tv The Trial of Adolf Hitler CSPAN July 30, 2017 10:00am-10:51am EDT
>> television for serious readers. >>. [inaudible conversation] hello, can you hear me? good evening everyone. just a bit of housekeeping. please silence your cell phone. we don't want them serenading while david king is talking. also, we have c-span is filming us so if later at the question and answer portion if you would please go to the mic on this side so that you can be heard. also after the event during,
before the signing youwould please take your chairs and lean against something solid just to help us . make us orderly looking again. okay, so today's event. at a time when there is a growing sense of unease among sensible people because of the rise of fascism, is now important for us to look toward the past and analyze the conditions that made fascism possible. so naturally we turn to our historians as our guide into the murky labyrinth of the past. one such historian, david king is here with us today. he is a fulbright scholar earned his masters degree from cambridge. and aprofessor who once thought the european history at the university of kentucky . he's a new york times best-selling writer who has written several acclaimed books of history such as
death in the city of light. he is here with us today to read from his new book "the trials of adolf hitler: the beer hall putsch and the rise nazi germany". kirkus reviews calls david's new work and astute work of scholarship and vivid narrative. a meticulously researched, deeply instructive work with great relevance for our current eraof right-wing resurgence. and joseph and writer of the book shepherds says david new book is a courtroom drama both farcical and ominous . and absorbing details accounts of a crucial but often overlooked chapter in settlers rise. george sent the on a once said those of us who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. please let us welcome who with his writing and research makes us remember, david king. [applause]
>> thank you very much, thank you for that warm welcome, thank you for coming out here today. can everyone hear me okay. i'm use to roaming when i talk so i will try to stand behind here and stay chained to the podium, see how that goes. i want to make sure everyone can hear me so thanks for coming out today. it's a pleasure for me to be here. and coming up, the publisher is going to book the tickets and i'm like no, no. we will make it a road trip and i have my family, special guests over here. their mind uses and we would not be late and more unforeseen experiences but what a wonderful bookstore
here. it's an honor to be here. imagine for a moment catching adolf hitler alive and hauling him into a courtroom and putting him on trial for his crimes. for his partner's crimes. this is sometimes a dream, sometimes a premise or fan fantasy for a novel, many novels have been written about this. well, it actually happened. february 26, 1924. nine years before hitler came to power. hitler entered the courtroom in munich to stand trial for high treason. this leaked out a few months ago in november 1923, hitler stormed into a crowded beer hall, fired a pistol into the air and declared the national revolution had become. but the national revolution did not begin. instead, hitler eventually was arrested after hiding out and actually saying in the attic on a german-american woman who left an incredible
unpublished handwritten memoir of hitler, her guest for the weekend. this is the so-called beer hall putsch and it had failed. hitler had become a laughing stock in many circles and his career seemed to be over. even the great newspapers like the frankfurt site bird wrote an obituary on the nazi party. the new york times announced hitler's career being over. and it probably should have been over. well, what happened? it may not be what you think, it certainly wasn't what i thought and i started researching this. i started researching this book five years ago, five years full-time. i just finished my previous book, a death in the city of light which takes place in nazi occupied paris.a serial killer was on the
loose and he got filthy rich from his murderers. true story and it's a gruesome account so i was looking for something a little less dark and ended up here. it's on the list of history topics, when i need to work on next and these lists seem to get longer every book i write and i was chasing down one wild idea after the next. one rabbit hole after the next. one state after the next and these are probably amusing and exasperating for my wife and everyone i encounter and tell them about the latest idea. i look like a crazy person. all the while the topic was there in front of me. my favorite lectures i used together, i used to teach at the university of kentucky was on the "the trials of adolf hitler: the beer hall putsch and the rise nazi germany" beer hall putsch. i bring in the german market that my mother-in-law, my swedish mother-in-law, she went to germany and i bring in these millions of marches and pass them around so that
was the reason i thought but this is something that interested me and not just as an economic but as a social, cultural, ecological ordeal. the exchange rate being four-point remarks for now on the eve of world war i. by december 1918 it was 81. then it goes down. 15 to 1, 21, 501, about one, 1 million to one. it eventually goes down to hundreds of millions and bottoms out to the trillions. trillions to one. your life savings, wanting to buy a couple coffee. red cabbage in munich at this time is 10 billion marks in the market. so thisnightmare , that's what i originally thought of as i had done on both on the porch at that time in those years and i thought the story
had a lot going for it. it was a city at a turning point. you have a sweeping action and the drama, the melodrama the inflation nightmare, the apocalypse of capitalism it seemed at the time and the conspirators plotting revolution. you had a cast of characters who were a young adolf hitler, goering, alfred rosenberg and many others. many future leaders of the third reich, all young, all in munich at this time . people in nuremberg, war crimes trial already here. as you say, we learn about somebody when they, get them when they are young. you can use this beer hall putsch to understand munich at the time because i was also dumbstruck by this shift of the munich, what a sophisticated, cultured city. a city of painters and poets and romantics and dreamers and bohemians. how did it become a haven for the far right? i think it happened in munich. was he, that was how i went into it. as i got into this, i thought
wow, i couldn't believe i had done a book in 30 years that i started researching it, i was by something else. all the wonderful books, the vast scholarship adolf hitler, the classic biographies and i had never written a book on the trial. a number of the look on the trial in the english language, i couldn't believe that because one of the first books i read was alan bullock, an oxford professor at saint marks catholic college wasn't the november trial expert, expert on classics from a long time ago so he said he was always most impressed with hitler during the trial.some of his political skills were never more revealed that during the trial, he said. yet there had never been what, i couldn't believe it. i thought this was astonishing, maybe something had gone wrong.
that's been a dealbreaker for me many times, i had my heart broken many times to find this wonderful story story and there's not enough good credible sources. your writing history and if you don't have sources, you can make it up. all the dialogue, although whether it's all from the source and i've never done historical fiction so i would be out of but when i started looking at the sources i found out with this trial, it was a gold mine. the trial transcript itself, almost a 3000 page. the complete unabridged copy of the original german transcript, pervading dialogue. our after hour of hitler on the stand fencing with his opponents or just attacking them as he tries and does score with the audience. the munich police files, thousands and thousands of pages here. it was incredible. lengthy interviews and interrogations with many of the ringleaders, anyway they can catch
however rosenberg , heinrich himmler, many other people. it starts the nazi party offices confiscated, inventories, everything they took. you have paintings on the wall, i found the pictures and they found a picture of these as they quote, to gypsies and they couldn't figure out who it belonged to. it's the bicycles, it was almost like a mental pompeii. it was like the nazi party, all that was there. the damage to the beer hall, interviewing the beer hall manager, it was incredible. he had the papers of the warriors at the trial, both fusion and defense. one of my favorites was this unpublished memoir of the deputy prosecutor who reduce hitler after he interviewed him for his first time. he was not impressed. among other things in his file have the tickets to the trial, you had to have these admission passes to get in
because they were very much afraid of riots and attacks and thugs and hooligans coming in and trying to free hitler. you had happy special passes, is was there. memoirs area of course there was a male, a quick mail was in the archive in munich. they hate mail from the prosecutor in the united states, the prosecutor, go after somebody on patriot like hitler. memoirs, besides the obvious public ones there were unpublished memoirs by hitler's bodyguard. there was in munich, he could just sign up, jumping in front of hitler.maybe save his life. at the ballet of the guy who's marking arm and arm with hitler at theputsch who dies . his ballet, a published memoir. it goes on and on. unpublished handwritten notes of the woman who hid her in her describing hitler showing
up, how hitler is blaming people like erich ludendorff for the favor failure. it's a plan to get hitler away before the group comes eventually including she gets a plumber who one of the nazis she knows and she had he has a motorcycle so the plan was, the sidecar and the motorcycle, throws a blanket and park over it and send him away but hitler didn't go for that. other writings. the letters of goering's wife who is swedish. she got home to her family in sweden and this is always fun because she is fine. she reads my german and in germany, i have to struggle, i have to concentrate hundred percent before swedish will come out. it's too close, speed reading is one thing but the swedish is the most formal language so you have to be careful, you can insult somebody with it.
but there were letters in the swedish describing his time of the putsch, and job offers that goering had in the meantime. or how a jewish family, kind jewish family saved goering early, tended to his wounds in the putsch after he got shot. of course the nazi files, the house which was captured by the u.s. army had always all these interviews with storm troopers. us army captured this and brought it back to germany so this was available in microfilm, they had these things for years. it's also the reports of us vice counsel who claimed to live across from hitler and
later on but he did not do it at this time, landsberg. he followed and was researching a previous book. he discovered these files in nuremberg fleamarket, which probably had been stolen or at least they end up in the free market, the director of landsberg prison had been robbed and somehow ended up years later at the fleamarket and everybody visited the prison. you go in and you get to stay . so that was a wonderful surprise . i got in my topic, the trial opened february 26, 1974 and in the signing hall of the military academy because they didn't have a room big enough or secure enough then this. there's a massive undertaking . nothing like in germany for years, there are about a
dozen defense lawyers, a team of judges, 24 days of proceedings, reporters came from all over germany and europe, france, switzerland, and the navy and elsewhere to cover the sensational trial. it seemed endless from the get-go. and hitler takes the stand, chief defendant hour after hour and it was this very guttural voice. he's not quite shrieking as we are used too it seems but again, the press covered this in great detail describing how he would speak and how he would move. sometimes you hear hitler, you've never heard him when he's not screaming. somehow he's dismissed as a screaming lunatic but speaking slowly, his voice was guttural. it was pretty frightening.
but that's hitler here, up close, across the room, hitler and all his narcissism, all his megalomania, his mesmerizing demagoguery. one journalist in the audience was a future pulitzer prize winner, but hitler was probably the greatest spell binder of all time. and then he says in his memoir, actually his probably number two. one person that was a better speaker than hitler, trotsky. so we see hitler in all his talents, all his incompetence . hitler under pressure, acting in the spotlight and he's getting a growing following. with ruthless selectivity he struggles with the truth which he did not want to stand in the way of a good line. he has a famous most of his party, probably all seven members in the back room into
a movement of millions, the party was always a movement for hitler. he says it at the trial, he says it and it's not true. he did not have millions. because the police files, they raise the office. they tried to get the files, he didn't get the file but one did not see workers in the office wrote a letter, he had 55,787 members. not exactly a movement of millions. so hitler would take the crowd into a world of distorted facts, all the while he exploited the lower instance of the crowd and you might say the least intelligent person of the room. this is not the inner, the judge would say many times. and hitler spoke not to a courtroom but thanks to the presiding judge who had his own reasons, that was another big surprise for me. the judge was always presented as this are nationalist and he was but he had something else going on.
and i don't want to spoil it. i'll tell you afterwards but he had something else going on. and because of that, hitler is speaking to the biggest audience he's ever had. it's not just people in the beer hall in munich in a courtroom, and thanks to the reporters and judges, all of germany. and the world. so this would be his first major autobiography and he uses it to spread a mythology about himself and this was an incredible moment in history in many ways. the authorities had hitler in their hands. he face high treason. he did not deny it. in fact, he bragged about it. the fault was on the side of the prosecutors. a lengthy prison sentence and then deportation. after all, hitler was not german, he's austrian and the law says he should be deported as a foreigner. this was the chance to remove
him and instead you see day by day glowing reviews from the far right. he becomes less and less marked, during the trial you even see reporters misspelling hitler with two t's and when hitler was writing about his military background, it was like lieutenant colonel hitler. not with irony. think of it like that and it's less calling as the trial goes on. his background is less bungled and less marked as he goes on. so by the end hitler is far more powerful than ever before. doctor methuen who fights the push is becoming more of a national figure than he had been before. and some people a national hero, a national martyr. so he turned the tables on his accusers. i'm not the trader, it's the government that are the traitors of the government, that's the enemy.and the court will send them off to
landsberg where as you know he will write his historical manifesto mine, area he's at the trial, and the basis for some of it. and rebuild his party which had been banned, fallen into squabbling factions. it seemed like hitler on the way to the dustbin of history. but hitler believed this. of the putsch and the prison was much more dangerous enemy to the german republic and the world. so the trial of hitler is not short, it's not just sensational, or a terrible scandal as many reporters noted at the time, it was a catastrophe. he was not locked up as the law required. he was deported. he would be released on parole and it turns out hitler receiving parole when
he went to the beer hall, because of the crime at the beer hall, he was already on parole. but he gets out and he will find new, more effective ways than the beer hall putsch to undermine the constitution, civil liberties and a fragile democracy. you. [applause] does anybody have any questions? >> i'm from the caribbean but i grew up in the netherlands. and when i went to the netherlands there was still a tremendous rage against germany at that point in time. i could remember that and i grew up along people who were
involved in some resistance type i think so this has a few questions, the first question is i don't know if you have it in your book but a book is being published 10 or 15 years ago now about the problem with the german legal system that the german legal system not in the netherlands but the importance is that the premise of the book that the german legal system was very much in league in the 1800, 1890s beginning of the 1900s. had been undermined with a profound sense of anti-semitism. and that it basically was the year to be had by the by the ozzie. the second question is how hitler who as he develops his poll uses a lot of the modeling that was going on in the united states. in germany, right? uses them and their violence
against minorities, etc. etc. so what do you have to say about that, you see that developing and as he develops his political program. and ultimately the last one would be you know, he never one the majority of the popular vote in germany, right? he got rid of the parliament but he got enough of the popular vote, right? again, this is the situation germany was facing to be simply be in power so how do you see all of these issues playing out and leading to hitler and maybe the last question, do you see a potential danger not exactly hitler but somebody like hitler coming to the west again? >> yeah, i think anti-semitism definitely, i
think also some of the problems we had with the wine bar system is when they were making a republic, a lot of the judges who forced the laws were still monarchists and were not removed from power like the judge in this case, weimar was an old-style monarchist and never really came to terms with this republic idea which was imposed. this was germany's first republic, theweimar republic , a fragile and eventually would direct from within. never having the popular vote. but i think that was one thing that we see here. there was a statistician in the 1920s that went and reviewed many cases in the german legal system. this was up to about 1922 and
out of the 350+ right-wing suspects, a vast majority of these were going to be written offas a slap on the wrist . and compare it to the states on the left on the other hand which was far fewer, i have a lot of this in the book and you can see where they would have much harsher sentences, 10 to 12 years, a lot more than that in the far right. so carl dietrich rocker historian wrote how the legal system was this wellspring for the rise of the third reich because of the legal system, there's wonderful books you can read, i can refer you to if you know more
about how it develops from the age of bismarck. they kept a lot of that. in the weimar as it turns and when hitler comes in, one thing he does, the people's court is the institution in munich at the time and hitler will re-create people'scourts . but a big change he will do is he won't let them talk. he won't let the defendants talk near as much as he was allowed to do when weimar let him talk and talk. he will change that. so i think you raise a lot of good points about the anti-semitism and the structural challenges that they would have. >> i have one and then a follow-up to what you just said. i'm a lawyer. and what was it about the law that gave hitler such an
advantage? we've had other people here who talked about the third reich and how important it was that lawyers cooperated with it like the guy who ran holland for instance, this was an important lawyer and there was something about the legal system that made the authoritarianism or the totalitarianism of it easier. that they came to work for hitler and it all sort of fit in with the kind of law that they had. what was it about the law? >> i think there are a couple of things. one thing that they have is the way it worked at the time , the defendant would be allowed to talk . and question witnesses. at will, pretty much. and hitler would do that. and the judge would be
criticized by a lot of people behind the scenes for not taking more control of the situation. and this goes on and on and he's like well, i wanted to make sure they could present their case to the people. and so night heart was a judge at this time, working with that and he also had this tradition like these closed sessions they could go into. they have to make the entire trial held behind closed doors. and a lot of the trial will be held behind closed doors. in early transcripts, they don't have access to these closed doors but they come out and the germans published them in the 90s. in the full transcript as the closed sessions. so that's another strategic ploy that they will be working with. they make their case and they moved to closed-door
sessions. and they have a lot to hide. the versailles treaty for one thing. a lot of germany almost seemed like an unguarded arms dump. the law with france, they had these strict rules on what you could have after the war. no army larger than 100,000 people. they lifted everything and they are hiding these and the guns, at the time of the putsch in the church where hitler hid in kind of like a fraternity, they have been there. and they don't want this out. because the french are following this and the french papers are wonderful sources for this cause they were interested, they suspected this all along. they had all these patriotic
societies, kind of like the storm troopers would be a big benefit when they closed down to the societies helping the army because they were able to help shield these weapons. that's another thing that i have to kind of guard. they don't want that to come out. they also don't want the involvement of the government to get out so they have a lot of things at the time like the judge is trying to protect, exactly. >> thank you. >> the way i understand it is that the featured speaker at the beer hall was to be ludendorff, it wasn't hitler. hitler claims it was the drummer for ludendorff. yet you may have a different view on this but my question really is how did hitler displace ludendorff as the sort of leader of the ribeye just germany?
>> these are great questions. the speaker of the night at the beer hall was actually going to be general state commissioner carr who is almost like, he was appointed in an emergency situation, this was at the height of that. they appointed this guy and gave him almost strong executive powers. he was going to speak and i found an invitation to a beer hall on that night when he was going to speak. in 1923. upon part is going to speak. ludendorff had seen car that afternoon. ludendorff will show up because hitler sends somebody out, three or four people out to pick him up and bring it in and ludendorff, he's one of the famous generals of world war i on the far right.
he was the best general ever and people see him as basically caused germany to lose the war with his reckless campaigns. he comes in, he pretends not to be associated with this. some of his major hitler biographers will see him described as coming in in his uniform which he did not do. but you see all these stripes and he wore civilian close because he was i think, he had a cover in case all those long. the captain happened to be walking around town he covered his bases very well. but you're right, there's another transition here because ludendorff was entitled to the far right. the left, they can't stand because for a lot of reasons. with the right he's seen as more of a national hero at the beginning. but as the trial goes on,
ludendorff doesn't look very well at all compared to hitler. you can see the press reports, you can see the ludendorff trial first at the time , the nazi paper they said hitler first but a few others. you start to see hitler replacing him because it learn will take the responsibility.he's like yeah, i did this. i take all responsibility and ludendorff says no, blame it on everybody but himself. one newspaper say just like he did when he wrote his books, he blamed everybody except himself. so he doesn't come across as this wonderful french communist paper, i have all of ludendorff because he's a brave general who was scared of victory. so he does not come out well at all. ludendorff would run for office after that and it was just a disaster. the people who root for him
it's just like, rest less than three percent. >> there's a follow-up. i'm also under the impression that ludendorff at one time had a nervous breakdown just before the armistice was signed and that he advised the kaiser to end the war. did hitler use that to undermine ludendorff? >> i think hitler, you can definitely see ludendorff with this breakdown and hitler, it's interesting what went on at the trial because ludendorff is getting hammered in the press because of his faith. i said does this seemlike a general? does this guy seem like a general, he's more like a cadet . no, he doesn't seem like a cadet, he seems like an ass. they talk about, it's
grotesque some of the things. he goes on the stand and he's blaming germans problems on what's wrong withgermany is the catholics . the marxists and the jews. and you know, somebody said well, that covers a lot of people. and hitler will walk this balance and there's a great german socialist paper who had a great in my opinion they said ludendorff, he's a loose cannon. he's talking and talking. this guy takes the stand and he didn't know what he would say. and learn, he's alienating people, he was able to, he was distancing himself from ludendorff. at one point he says i'm catholic. says, and he makes no mistake saying he's anti-semi. he makes that very clear at the trial. he's a marxist but he is
uniting the far right where ludendorff is dividing them. one person says ludendorff if you look at the far right, it's like the races, they actually use nietzsche and some of the other thinkers. because their anti-jewish and some are anti-catholic, anti-christian and you have this other side as the far right and hitler is bringing and trying to unite them whereas ludendorff is appealing to the soft part of the far right so we got to watch him go down and hitler is going to go upduring the trial . >> some historians say that the japanese political assassination by the military and their exoneration at their trial started the second world war.did you see any parallels between
those trials in japan and this trial? >> i would hesitate to speak about that.i don't know a lot about the japanese trial. i read some on nuremberg and i looked at at the trial buti don't know a lot about the people . i have a couple books at home on that trial but i wouldn't know enough about it to say. >> a couple of things. if the worldwide depression had occurred, do you think that the nazis could have taken power and also, this is hard to judge. but don't you think that anti-semitism in germany was far less an item in france, russia, eastern europe ? i mean, in the 19th century
and pre-hitler? >> the first one, it's always hard to say what could have happened if it didn't. to me, it's hard to imagine hitler going into power without the depression. without it you'd be giving an alternative history. the same path, it's hard to say since it didn't happen but without the depression, it's almost unthinkable something like hitler coming to power. you see that with the 1923 trial, the nazis did very well in 24. in may but by december, they're already losing a lot and the economy is getting better and then they're going way down again and it takes the depression to really get the nazis getting the most
social they will ever get. so i think it would be hard to imagine that myself. and what was the second question again? >> as opposed to russia, eastern europe and france in the 19th century and pre-hitler. >> it would be a guess i'm going to the late 19th century. i'd be going back to some of my lectures that we did on austria, france and germany but i did really look into a lot of it that early in the trial. i tried to for five years since 1924, i saw it as a great respect for liberty which takes on awhole life . and looking back to the early , late 19th century, i have to think about it. i don't know off the top of
my head. i had to guess on what is a traditional answer but i don't know enough myself to say how much worse it is. in germany and austria and france. and austria, austria had the national socialist movement before the germans. and a lot of the germans were looking elsewhere, one of the nazi party members were even german. in hitler, austria, egypt, america for a long time. a lot of the main people we would think of, rosenberg in the baltic, a lot of them were coming in to the baltic, so a lot of the main nazis at this time had international ritz and i think that munich being such a cultural center,
i would guess germany is far behind a lot of these places, especially the east and austria and france but i'd have to look and research a little better before i said that would probably be my option so i think you're right on that. >> not only in a liberal democracy we have this problem of what do we do with extremists that don't directly engage in violence. it took the ritz years to engage chowdhury. did hitler at this point rectally engage in acts of violence and if he did, why didn't they throw the book at him? >> yes, he did. he did engage in violence. he encouraged like the storm troopers to go out and brawl. because the first people to sign up for the storm troopers he said are the people they beat up. that's what they said. he thought, i don't know how anchored that was but that was always his point.
he said well, pick a fight and you will be the first one to join up and show us next time and he would tell people, go in and we don't come out. you go into fight, don't come out unless they're carrying you out. but because he wanted to win the states, that was one way to win the streets is through intimidation and they're already doing this. that's one of the things about the trial when they have so much security, they're afraid the storm troopers will come again and try to spring everybody out. and have another putsch so he's definitely advocating violence so that's what got him in trouble. as far as attacking a rival speaker in 1922 in the beer hall, he attacked a guy and he thought that was very pugilistic. >> even if the craziness or their peeking us, they're
writing about us. and they're getting us noticed. >> we have time for two more questions. >> my understanding is that there was a national government in germany was eight modest socialist government and did that have, did the relationship between the actual government and the government in munich have any effect on how strong this was prosecuted? >> yes, because there was a big dispute because the trial should never have been in committee. >> the people's court was actually, that was one of the problems with the trial. the wine our constitution was established, these sorts of provincial discordance, like the people's court in munich
should not have existed anymore so they're keeping it going and you can read some of the letters and correspondence because the trial should have taken place , the special court had been created with all these traders against the republic and the trial should have taken place there. but it's in munich. it's like a sickly a lot of people try to figure out why it's in munich, the court, it shouldn't even be in this court. we should be in munich and the brooks is a compromise, you can watch, reading the cabinet meeting minutes, they were sending these people back and forth just like they are doing when they are trying to kick out hitler to get him to moscow and at one point austria accepts them in the trial. we will taken back but we have to get around to it and would refuse to take him, you see this with berlin and bavaria, this huge rivalry of berlin to bavaria. and in fact when the beer hall putsch gustav, it seems
that when hitler barges in to the beer hall, he's upsetting their plans to go against berlin. so that's kind of, they're kind of upset like that. they've got to go along but it really plays into this rivalry of berlin and bavaria. that really complicates the trial. it's illegal. >> i wanted to congratulate you david on the book. my name is peter range and i wrote a book a year and ahalf ago around the same topic , not concentrating only on the trial. this is now the definitive book on this topic, both sides would boast of it and most important i've read the notes on sources, the 12
pages of notes on sources in great detail. david is phenomenal, it's a prodigious piece of work. i was out of breath reading the notes on sources and now i understand you spent five years, i spent about a year and a half. >> it's a fabulous book and thank you very much but as he points out this is the first book in english ever written on the trial, he couldn't believe it when he found that out, guess what. there's never been a regular full-size book written in german on this trial so this is the book now, in english or german or any other language. and as isaid i've read most of it, it's fascinating and take you day by day through the trial and the period in prison and all the rest so congratulations . [applause] >> i really appreciate it. >> can i say one thing? yes. >> i have a comment. not a question. we asked germans today how
many people, how many jews lived in germany before the war? you know what the answer is? 20 percent and the school is less than one percent. less than one percent and is less than one percent and it's hex all over the places. in germany. and there's a video by my colleague of 10 years ago that the reason that the number of places in germany went down is because there were no jews, very few.take comment, that's all. >> thank you everybody. [applause] >> if you want to buy the book, we are selling them at the register. >>.
[inaudible conversation] >> here's a look at some books being published this week. columnist lori petty offers her thoughts on current political and socialissues . former professional football player keep o'neill shares his struggles with mental illness and under my helmet. also being published this week, president of the national iranian american council 30 a parsi examines the impact of the obama administration's nuclear deal with iran in losing an enemy. linguistics professor vivian evans argues that imo g's are improving
communication in the imo g code and william and mary professors robert archibald and david solomon asked for the future of american education in the road ahead for america's colleges and universities. look for these titles in bookstores this coming week and watch for many of the authors in the near future on book tv on c-span2. >>. >> hello. let me get the microphone a little set up.