tv In Defiance CSPAN June 18, 2017 11:40am-11:57am EDT
the executor of the will. i don't have an exact number on how many items were on the collection but when he decided to turn it over to an auction house james finally styeded, my father would want to share with other collectors. there were so many items that they had to do the auction over seven days in four separate sessions all-day sessions and while his collection was estimated at $85,000 which surprised a lot of people because he was a man, don't forget he didn't care if the stamps were bent or oiled from his fingers. the final gavel fell and they raised $225,000. everybody was furious to get a piece of fdr's collection.
>> up next author susan talks about experience and surrounding river valley. >> during the last few years, i've done talks for all different age groups and they always talk about that there was really no slaves in the north. when you pick up a book they tell you the story about slavery and slavery ending with the civil war and people forget that slaves lived and were part of the economic system of new york and the north specially in new york which was a hub for slavery. if you wanted to take a look at the hudson river valley in early to mid-1,800th century, you would see a lot of dutch farmers here. slave labor was predominant for the dutch farmers.
and as far as i know when i think when we are looking at households, most families that had enslaved people living in household had between 1 and 3. there's obviously the big manors , they had these big manors 20 and 40 enslaved people living there. but the majority of the people in the hudson river valley had one to throe enslaved people and what it did was it caused more issues and actually made slavery crueler than it was in the south because people were isolated and specially the women. one women may be living in a household where she might not see other people of color or other enslaved people anywhere near her.
so it created an isolated life whereas in the south you would see much more of a slave culture that would be able to develop, you get the music and the stories and maybe 200 people living in own cabins that weren't always being watched by the masters. not that life was easy either way but from my research slavery in the north was more cruel because of the isolation. i felt and i think ashley agrees with me that the way to tell the story about enslaved people was through these notices because there is -- there is really nothing else that gives you such a full picture of a person of a human life. each and every note in this book is another story of a person's life and what we found is that it's almost a bennette.
he's of middle side, square shoulder and he has a scarf on left arm and has several corns on his toes, he's about 28 year's of age, born in west westchester and understand business and pretends to be a good brewer and somewhat of a shoe maker. he had old coat with buttons with cat gut eyes, a check shirt with black velvet stock, two new pairs of trousers. blue cloth jacket without
sleeve, two white shirts, one of which is ruffled and also an old long pistol with the side on the barrel like a gun. it is with the greatest probability and will try to get to the northern parts of the province and amongst the five nations of indians at or near peer number four in boston government or else to the northern part of maryland or virginia, all which places he's well acquainted with by alopement here. nb, whoever takes himself are caution today secure him well for he's an artful fellow. this one actually was in the new york mercury. you see these in the newspapers. in early 1700's when new york city started publishing papers, it was a gain for enslaifers because now instead of just putting up a notice on the side
of a barn or in the town office, they would be able to put these in newspapers so we actually found notices from new york that in connecticut papers, new jersey papers. before the notice went out, though, it's important to note that what we see is the tip of the iceberg, the notice sometimes that would take a week for the notice to come out and most of the time these people were caught before then and if you didn't notice in the beginning of this, run away from the care of the constable, that means robin ran, was caught and jailed and then ran away again. so this was his second time. and so just looking at this one notice, there's so much just to learn and know about this person which i find intriguing.
this is someone that, you know, again out of the 607 people that we have in the book, you can look at him and first of all, find out what i found really interesting that it said he had been innaculated. small pox was ramped. an african american man slaved who was a slave to thomas, he lived in boston and he learned that if you take someone that has small pox, you take small little flit on someone else, that they would get small pox but they would get it to a much less severe, a much less severe
case of it. so they were going around with -- he was going around with the doctor around new england but then they discovered that tuberculosis and syphilis was spread with that so they made that illegal. this procedure was stopped and said this is illegal but it's interesting that it was still illegal at the time that we are looking at robin's notice and he was enslaved by a doctor who knew about this and we wanted to make sure that his slaves didn't get small pox. i found that interesting. it's not until the revolutionary war period when they're allowing people obviously because men in all close quarters and they are going to catch it from each other and they start add lowing this type of we call it a vaccination. ran away 1794 april 30th and
this was posted in new york journal and patriotic and negro girl named jude. she's about 19 year's old. short, good-looking. speaks good english. talks much and is very observant. was brought up in huntington, long island. two low-life white scandals dressed like gentlemen were caught in bed on the morning previous going off. the reason of her deserting is threatened to be whipped for this alarming fault without executing the threat or being enticed away by those fellows, she was reprimanded in an iron
collar to shame her and deter her without stripes of being guilty of such acts in future. letting into the house at midnight, thieves, robbers, masters would be considered alarming by every good citizen. whoever will conduct to printing office new york shall be paid five dollars and all reasonable expenses. masters and others are not to conceal or take her off. it is intend that had she has her freedom at a certain age. that's a whole story here about what happened. what i found incredibly interesting that he's willing to pay $3 each for the names of the men that he found in bed with her and only $5 for her. so $9 he's pay forking the names of those people but we have
found and the chances of her actually not being discovered are very slim with a thick iron collar that would be almost impossible to take off her neck. he blames her. did they come in and demand and rape her? so it's just another whole story as i said each notice is a story to itself and for me, my assumption is that for most people in this book, this is the only thing we have about their lives. so they're so important. for sale notices, actually paint a whole different picture. we collected 4 and 600 for sale notices and they obviously when you want to sell something, you're going to say all these really wonderful things about an object and they did the same with people. this one is from the 1814.
i wish to dispose of female negro slave, she's about 27 year's old. she understands and capable of performing every kind of house work well. her faults are living in country where there were very few black people with whom she can associate and occasion by indulgence and resided 15 years of my family. i will sell her for a reasonable price but would prefer exchanging her for a female 12 or 14 year's of age as i think a young one would be more content to live where there are no black people in the neighborhood. erenezer foote. we read this and this wasn't very long ago. notices goes, i
think 1831. i think it was sometime in the 1930's the wpa went around and they actually took oral interviews. it was a very slow manual ammunition and i think it was july, law was passed which says that anyone who has -- any woman that gives birth to a baby that's enslaved, 25 years if she's a girl, 28 years the
masters, 28 years to serve if the baby is a male and the laws kept changing, but at that time if you kept that child, you were entitled to 3.50 from the state of new york for the upkeep of that child but many people what they would do is they would take the baby, you would have to register the birth of that child with the town clerk and go to the master and give up the child and then either the master would give the child right back to you or the master would find someone else to take the baby and they would be paid the 3.50. by 1802 the law had changed so it was $2 a month and then only until the child was 4 year's old and by 1804 they changed it where they eliminated because new york state was going broke.
they couldn't afford to pay. by 1817, they changed the law so that everyone male or female that was born would have to serve 21 years to their parents, enslaver. july 4th when all the people that were called slaves, one of the points of writing this book, again, was to bring out the information about each person to learn about life because it's a part that excluded in the history books. when we are looking at 18th and 19th century, one of my missions because i was a teacher and i
was a professor as well. a professor in education and social studies education is to enlighten young children that this is part of our history. see where we came from and the legacy of slavery is exactly where we are right now. you have to look back. >> c-span is in high park, new york learning about the scene. up next we found out more about the hudson valley inhabitants and native new yorkers. >> i feel that it's hard to understand any american history without understanding the native part of it because i believe that the natives influenced every aspect of our lives anywhere in america and why america is to different than any other country is because of the native people.