was different as editor for the daily northwestern one of the stranger things that happened from that white house correspondent invited me so we were in a big hurry and kept circling around me a could not understand he
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was trying to be a gentle man to be on the outside of the sidewalk. [laughter] >> host: you interviewed 52 executive london why is it 52 or is that one per week? >>. >> my goal was to interview 50 i did not have any particular item of the would-be public company but two-thirds are abandon networker are currently running a company and it just so happened reaching
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out to 75 women altogether 52 said yes they -- but to say that i definitely went after 52 but that was not the case. >> host: i want to ask you a nice started negative book it is my is easier to talk to the female politicians and when i interview the ceos and the board members it is much easier in eager to talk about their experiences with they also had nondisclosure agreements so how did you do it quite. >> the sacred is in the sauce but i came to the book with a fairly established
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track record i have been riding 25 years and had initiated a career column and as part of management i covered corporate governance and recur dnc io's successions no so that i had previously written about the mark had gotten to know them even in the late '70s when i was not covering management but then as you found i was turndown by pepsi and as he
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rocks they were too busy because they did not want to be seen as a female ceo in dade did want to worry about gender and that is fine but i am extremely grateful for those who did and then to talk completely and they knew they will be part of the day book. >> host: let's start the ceo of gm merry berra how she had kids m. let's talk about her anecdote to make their word to about her. what happened long before she became co -- ceo purpose
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in this working she is a bomb she is feeling good about her child care arrangements but some of the mothers and not working try to move challenger howard you make this work to have such an important career and she said you have the people you need to take care of the house and take care of the kids. her husband said don't defend yourself all so that was in her attitude stuck in the back of her mind but
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that has to do with the fact now that she is an executive she is often traveling one for work in many times she finds herself when it is the time back in michigan even if it is 2:00 in the morning she is there for them. >> so in my research very famously she was interviewed for the today's show and said fed didn't they just may be that because you are a woman?
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she said no. i was because i was qualified for the job the derrick is a phenomenon and the bill earlier this so talk about that phenomenon and that process right now. >> so that phenomenon the gas grill with then to take on the rolls and because how we perceive their role they are still seen as something as the odd negative up. so cohosh baez same token to
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take on the high risks because they want to prove they can do it. in her case she stepped into a case that was doing well then the upper for irbil you know, what hit the fan then with the problems they were having with their cars and frankly when there were many doubting thomases who did not see her surviving one of their worst crisis in years and to her credit not only did sheep weather this storm but took personal responsibility to get right and she made it clear in her town hall meetings she was holding everybody else accountable to fix what was going wrong and she
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weathered that crisis like so many others say over, big and small one. today i think she is a much better c. l. not because she is more experience but trial by fire. >> and i was very interested in the story about claire such talk about her experience. >> clair is the youngest woman i interviewed for the book that co-founder and ceo of a text are at the end started with the male co-founder in her late 20s berger one interview her
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last year she was nine months pregnant with her first child. before restarted to talk unwanted to know her maternity leave policy because many have this mistaken impression that it is standard that all companies and don't have to worry about taking time off. it turns out they did not have one until she got pregnant but then they set up a task force and said could you do that for four months? she said i don't know. so the confidence question did i believe she did not stay helpful for months but she went to stanford as the undergrad and inter the very
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rigorous academic program and she had a lot of doubts about her academic abilities because as far as she could see her classmates were not studying as are vichy was. but she did not realize she was doing a lot better and she graduated with the highest grade point in her department so that made heard it -- gave for the inspiration and confidence to basically not pay attention to that little voice that we are imposters and not good enough. and she got into position to be as successful as she was to remember what happened at
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stanford. then she went to la public company corporate board at 29 years old thank. >> host: that is amazing you have so many great stories but the importance of perseverance can you talk about that? >> i think there are many women in this book food had perseverance but definitely bath takes the crown she graduated from college in texas with a decent liberal arts degree, got into the banking world, every place she applied they would only fire as a secretary. that time she could not type very well but after all the
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doors were slammed interface she took a job as a secretary it was noble but not for everyone but she wanted to get into management. when dey relocated again again she made the rounds and she talks about this interview that she had with ahead the h.r. who kept telling her she was not qualified she did not have the nba but wanted to get her out of the office but because colleagues were hovering he said comeback after lunch and you could talk to the man who ran the entry-level management training program per car she came back somehow talked her
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way into another interview and got the same response she was there over in our trying to prove she had what it took to get into their program. so once again making she was worn down and finally agreed to a letter enter the program but the irony is she was appointed chief executive at that time and even today the first woman to hold the publicly held position she heard from him about the fact he had no idea who she was but he was so glad that he let her
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maker pitch. so starting not that the level level position to aim high it will teach people skills and make people notice it is okay to be some that perseveres to get the type of job that you really want. >> host: talk about the importance of mentors. and talk about kathleen and her story in the importance of finding the right mentor. >> in the book i really try to distinguish between mentors and sponsors a
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mentor is somebody who will guide you and coach you to give you a vice but the end of the day it is more important to find a sponsor. and the issues story is more relevant for the sponsor question because in the issue case one of her first jobs after graduation is working at google but cheryl sandberg is many layers above her cut social doesn't know her until she works at another company that becomes the chief architect for social media she organizes a conference and asks cheryl to be a speaker then day get to know each other as peers and she takes her under her waiting process becomes a
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very big admirer because she tries to get her company started with her co-founder and also trying to write to her first book as she has her first child not has written her second book so she decides to be her sponsor social sandberg decides to give starbucks the short list of people who were are qualified to be on the board of this very important that - - public company employ its claire's name of the list not because she demanded that because she earned her trust and respect and claire gave back. it is important you bring something because you are a
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rising star in your sponsor wants to identify but more likely you want them to help you to become that but if this social media world if they don't know how to use social media or if you have a particular talent that would make somebody want to sponsor you so what hasted be a two-way street so that is why a i think that is the difference between mentors and sponsors. >> host: one of the pieces a device was a former chief executive of dupont that one night i began to obsess about that policy so what you heard about the
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executives about moving on and not dwelling on the failures. >> i think you dwell on your failures only to the extent of what you could have done differently what about going forward? as a leader or professional? frankly it is the waste of time that will bring you down. so also did make whitman before the breakup and then my book she talks about being fired from her for ceo job this is what she described in your own babar
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said it wasn't a good fit that she was dismissed from the job but it was bought by a bunch of investors who wanted to take it from the cooperative to take it public proposal that was a great opportunity to be the right stuff but they said very ambitious goals for a company that was losing money and wanted to make a lot of money in a short amount of time. the turnaround was profitable so she went out to the industry conference where she met the investor there who fired her and said it was not working out and she agreed but she was hoping that she could resign first but she was happy that
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he offered to jump into be her partner to help perfect said she did not want to resign but she dusted herself often called for house spent instead of coming home she did not look back except use this as an experienced to be a better leader going forward. >> what i have seen with my peers in is that don't want to ask for things i want to the the company to do well. aren't there any heather stories in the book about
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how to overcome that sense of loyalty to put yourself in first not just a fancying the company bet prioritizing yourself quick. >> guess the point that pola of data in the book that women don't get the pay raise they deserve for the promotion they should have gotten but they take it time and time again said that they would not put that professional interest they would just go find another job but that comes back to food you are -- to include you are if you are connected
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outside of the career but i don't they get the end of the day we should all they think of ourselves interest but figure out a way to bring them together to be a win-win situation. >> i a remember a group of women went to management to get the women did not that peeper treated differently we were talking about one woman who recently given birth to twin boys and had the toddler. so some of the women said why don't you give her an opportunity to take a higher level position in the york? oh lot of us knew how good she was so how could she
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moved she has twin baby boys the response we had is why don't you ask? is a two-way street at the end of the day you are responsible for managing your career at the end of the day you do me no modicum of loyalty to the company. >> on asking for equal pay what are some of the tips? >> you have to go into any negotiating session with a wire a startup for moving into management that means not only knowing that
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position the u.s. buyer to but what people are paid for that position but also at competing companies and other people that do not have the same title but similar redo these are also making. . .
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to break into the fortune 500 as a ceo of the washington post company, you also interviewed sally smith. >> right. >> is there a difference with family businesses for women, is it easier for them to advance in family businesses than it is in public companies? >> probably but there were only a handful women who i interviewed who came up through family businesses, stephanie is one of those, she's the former chief executive and that was a position, a business that was owned by her family. she was, however, the first woman ceo of that hotel chain, so it wasn't a given that that's what she was going to be. but given the limited sample, or perhaps the others and i can't think off of the top of my head,
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i'm not sure i can answer in a coherent way. >> sure. you encourage women to take risks. >> absolutely. >> they tend to be more conservative. they tend to worry more about the impact in families than men do. what's some advise that you got from the views and executives on that? >> well, i think at the end of the day, victoria makes the point. she's running one of the tech companies that resulted from the break-up, she makes the point very strongly in the interview i did with her about the importance of stretching beyond your comfort zone but taking calculated risks. in her case earlier in her career at ganet she's asked to become the manager of investor relations when the first full-time person they had in the job was quitting. at that point she already was allow-level
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executive for the company in the treasury services area and the chief financial officer wanted her to do both jobs, so first of all, it's hard to do two jobs but it's specially hard to do the job of being manager of invest relations when you know nothing about it and when that means you're essentially being tested and evaluated every day by what happens at the share price and she feared that, you know, it would mean screwing up and that she might even lose her job if they didn't do it right. she also felt that this was a way in which her boss, the finance chief, was testing her, seeing whether she could, indeed, stretch outside her comfort zone and so she did both jobs for several years and ended up working with 70 hours a week rather than usual 50 and promoted to cfo for roughly about a year afterwards, she
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continued to have the study. and so when she becomes ceo of ganet, i believe that was 2011, on a very first town hall meeting she has with her employees both live as well as over video cast, she emphasises the important of taking calculated risks. it's the only way she would felt the company would grow and truly felt that one could innovate but a risk that you're not only weighing the upsides and downside by making the move, and she did before becoming the ir manager, but you're also making sure that you've got a fallback position and obviously in her case, i guess, imaginable if she couldn't do two jobs, that perhaps they doweled have let her go back to the job that she was continuing to do. >> you have a powerful chapter on sexual harassment in the
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workplace, what were some of the great tips that came out of that and dealing with sexual harassment? >> it's interesting, after every wasn't of the core chapters in the book are leadership lessons, six or eight bullets and what i urged some people i have spoken to about the book in some of the public events and corporate events, if you don't have time to read the wonderful stories about the women but want to know what the relevant insides are, you can read the bullet at the end of the chapter. some of the leadership lessons at the end of the sexual harassment chapter talk about the importance of perception and that if you as a young woman in your career and being mentored or sponsored by a more senior-level man in your company, you have to make sure that you are not having that professional relationship either in settings or in arrangements
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that could open you up to gossip and so that's going to mean you should get together, fine to go out for drinks and you should make it happen in a public place. you should not be, you know, as one woman did commuting to from work with the person who is your sponsor. when i was interviewed by a mpr station about that particular chapter, the journalist wanted to know, you make some of the tips at the end of the sexual harassment chapter, the woman's responsibility, don't the men have responsibility too to not sexually harass women? yes, of course. she followed up with the question of how long would it be when the onus is no longer on the women, to be treated fairly and be taken seriously and i thought it was an excellent question, do you want to know my answer? >> yes. [laughter] >> well, my answer to her was
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that i believe that in lifetime of women who are currently in the workforce, myself included, the onus is not totally on women because there are many men who understand the importance of equitable treatment in the workplace for everyone not just women. it's got to go across the board, but particularly when it comes to gender and equities, they've been many studies that have suggested the more women that get on corporate boards, the more women who move into senior management, the better the shareholders seem to do at publicly-held companies and so that was my answer that at least in states, we will learn now all of those, to see a day where the onus is not on women. i'm not sure i can say that about different cultures.
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she asked me a question that i had not heard in many years here in the united states, and she said, she was in méxico, what advice would you give to working women in méxico whose husbands or boyfriends either get their angry or leave them when the women gets a pay raise or higher paying job than the man. >> wow, i'm glad we progressed beyond that. critical math when you get to 20 and 30%, whether it's legislative body like the senate and you touch a little bit of that and you touch on how it's sort of a tipping point and you get more women into these situations and into leadership, how important is critical mass and how close are we to critical mass right now in the workforce both in the corporate boards and executive workforces in the private sector?
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>> well, i think to the counterpoint or the follow up to the prior answer, i think we are a lot closer to critical mass than we were at any time until now. the wall street journal commissioned a study by mckenzie published a special report on women in the workforce. 19% in major companies are women and a year ago it was 17%. in terms of the biggest companies in terms of corporate board representation, it is also getting close to about 20%. obviously way too low that women compromise half of the workforce but certainly a lot than they used to be. >> there's a lot of different challenges in the public sector when you're running for executive office, governor,
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mayor versus legislative office, how hard is it to break the final glass ceiling for women? >> it's extremely hard. it's extremely hard for men to become executives. this is a job not for faint of heart or energy. i was really struck by how stressful a position can be and i've been struck by that but that's true for men and women aligning although given the fact they remain a rare breed it's increasingly becomes a very more stressful role for women to take on. when you're a ceo, you live your glass -- life in a glass house but i think the glass house is bigger for women who are ceo's and frankly because they are a rare breed, perhaps more rocks are thrown at the glass house. to the women that i interviewed
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for the bobbing, suffered strokes at relatively young anales while chief which he cuetives, one in 40's and another at 56, like i said, this is not a job for somebody who doesn't have huge amount of stamina, energy and. >> oneone of the chapters, hillary clinton crying or tiering up in the campaign trail in 2008, she cried during a press conference when asked about her dog, family dog and she was so mad at herself for it and she ended up getting a bump in the polls because people loved the idea of her crying over a dead dog. how do i not be emotional in the
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workplace and what is your advice for that? >> that's interesting that you found that in reporting your book about political figures. certainly there were women that found themselves close to tears or wanting to cry. in one case this was a woman whose companies was going through a lot of turmoil, she was an executive and not actually affected by those executives who ended up losing their job but she had to be affected emotionally by what was happening. she actually began to nickname the ladies room, crying booth, several times a day crying, but, of course, other women came into the ladies' room and they would see her crying and so they kind of became her support group and would bring her fresh makeup so she could go back to her office with a face that did not show any evidence of what she had
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been going through and i think it's really important and as you recall i have a very good chapter on executive and it's very important for women to exhibit emotion but not cry if they can help it specially in a meeting that is dominated by men . >> you have a lot of great advice for dealing with bad bosses and and resentful peers, tell us about that. >> at the end of the day, many of the women i interviewed for the book became better leaders because they worked for jerks for the most part they were guys because when they were coming up through management there weren't a lot of women in senior management but there were fewer obviously then and what they saw the wrong way to manage. i think it was a great example of that and she joins as the salespersons, it's a pretty
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scary role because you always have to have the numbers but she's pretty good at being a saleswoman and decides to raise her hand for a first line managerial position, she ends up being turned not once, twice, but the sixth try and at the seventh try to be in charge. he too is pretty skeptical, in fact, i described this wonderful scene in which she goes to the interview and has a map of the maine and wants to know if she ever went there and she goes up to maine and takes up an all-male team, she's got to take these, you know, puddle jumper little planes to fly to client customers to this fly-flung state and she's able to kind of turn it around from one of the
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worst performing regions to one of the best performing regions and yet her boss, the one who didn't want to give her that promotion, doesn't ever give her the credit for what she's done and very soon after she's able to make that main assignment work, he decides to go on his own and recruits several men who have worked for him but he doesn't ask anne to join him. she talks about the fact, that every once in a while you have to work for a jerk and you larn hopefully to be a better boss yourself. a women succeeded her as ceo. >> you talk about how women often make their own glass ceilings, how is that the case and how do they avoid that?
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>> well, it's like the whole issue of if you don't ask you don't get, if you don't raise your hand for the higher pay or you don't negotiate hard for a better pay package either because you're being hired or you're getting promoted, nobody is going to come and give it to you on a platter, and by the same tone, men and women who hesitate to apply for higher level jobs because they don't feel that they've got all the relevant qualifications and again, gracie talks about this in her role as ceo of ganet and now at techna that she will often go to a high-qualifying woman that has potential to step in a higher-level job and the woman will say that she doesn't feel like she has all of the qualifications needs, he will say, well, i don't have all of
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the qualifications needed but i can do it. it's a matter of believing in yourself and not letting those voices, the ones, the voices that say you're not good enough, how about voice in your head to counteract, yes, you are good enough, you should speak up, you should go for that bigger job. there's another great story involving melissa in the book request she doesn't raise her hand for a promotion and the guy who gets it instead of her is a total disaster, he becomes her boss, he comes in late, leaves early and he doesn't manage very well and after that a year or two, he gets releaved of his duty and goes back to his old boss and now she raises her hand and he says, i wish you had raised your hand to begin with, i didn't think i was qualified. i didn't know i had to do everything that was needed for
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the job but now i'm seeing this other person do it and not do it very well and i think i am qualified and she got it. >> well, that sort of brings me to the idea of stealing ideas or not being heard, i think every women has had the experience, everyone is aja and ten minutes later a guy says the same thing and everybody says oh, my god, that's genius, i just said that but nobody heard me. what's your advice for how to be heard and how to make sure that people recognize that this was your idea to begin with? >> i think the best way to make sure you're not having credit stolen is if it all possible not being the only woman in the room. a couple of women that i interviewed said this happened time and time again but there were progress to critical mass, ie, two women in the meeting,
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otherwise all guys, then they supported each other and if you are going to be the only woman in the room which is going to particularly going to happen, then find a male ally before you go into that meeting and say, i'm sure this won't happen here but in case it does, i would really appreciate when the credit then gets stolen in the meeting you speak up and say, john, that's a great idea, i'm glad to see you endorsing what jill proposed earlier in the meeting, that's the way you do it. >> so you're saying trying not to be the only woman in the room. talk about what sectors where there are more women and where women have progressed a little bit more and what sectors women are still struggling and probably most likely will be probably the only woman in the room?
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>> a lot of the consumer good sectors, food manufacturing, health care, insurance, we are seeing definitely greater strides for women into senior management. i think the high-tech world, some exceptions still has a really long way to go. i interviewed a number of women in high-tech, melissa was in high-tech. >> carly fiorina. >> heavy industry. i think heavy industry is still very much a boy's club. that doesn't mean you can't succeed as a woman. you just need to read my book. [laughter] >> what are -- what are the strengths and weaknesses you see, the woman managers, do you think they manage different than men? >> i think there are a lot of -- there's a lot of debate over that question. there are researchers who would
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argue that as a gender, women show greater empathy as leaders, they tend to be more cooperative but aye also seen studies that say that's a false assumption, that at the end of the day people are or are not good leaders and they aren't real differences in the trait. i tend to side with the first researchers over the second but i think that the jury is still out on that question, i think at the end of the day, the number of women that i interviewed in the book were successful leaders because they are so empathetic, they were able to identify particularly with men who perhaps had never worked for a woman before or hadn't had a good experience working for a woman before, they were able to get these men to not only be happy working for them but highly successful and productive lieutenants on their team by understanding and empathizing
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with what they were expressing and feeling. >> do you think that female employees need more or different kinds of feedback than male employees, not that they should be treated differently in job performance but when evaluating them they might need more feedback or different kinds of advice? >> i don't think they necessarily need more feedback. they have to be mindful of the fact that male bosses may be more reluctant to give them feedback because, again, there has been some studies suggesting that men worry about giving harsh or negative feedback to a female staffer because of the very point you were raising before, they're afraid that she'll get emotional, they're afraid that she'll get upset, they're afraid that she'll cry and frankly we have to be a little bit more grown-up than that. we have to be professional about what we do and so i think it is incumbent upon women who want to know what they're doing right
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and also want to know what they're doing wrong, to ask for that feedback good and bad if they're not getting it because how can we get better at what we do if someone doesn't tell us what to do differently? >> so you integrate this chapter, the bottom line is, don't give up when things get tough. and then you looked at liz smith sort of unexpected unplanned pad, so when things take a turn that's not on your plan, how do you -- what's the advice for women to deal with curve balls? >> well, in her case she was -- thought she was on this really great path to get higher up in her major global food manufacturing company and early on she's asked to go and help a little business that the giant company had recently acquired and she doesn't really want to
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leave what's called the big house and, in fact, the joke around the headquarters where she had been working was, that she's leaving the big house to go to the out house because more or less she was being vanished to sigh -- siberia by having to go to a different location, 30 miles down the road, a small business that the giant company had acquired, but you know what? it was a really important way for her to get very important experience that she would have never gotten being where she was because she was able to stretch her wings. she was a second in command to a british executive who was running this little acquired company and she ends uptaking over from him and it really then propels her extense to senior management over the years at
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that company. >> your final chapter looks will the glass ceiling ever chatter, will the glass ceiling ever chatter and i was surprised of your answer of who might chatter it and it's men? >> actually that's not my last chepter -- chapter. it will take longer than any of us had dreamed, imagined or hoped. the reason i'm so optimistic is because of the theme of the last chapter. i profile three men who have been strong advocates of women and who are from different eras, one of the men is denise sullivan who is no longer living but was the father of denise
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morrison and as of this state, the only two women to become fortune 500 ceo's. the next man that i profile in that book, the chapter is doug conon. former ceo of campbell soup. a company that was over a century old and had always catered to women as their customers had never had a women ceo before denise. and the third man i profile a book is a man in her 40's, a lawyer in the high-tech world, he serves vc, venture capital as clients, both in conference and then in a blog that he would not serve on industry panels or industry events unless there were women as well as men. sharing the podium or event with him. >> do you really believe that it will take men to chatter the
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glass ceiling versus women chattering the glass keeling? >> no, i think it will take men and women together to chatter the glass ceiling. >> how close are we? >> well, as i said we are getting closer but we are not. we have, you know, fewer than 30 women as ceo of s&p 500 companies and there are and this gives me a lot of hope, significant number of companies in which women are moving to senior management. for the special session of women in the workplace, what changes where the man is the ceo but there are significant number of women who are his direct reports, and do practices change, do policies change, do the informal roles, does the corporate culture change and i found that both happened in the handful of companies that i
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wrote about but to me what was more meaningful was the informal changes, that they were serving as models not just for women who were less senior to them but for men, it's okay to be a working parent and to be equally devote today your family and your job. >> that to me is a great important point. due to the vast majority of it, how are you ever going to do everything and it's not possible, right? >> exactly. it has to be a partnership within companies on putting greater emphasis on making men seeing it's a proposition if women succeed because they in turn will succeed as well and it has to be a partnership in the
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home. in fact, campbell soup, when doug started putting more women, he got pushback from men, hey, what about me? am i going to get the short-end of the stick? and his response was as it should have been, he said, if you perform well, you will get ahead too. >> my next question is, do most of the women that you interview consider themselves feminist? quality of home and workforce and finding ways where you can work and nearly balance everything, life at home, life at work and succeed everywhere, and that is to some degree feminism but a lot of women don't love that word feminism. do the majority of that you interviewed considered themselves feminist? >> i want to answer the first part of your question before i answer the second part of your question. i don't think you can have it all all of the time, that you
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can perfectly balance all of your life and in fact, the chapter i had about working mothers is called manager moms are not acrobats. i frankly did not ever ask them that question so i can't really give you a good answer but i think if you asked 52 women whether they considered themselves feminist and define it as being someone who believes in the importance of fair treatment of women, i think most of them would say yes, that they are. >> any last tips that you can do about how to succeed in the workplace? >> you need to believe in yourself and find powerful people who believe equally strongly in you. >> well, the book is earning it
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by joanna and i highly encourage you to pick it up at your bookstore today. thank you so much, joann. >> thank you, you're welcome. >> c-span where history unfolds daily. in 1979, c-span was created by a public service by america's cable television companies and is brought to you today by your cable or satellite provider. [inaudible conversations] >> good afternoon, everybody, thank you for coming out this afternoon. what a great crowd for 4:00 p.m. we are excited about this event. before we get started, i have a few housekeeping thicks. we are not going t b

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