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tv   Japanese American Internment During World War II  CSPAN  March 11, 2017 11:59am-1:04pm EST

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learn about the impact of charles darwin's on the origin of species published in 1860. that all happens this weekend on booktv. it is 48 hours of nonfiction authors and books, television for serious readers. >> booktv takes hundreds of other programs throughout the country all year long. here's a look at some of the event we will be covering this week on monday we will be at peace city bookshop in washington d.c. where former special assistant to george hw bush, doug weed will discuss the 2016 presidential election. on tuesday in baltimore, pulitzer prize-winning journalist will england will recall president woodrow wilson's -- away from american isolation and a lead up to world war i. wednesday we had out west to bromans bookstore in pasadena california where science writer rod pyle will report on some of the lesser-known space missions.
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and on thursday we will be at books smith bookstore in berkeley california historian and activist rebecca -- talks about the feminist movement. that is a look at some of the programs we will cover this week. many of these events are open to the public.look for them to air in the near future on booktv on c-span2. >> and welcome to tucson and the university of arizona campus. this is the tucson festival of books. booktv is live today from the gallagher theater and for the next 7 and a half hours you will hear from authors and have a chance to talk with them as well. here's our lineup for today. in just a few minutes the first author panel will begin. it is on japanese internment during world war ii. followed by your opportunity to
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talk with historian richard reeves. after that a panel on lgbt q rights and a calling program with panelists lillian vitamin and you will hear from authors later today discussing slavery in america, the history of women in sciences and philanthropy. and several other call in segments as well. including one with national book award winner abram can be. this is booktv on the campus of the university of arizona and now we go inside to the gallagher theater with the first author panel on japanese internment during world war ii. [inaudible conversations]
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>> -- when they are afraid and make others afraid, they do stupid things. they cause irreparable harm. the decision to return japanese living in the unisys was made quickly but the people's lives is enormous and it has been a bag of shame for this country ever since. it is a story which has more relevance than ever at this precarious moment in our history. this morning we are going to hear from three writers who bring three vivid accounts of the interest japanese internment. each will talk for 10 minutes and then will open for discussion. richard cahan has written and edited a magnificent book of photographs called un-american.
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richard reeves has been a detailed full account of a day by day almost minute by minute account of the internment and then finally, pamela rotner sakamoto has written a very moving story about one loving deeply connected family who were divided by war. so we have a little bit of technical glitch at the moment. we are going to change the order of things. and give photographs at the end. and we're going to start with richard reeves. he has written a book called infinity. richard reeves is a syndicated columnist 's column has appeared in 100 newspapers since 1979. the author of more than 20 books. best known perhaps for president kennedy's profile and
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power. has served as chief political correspondent for the new york times, written often for the new york and also for television for frontline. he is currently a senior lecturer at the annenberg school for communication and journalism at the university of southern california. richard. >> yes, i teach in california but as you'll hear i am a new yorker. and that in a funny way led to my writing and for me. if you live in la or you work in la and you go toward mammoth and skiing up there, it's really a barren country. there is a stone kind of tollgate along the way. and invariably someone in a car will say is that we put the jacks? and indeed it was. that was 18,000 japanese, some
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american citizens and the others people had forgotten but 19 2014 1952, asians could not get citizenship in the united states. the constitution specifies white males in that. they enforced that. within 48 hours of the attack on pearl harbor, the fbi had a list basically of japanese civic leaders. like a rotary club list. those people were picked up and put in prisons as enemies immediately by midnight on december 8. then in february 9, one of the billings in the book
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frank and roosevelt, signed an executive order 906 which made the west coast and part of arizona into a war zone and gave the military the power to move any people that it wanted out of that region. out of washington, oregon, california, arizona. mostly on the oceanside of the mountains. 120,000 people were rounded up and ships. most in california, but not all. japanese-americans could live in the rest of the country. it was a bit of a problem for them because they were concentrating on the west coast. when, many of them were quite prosperous. and tried to drive east to get to the sierras where they could
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then try to start a new life. they did not get to start a new life. gasoline, gas stations would not so than gasoline. no water, no food, cafcs close as they were walking in. and they were met at the border by gangs of armed caucasians who drove them back into the military zone. 40,000 or 30,000 of those 120,000 word import camps in arizona. the rest were in california, wyoming, idaho. but 40,000 were here. 13,000 four 30,000 i keep saying that. they were in the gila river reservation. in light of the barren land that was owned or what wasn't
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owned by the government but controlled by the government was indian reservations. these people would, these were in urban people. they were taken to places no one had ever before and almost no one lived there since. when they arrived at, one japanese businessman from los angeles, was joined the us army. the army tried to recruit after these folks had been in concentration camps as roosevelt called them. for two years. he was one who did. he was a member of the 4/42 regimental combat team. the most decorated unit per capita in american history.
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all japanese americans, most notably dale did as she became a senator from hawaii. and was one of 19 medal of honor winners from the camps. one of them won the distinguished service cross. the second-highest declaration that we give militarily. he and his three brothers volunteered to go into the army. most of the volunteers were from hawaii. ironically, there was no internment of japanese americans in hawaii. because they were the court of the economy there. and they would have had to
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round up 70 percent of the population and the economy would have collapsed. he was killed. his sister returned to their home in california and there, town refused to allow her him to be buried in the cemetery in the town. it was like that in a lot of places. in hood river, oregon with 60 percent japanese farmers at the beginning of the war, the town became famous because they had people who were serving on the local american legion and one night all of the japanese names were blacked out. and when people of hood river
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tried to return in 1945, they had to send army officers, often generals, to get them into hood river. intel bit, and mary went to except her brothers declaration. he was dead obviously.and they would not deal with her either. in american general, a famous american general stillwell came to tell bit -- talbot and he said you're going to bury him in this cemetery and if not i will leave a pickax to take this town apart. that was part of the story. in another part of the story was where they actively tried to prevent people from turning,
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returning to land that they owned. they owned farms, orchards, some of them were just stolen from them. it is not a story about japanese, it is a story about americans. and history that we have of people who seem to be different from us. again, obviously with the indians and immigrants as ben carson calls them. they were through -- they were killed, property taken and they were driven to canada were back to england. and then of course, the ? [laughter] i want to go, i did not know i talk that slow or so fast. i want to make one point. the best people were behind
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this. the most important was the attorney general of california bill warren. but then there was also mario from washington and they said they would be invaded and they better get ready. and they were going to be wearing university of washington sweatshirts. and this cartoon showed dynamite being handed out to endless waves of japanese-american both tooth glasses top hats. his name was -- we know him better as doctor seuss. so that was the -- they were
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spreading the earl irwin doctrine. and that was proof as he testified before congress that they were planning a big one. as they raided everything, including masonic lodges. because they have these elaborate hats. and the locals decided it must be the japanese navy. so that the entire masonic lodge was arrested. i will make one final thing of, i will talk a great deal of anyone is interested about what happened in this state. including the four camps here. there were three camps known to
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the incarcerated as -- [laughter] the temperature when they got there was 130 degrees. i have long sections and hear what people did and fathers would dig underground rooms and barracks where they were, with wet towels and leave their children in there all day because the temperature. i wrote this book because i know we are going to do the same thing again. all of the laws that made this possible are still on the books. and it will be border crossers or muslims and i wanted to see that that did not happen. [applause] >> thank you so much.
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>> is a wonderful book. and a great document and important. so now i will turn to pamela rotner sakamoto. i apologize, i mispronounced her name the first time around. pam is fluent in japanese, lived in japan for 17 years. she has a doctorate from the fletcher school of law and diplomacy and she teaches history at a school in hawaii. some people from there i gather -- the same as being the school of the 44th president barack obama attended. [applause] pam served as a consultant to the holocaust museum. in 1998 she met the protagonist of this amazing story. she is not only a historian but also a wonderful writer. and it is very vividly told and i'm just so pleased to turn
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things over to pam. and i should say the name of the book, it's midnight in broad daylight, japanese-american family caught between two worlds.>> thank you, thank you everybody for coming out today. such a pleasure to see all of you here. this began in 1994. when i met harry fugu horror by chance -- in tokyo. i'm originally from the east coast i did live in japan for 17 years. and i was doing my dissertation at the time on a totally different topic. i was looking at an unusual holocaust rescue episode. in which approximately 2000 polish jews were rescued by a japanese diplomat. at a time when japan was allied
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with nazi germany and fascist italy. the diplomat name was -- i had tunnel vision to research my dissertation. i attended a press conference in tokyo to welcome a number of former refugees. these were polish jews who made it to japan and 1940 and 1941. and were visiting japan again for the first time since that time and 1994. i went to this hotel and i saw these former refugees there. they were no elderly americans and canadians. they were so overwhelmed with emotions from being back in japan since that trouble time in their past. they were in a corner and then in another corner where japanese diplomats who had been basically summoned to this press conference to acknowledge
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a renegade diplomat in their past. and it was a situation in which they were not fully comfortable. and then there were german as their to cover this. and in the midst of this group was a tall gentleman lived japanese to me. i did not know him, i do not know his name. he was moving fluidly between the three groups. speaking perfect japanese with the japanese diplomats.using the appropriate level of the language. they are paying enormous respect to him in return. he was talking to the former refugees, he was putting them at ease with jokes.he had a very american manner. i was not sure whether he was japanese or american. so bilingual. that was his capability. becoming bilingual in japanese and english is a very tough task.
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most people have a certain percentage of one and a certain percentage of the other. but to be fluid bilingual is rare and he was one of the rare ones. he was talking to the press as well. he was enormously dignified. and i was intrigued. and i met him and his name was harry fukuhara.he was at this occasion as a favor to a friend because he basically knew everyone in the japanese government and he was able to summon these japanese foreign ministry people to this meeting. he was all for helping out americans at any time. he was happy to be with the refugees and former refugees. and i soon discovered that he possessed a particular empathy for people who had overcome enormous obstacles in our lives. because he too had surmounted so much.and when i heard the
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outlines of his story which was that he was born outside of seattle to japanese immigrant parents in the 1920s as were his four siblings. and they had been raised happily there until his father, the patriarch, died in 1933 at the height of the great depression. and his mother found no other choice than to take her five children back to her native hiroshima. he returned to the us along with his sister later and subsequently, when us-japan relations deteriorated and descended after the japanese attack on pearl harbor, had been interned. he had volunteered for the military intelligence service from gila river because he was bilingual. he had been sent to the pacific knowing his brothers were of age to be scripted into the
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japanese imperial army which they were. unbeknownst to him they were destined to be in the same place at the same time in 1945. and there was a japanese invasion of the archipelago taken place. everything changed when the atomic bombs -- and when the atomic bomb exploded over hiroshima his mother and his eldest brother were in the city. so much had happened to harry and his family. i didn't hear the details of the story for a while. over time harry told me. for four years we talked over lunch when we come to japan from his home in california. and finally one day i turned to him and said harry, this is an
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important story on so many levels. it is an important story for your family. for your generation, for the japanese-american community, for us-japan relations.and i don't know if i'm the right person but if you would consider having a book written i would be happy to try. only kentucky find someone. but i think you should seriously consider leaving a written record. and by this point i thought that i could document it and he turned to me and he arranged for me to meet his brothers the next day. his brothers who had been conscripted into the japanese imperial army. harry became one of the first japanese-american colonels in the us army. he became distinguished member of the military intelligence hall of fame. the 500 military intelligence brigade which is the pacific vanguard for intelligence is located in hawaii on awahu.
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they have a prolific the -- they named this every young manhood been interned and given such valuable service to his country. all of that would be coming over time so we talked for many years and when harry was back in california where he was retired, by his brother frank, his baby brother who had been inducted into the japanese army had been based they are waiting for the americans and trained in a suicide squad. -- became a partner in crime. we traveled all over through japan and hiroshima.
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sometimes i went alone also. and we interviewed people as i wrestled with how to tell this story, and an accurate and authentic fashion, i decided that it had to be narrative nonfiction. i did not want to be conventional history. and i wanted to tell both sides. so it is very much a family story. in a dual narrative in which i go back and forth from the american perspective through harry, wherever he was at the time. whether he was stateside or in the southwest pacific. and i alternate and with his brother and mother and his sister who is also interned at the river with her daughter and ultimately went to chicago and beyond.it has been an enormous journey for me. i started working on it really
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religiously late 1998, it was published in january 2016 by harpercollins. you have a sense of how long some of that is because of the sheer amount of research that was involved on both sides. some of that is because i was learning how to write narrative nonfiction. time to go from an academic background and some of that is because i couldn't convince publishers that this was an american story. people thought that it was a minority. japanese-american story. but to me it is the american immigrant experience and it is timeless. and now it is very much a cautionary tale. after 9/11 that it could happen again. and never more so than now. thank you very much. [applause]
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>> thank you pam. >> i would like to add a sentence to her both. harry fukuhara, who appears in a passing sense in my book. was one of 6000 japanese americans in the military intelligence service. they are the most dangerous jobs in the war. basically to flush japanese imperial soldiers out of caves in okinawa and iwo jima. and the important part about the united states never acknowledged those 6000 men existed. many of home were killed by friendly fire. >> right. we will have time to discuss that more. i want to move on to richard now. the other richard. richard cahan who has a
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magnificent book of photographs that have never been before in one place. richard is an author of 12 books. he served the √£he founded and directed the senate 2000, documentation of all events of the year 2000 in chicago. for this book, is a beautiful book. it is called un-american.he and his co-author michael williams have 7000 photographs in the archives. this images in context. and amazingly they found many of the youngest subjects and collected oral histories from them and got names for many of the people.it is a remarkable book.
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and i'm going to turn it over to richard. >> thank you susan. i'm supposed to show a slideshow here. so if you like my pants are down. i don't have my slides. but the reality is i am really a writer. i have always hope that slideshow wouldn't work so i could talk for 10 minutes. >> i don't believe you. >> this will be really fun. it is a pleasure to be here. this is a beautiful place. i am an amazed at 130,000 people that come to the festival. i did not know we had 130,000 people that read books. [laughter] cell is a wonderful experience. i am glad i'm in this profession. how to tell a story? so many ways. words, videos, pictures - i wrote this book in the exact opposite reason that people usually write books. if you have ever thought about
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writing books people will always say write about the things you know. i wrote this book because i did not know much about this. i live in chicago. i think when you're in california the less you know about this story. like most people in high school we talked about world war ii and we talked about the battles. and the issue of the incarceration of japanese americans never came up. i mentioned the word incarceration and i want to tell you why. the book is un-american incarceration of japanese americans in world war ii. and i was told by many people who i found were in these photographs that internment is the wrong word to use. why we us citizens cannot be interned. 70,000 110,000 japanese americans were picked up and sent to camps for us citizens. so that word is a lie.
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it is not telling the truth. we'll talk about how history belongs to a people who are victorious. but i found out that the language is the same way. the book actually, even though it is a picture book it starts out by talking about words. we have heard the words assembly camp. these were the temporary camps that were created to bring japanese americans to permanent camps. about the word assembly center. doesn't it sound like a parade ground? doesn't sound like a good time? let's go up to the assembly center so we can get picked up. so i did not use that word. obviously the word even evacuation. doesn't it have a way of saying i thank you for taking us away? i did not use that word. and another word used over the years is relocation.
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think about that. do you know who was relocated? usually they get a new job and they relocate on their own. this was not a relocation, this was not evacuation. it was very hard not to use the word internment in the title because as you know, it is very important today. when people look at my book and they put in the word internment, they do not find it. it was a very difficult decision.one of the women his picture is in the story says why start your book with a lie? and that is where we went. i am called a photo historian. that is a term that i never knew existed before i was called it. if my college teachers knew that the word historian was being used after my name they would have sleepless nights. i am a journalist and i tell stories through pictures and i
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tried to do is i try to take the context and understand the pictures. this is 2015, i was in the national archives in maryland. you probably heard of this. this is the grand canyon of the mind this is, most government records are all stored in the national archives. they brought 7000, 20 boxes of pictures and told the whole story so the government hired photographers to document the incarceration. i know what you are thinking. why would the government hire
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photographers? no document tells us this but i understand the story. i think you are familiar with dorothy laying. she was convinced the process is documented. she started work before the relocation authority, overseeing the internment established and she started by showing what japanese life of life of japanese-americans were like before they were picked up. i wish i could show you some pictures. you have to buy the book, $39.95. dorothy laying had a unique ability -- think about the migrant mother picture. people were attracted to her like mops attracted to a light.
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i had a chance to talk to her friend, daughter, what was so special about her, she had polio, walked with a limp, cared about people, was empathetic, didn't try -- and i think the sweetest part of the book, before the pickups began. she also documented the pickups and another photographer did too. dorothy laying left three months on the job, she became, she -- one day she literally had a nervous breakdown. it was the day before -- the day of this photograph, she had seen so much she couldn't stand it anymore. the government realized she was not the woman they should have
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hired because she was so empathetic, she was showing what really happened. six photographers were hired by the government and another photographer was involved with adams, you are wondering how did that fit in. adams met with the director, the camp in the middle of california, they were both sierra club members, we are doing a great job, would like you to photograph the people there. adams, this was a year after the process started. are you going to see these pictures? can you see this? he took -- hero, beautiful portraits of the japanese-americans, arranged for
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the museum of metropolitan art in 1944 before the war was over to show these pictures, when they realized what it was about they put these divots in the basement, the idea of showing these enemies as real people, heroic people, they were worried about it. adams later said this was the most important work of his life. because he showed this life in the camps. pictures are very suspect. adams later wrote he wanted to find the difficulties of the camp but this time lives were adjusted quite a bit. what made this book special was a remarkable opportunity to find the people in the photographs.
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30 of them are individual people or small groups of people. and use taxes, 35 of 30 people were. and by using ancestry.com. and finding out once i had the name of the family i could find a family member who was still alive and that family member would lead me to the person in the picture. the first picture is of a little girl, holding her one-year-old baby sister and i called the first person i called, remember the day dorothy laying came to take your picture, 75 years later, this wasn't in her memory.
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i remember the day well. she told me the entire story of what happened, my one-year-old baby sister couldn't find her shoes and her father, was quite upset, hidden want to look like hillbillies. looked at the picture and the one-year-old had no shoes on. tracking these picture down was the highlight of my life, you shouldn't call people during the california primary season because they will pick up the phone. generally i left messages on their machines and when i called them back, dorothy laying took one picture of a woman named rachel. i think she is the migrant mother, can you see her?
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she is 11 years old. dorothy laying got her name wrong but i found out who she was. i called her up, she hung up the phone. i went to visit her near golden gate park and i asked if she remembered the picture, she had no memory of the picture at all. she looked at the picture and said i was quite presentable then. >> thank you, thank you. [applause] >> so much to talk about and i wonder, let's just start, open up for questions or do you have anything to say to each other before we do that? i must say all three of you, i feel honored to be part of it.
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>> adams was incredibly famous and did this book and it didn't sell but what really frustrated him was the pride of the people, people who did not want to be seen with their children without fit and made him crazy because they would get dressed up and sit as a family and the government called it, and could not get -- laying, who is better at getting at what is happening which >> adams codified -- criticized. he could make a rocket fly. >> i would love to open it up and hear what people have to
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ask. thank you. saying thank you with tears. i am going to repeat the question. go to the microphone. please go to the microphone, line up, you mentioned the military zones in california and much of the west coast. i don't know how many people here know that 100 miles within the us border is where the border patrol can offer with impunity and that covers two thirds of the population. how would you have carried those situations with the border patrol and the military zone? 's >> the word is hysteria.
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is hysteria. we have again and again in hard times tried to find scapegoats, people to blame. whether it was jews in new york or irish need not apply, black people, all those people were treated as the other, and we didn't accept until they were us. >> yes. next question? >> during your presentation we had the amazing opportunity to sit next to a woman who spent part of her youth in one of those camps. take a moment to recognize anyone in the audience who might have a direct connection. >> a wonderful suggestion. please stand. if you were part of this.
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yes. yes. could you allow that gentleman to come to the front, could you come to the front, yes, please. you were going to say something to the microphone? that is all right, go ahead. >> you probably experienced this but my parents were in the camp and you probably experienced my parents never talked about their experience in camp. i didn't even know about it until high school. the thing i found out is there was a lot of -- you probably experienced it when they went to the camp, they were broken. my grandfather owns property and everything and was proud and so
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in camp he got drunk shortly thereafter. anyway, i could go on and on. >> thank you for standing up. one of the reasons i wrote this book is because harry did decide in his mid-70s that he wanted to talk about what happens, he moved on with his life during his life and much like holocaust survivors who i interviewed at length for my work and at the end of his life was ready to come to terms with it and one point the conservative is so few people had talked about it and he hoped by his talking about it would open a conversation. unfortunately he died before this book was published. he knew it was coming, he was about to see the cover when it
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passed away but he would be hard and because i have received hundreds of letters from people with family members who have been interned in canada and the united states who have written me and said you have told my family story. not just divided across continents but families holy in the united states and interned as well. it is amazing. it has become a conversation opportunity to talk to family members and start to probe the most intimate aspects of their life. >> most of the attorneys incarcerated never told anybody about that life unless they met another member and particularly didn't tell the family says men
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who had been in combat tell their families what they saw. what triggered it? the third-generation sent -- saw on television in the 60s, asking where were you during the war, and now japanese americans are very active in many ways on this particularly in joining with muslim organizations. >> i just want to say one thing. harry, who is the protagonist of the story, who lived in the us and japan and is the person who holds it all together, his
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daughter pam is here today. pam, could you stand? there you are. [applause] please go ahead. >> my question has to do with the site of the incarceration. this fall, the japanese cultural museum in honolulu, had a display of the incarceration centers and i understood i was looking at territory in hawaii that had been used as an incarceration center so i was confused when richard reeves said no japanese american to the territory of hawaii were incarcerated because i understood president obama had before his leaving office designated these as historic sites on oahu and perhaps the big island as well because people were removed from the
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towns of the big island to these incarceration centers. i wanted to straighten that out. >> they were mostly in the first wave, the fbi wave of people being rounded up and community leaders, teachers, doctors and businessmen, large farmers, there were hawaiians but very few. >> ironically they were interned alongside italian and german pows as well. just as the national park service monument is not open to the public the japanese cultural center of hawaii has that exhibition up now.
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it takes some time to uncover the story and there are teams working on it. there is more history to be told. >> i am a journalist in arizona and the opportunity to interview a gentleman who was interned as a child, something that surprised me in my interview with him was his attitude about being incarcerated. he wasn't so much angry about it, he almost felt like being interned at the camp protected him and his family from a very angry public. i was wondering if you in your own research have come across the japanese individuals with similar mindset that this was something that almost protected them in a way. >> in a way we made it seem a
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little more pleasant than it was. there was some publicity about it, as if they were summer camps but they weren't summer camps. first thing the japanese american noticed, they came willingly, they thought it was their patriotic duty to come with machine guns pointed to the inn at the camps, not outside. there were some pretty terrible things. they had a five dave riot because japanese, two japanese guys had teed up guys they thought were informers, authorities, they were going to take them to phoenix and the camps rose up for five days until the government allow them
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to be tried the camp with the jury of their peers with japanese americans. >> with the government interested in protecting the japanese outsiders? >> total lie >> do you think there were some in the camps who felt that change the prisoner complex, when the camps were finally opened in 1945 there were people who wanted to stay in the camps because they had heard so many stories from outside the camp, difficult to leave the camp, they were victims also of the propaganda the government was saying we need to protect you and save you and eventually it does go into effect. >> older people who lost everything and had nothing to go
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back to, the camp felt the best option. >> it was a great driver of this so that what happens was the japanese were farming land other people didn't to farm, they were japanese americans, very good at what they did. however, when they were rounded up, their bank accounts were frozen two days after pearl harbor which means they couldn't pay mortgages, they lost their property, in churches and buddhist temples particularly in california their goods were stored. they could only bring what they could carry, they could only take what they can carry and their earthly goods were in churches and things which were ransacked.
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the temples were ransacked and people stall everything. >> one of those embarrassing chapters in american history and i share your concerns and an executive order should put places back in this dilemma, the prospects of wrongdoing. there are 1 million stories of adventures like this. most of them do not reflect well on the american, neighbors who were left behind, but as with the holocaust stories there are glimmers of white to be told so i want to talk about major letters growers in california, they were incarcerated and their neighbors, also letters growers took possession, after a while they came back, and restored
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that property, the biggest lettuce growers in america are the forms. [applause] >> i agree with you and we have a similar story about another man named bob fletcher, lived in sacramento and he was an agriculture inspector who took over the forms of 3 of his neighbors and they made life for him very difficult but he returned to the farms three years later. the story of heroes is essential and i asked every single person if anyone helped them and i included them in the book. but i think it is important to know, i looked at every local paper in california, how few letters to the editor were ever
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written saying what is happening to my neighbor? i learned a couple things from this book. susan mentioned what hysteria does to us and it makes bad decisions. we have a real problem in america and probably the world of knowing who our enemy is. our enemy was japanese americans living in the united states, nothing close but our enemies are not muslim americans living in america. we should figure out who our enemies are. lastly -- and this is very important -- i understand now you don't like what is happening, don't wait to stand up. once the mechanism begins, it is too late. people have to stand up sooner than their instincts even tell them.
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>> you have been patient. >> i am the daughter of a world war ii japanese american veteran of world war ii. i'm a late learner. i accompanied my father to get the congressional medal of honor. it brings tears to my eyes because i didn't understand any of this. the other thing is his family was not taken to camp but was honored for his family because the fbi came in, reminded them of their family, took to the middle of the yard and started to burn it. they put cross bridges at night, schools were segregated. my uncles tell me the story that they were told that they ate raw fish so they held them to the ground and made swallow goldfish and that is one of the more
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benign stories. the last story i want to share is my uncle was president of the japanese american citizens league when the proclamation came out. the official travel to date which and i don't know any of this, i forced my family to talk about it and to this day, with gold medals in my family's living room we still don't talk about it. [applause] >> to this like now. >> thanks for your panel. >> closer. >> thanks, everybody, for your panel and your work and asking
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questions and kept this discussion going. publication and educational opportunity, people can get involved in and what i'm interested in, a dissertation on people put in the camps but also from peru, some people of japanese descent, rendered to us camps during the world war ii, this is not really talked about but that is my dissertation and i was interested -- i talked with some people and heard these comparisons of the camps, the executive order of january 29th or whatever president trump find. they don't even number executive orders anymore. what i have read and educational opportunity, a japanese american
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oral history online bank, any person can go into it but they say is more relevant, the chinese exclusion act of 1882 and the japanese gentlemen's agreement which prohibited japanese immigrants from coming in. those of a precedents of the camp. what do you see of education opportunities publishing or next projects for you all the deal with these precedents. >> what you're talking about, seattle-based organization, 1000 interviews by survivors, incredible cash of documents. i would highly recommend it. >> spectacular indexes boost the
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change on most of the end of the session so we can fit in one more. 's >> mine is more of a complement for the way you made sure your book was not titled with a lie because i am native american. the to get the spotlight off of the japanese people but the same thing was done to the native americans was we were, the word was evacuated, relocated and we were not and our land was taken away from us, we managed to survive. i would like to complement that you brought out this session here because it hits my heart the navajo people were not the only ones treated in such a manner. there were the japanese. i would like to say i am proud
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that we were able to help win world war ii with our code words. [applause] >> one action we can take away from this is to start calling the internment the incarceration. one more time --'s >> going around and around, which words to use. the truth of the matter is internment is the only word the public knows. i know many japanese scholars and writers who are very upset about that because we believe it was not internment. they are concentration camps and those -- because of what the nazis were doing in the thing.
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yes, internment is not exactly accurate but it is the word the country knows. 's >> i guess we need to stop. i am sorry. so these books are all available at various spots at the festival. you should be able to find them also in the bookstore. [applause]

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